Instructional Design Model
The Staff Trainer’s Blog
Instructional System Design (ISD)
• Instructional Systems Design (ISD) is the process for
creating instructional systems.
• It is both systematic and scientific in that it is
documentable, replicable in its general application
and leads to predictable outcomes.
• Requires creativity in identifying and solving
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Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
• Includes several phases, analysis, design,
development, implementation and evaluation.
• Includes systems theory and problem solving
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• Each major components is liked to others.
• Evaluation activities can reveal when revisions are
required in each of the other four components.
• Problem solving activities occur within each
• The overall process is not always followed in a strictly
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The ADDIE Model
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What is ADDIE?
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• Data gathering segment of the instructional design
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• First determine the needs for which instruction is the
• Conduct an instructional analysis to determine the
target cognitive, affective, and motor skill goals for
• Determine what skills entering students are expected
to have, and which will impact learning in the course.
• Analyze the time available and how much might be
accomplished in that period of time.
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Seven Questions required answers
1. What is the need?
2. What is the root cause?
3. What are the goals of the training?
4. What information is needed, and how is it
5. How ill the training be structured and organized?
6. How will the training be delivered?
7. When should the training be revised?
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Data Collection Methods
• Focus groups
• Examination of
• Job duties
• Delphi studies
• Job diaries
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Quick Approach to a Performance Gap
• Identify the problem.
• Analyze the task and conditions of the job.
• Analyze the current performance levels.
• Identify the cause of the problem.
• Identify the desired performance outcome.
• Identify the expectations of your training as related
to the outcome.
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• Design is the blue printing stage of instructional
systems during which instructional designers create
the blueprint for a project.
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• Translate course goals into overall performance
outcomes and major objectives.
• Determine the instructional topics or units to be
covered and how much time will be spent on each.
• Sequence the units with regard to the course
• Flesh out the units of instructions, identifying the
major objectives to be achieved during each unit
• Define lessons and learning activities for each unit.
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• Provide for attention and motivation
• Present the learning objectives
• Recall prerequisite of related knowledge
• Present the new content
• Provide for learner guidance
• Provide for practice
• Provide feedback
• Provide for retention and “transfer”
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• Materials production and pilot testing are the
hallmarks of development. At this stage, most non-
designers begin to see progress.
• Preparation of materials to be used in the learning
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Purpose of Objectives
• Gives the trainees a clear understanding of what will
be covered in the course.
• Ensures the designer includes all necessary content
for the course.
• Helps the designer focus on the need to know.
• Basis for the learner’s evaluation.
• Sets the criteria on how the course will be evaluated.
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There are four categories of development:
• Working within an existing curriculum
• Modifying existing material.
• Incorporating elements of existing material into a
• Building a new course.
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There are several principles during the development
• Well-established objectives
• Innovative objectives
• Team approach
• Instructional design vs. media production
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• Make decisions regarding the types of learning
activities and materials.
• Prepare draft materials and/or activities.
• Try out materials with target audience members.
• Revise, refine, and produce materials and activities.
• Produce instructor training or adjunct materials.
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• At the implementation phase, the design plan meets
the learner and the content is delivered. The
evaluation process that most designers and learners
are familiar with takes place here.
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• Market materials for adoption by instructors and
• Provide help or support as needed.
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Five Principles apply to the implementation stage:
• Develop a learning management system that is
adequate for the requirements of the situation.
• Provide learner support.
• Plan for change.
• Plan for delivery environment.
• Plan for maintenance of the system.
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• Evaluation is a constant guard at the gate of failure.
• Is the final stage in the ADDIE model.
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• Implement plans for learner assessment.
• Implement plans for program evaluation
• Implement plans for course maintenance and
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Five types of evaluations:
• Materials evaluation
• Process evaluation
• Learner reaction
• Learner achievement
• Instructional consequences
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Gagne, R., Wager, W., Golas, K. Keller, J. (2005). Principles of Instruction Design .Belmont, CA, Wadsworth
Hodell, C. (2011). ISD from the ground up: a nonsense approach to instructional design (3rd ed.)
Alexandria, Virgina: ASTD Press
Piskurich, G. () (2nd ed). Rapid instruction design: learning ID fast and right. San Francisco, California: Pfeiffer
Rothwell, W., Kazanas, H.C. (2008). Mastering the instructional design process (4th. ed).San Francisco,
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