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Chapter one for the NCTC American Government Class.

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  1. 2. CHAPTER 1: LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Introduction to Perspectives on American Government </li></ul><ul><li>Understand how issues and topics in American politics may be viewed from a variety of perspectives, including </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Historical context, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Popular culture, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Views from others around the world, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Views from college students </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  2. 3. CHAPTER 1: LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Forms and Functions of Government </li></ul><ul><li>Identify the philosophical underpinnings of the American political system through the exploration of important theories such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “social contract” theory and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The concept of the “natural law” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compare and contrast democracy with other forms of government </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  3. 4. CHAPTER 1: LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>American Government and Politics </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the importance of the value of popular sovereignty, and how that value is realized through “representative democracy” in the United States </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  4. 5. CHAPTER 1: LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>American Political Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Define “political culture” and describe the unique combination of political beliefs and values that form the American political culture, including majority rule, liberty, limited government, diversity, individualism, and equality of economic opportunity </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  5. 6. CHAPTER 1: LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Is American Democracy on the Decline? </li></ul><ul><li>Assess the health of American democracy and evaluate whether the American system is in decline by reviewing trends in voter turnout, negativity in politics, the influence of money in policy outcomes, and the integrity of election outcomes </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  6. 7. CHAPTER 1: LEARNING OBJECTIVES <ul><li>Historical, Popular, and Global Perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Appreciate that the American political system is best studied from a variety of perspectives, including historical, popular, and global </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  8. 9. PLACING THE 2010 MIDTERM ELECTIONS INTO PERSPECTIVE <ul><li>The Republican Party achieved a major victory in the 2010 congressional elections—picked up over 60 House seats and a majority once again </li></ul><ul><li>Also picked up 6 Senate seats </li></ul><ul><li>Slicing the Democratic margin of control from 18 to 6 </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  9. 10. PLACING THE 2010 MIDTERM ELECTIONS INTO PERSPECTIVE <ul><li>What undercurrents of popular opinion could possibly produce such an abrupt change of course? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Did 2010 mark a historically unprecedented midterm election outcome? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How schizophrenic does the American electorate appear to the rest of the world? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can anybody predict what lies ahead for the 2012 presidential election? </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  10. 11. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  11. 12. FORMS AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Government: collection of public institutions that establish and enforce the rules by which the members must live </li></ul><ul><li>Anarchy: lawlessness and discord in the political system </li></ul><ul><li>S ocial contract: agreement to form a government and abide by its rules </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  12. 13. FORMS AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Different forms of government - </li></ul><ul><li>Democracy: the people, either directly [ direct democracy ], or </li></ul><ul><li>Through elected representatives [ indirect democracy ], hold power and authority </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  13. 14. FORMS AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT <ul><li>O ligarchy: a small exclusive class holds supreme power </li></ul><ul><ul><li>May or may not attempt to rule on behalf of the people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Theocracy: a particular religion or faith plays a dominant role in the government, i.e. – Iran </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  14. 15. FORMS AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT <ul><li>M onarchy: one person, usually a royal family member or royal designate, exercises supreme authority </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian: one political party, group, or person maintains such complete control that…It may refuse to recognize, or suppress, all other parties and interests </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  15. 16. FORMS AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT <ul><li>Power: the capacity to get individuals to do something they may not otherwise do, i.e. paying taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Legitimacy: the extent to which the people (the “governed”) afford the government the authority and right to exercise power </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  16. 17. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  17. 18. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  18. 19. AMERICAN GOVERNMENT… IN GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE <ul><li>What trends do you notice in world opinion about the United States? </li></ul><ul><li>Can you identify why certain regions of the world, or certain countries in particular, have higher or lower regard for the United States? </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  19. 20. AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS <ul><li>Politics: way in which institutions of government are organized to make laws, rules, and policies, and </li></ul><ul><li>How those institutions are influenced </li></ul><ul><li>Political scientist Harold Lasswell’s definition </li></ul><ul><li>“ Who gets what, when and how” </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  20. 21. AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS <ul><li>Political philosopher John Locke proposed that people are born with natural rights —derived from natural law </li></ul><ul><li>R ules of conduct inherent in the relationship among human beings, and </li></ul><ul><li>More fundamental than any law that a governing authority might make </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  21. 22. AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS <ul><li>Government cannot violate these natural rights—life, liberty, and property </li></ul><ul><li>Government must be based on the “ consent of the governed ”—Citizens choose their government and its leaders </li></ul><ul><li>It maintains legitimacy as long as the government respects the natural rights of individuals </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  22. 23. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning BETTMANN/CORBIS Painting of George Washington and the Constitution’s drafters at the Constitutional Convention in 1787.
  23. 24. AMERICAN GOVERNMENT AND POLITICS <ul><li>With the first three words of the Constitution, “We the People” </li></ul><ul><li>The Framers acknowledged that the ultimate source of power rests with the people— p opular sovereignty </li></ul><ul><li>This “popular perspective” frames our understanding of how the U.S. government works </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  24. 25. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  25. 26. AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE <ul><li>Political culture: widely held core values about the role of government and its operations and institutions </li></ul><ul><li>The essence of how a society thinks politically </li></ul><ul><li>Transmitted from one generation to the next, and has an enduring influence on the politics of a nation </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  26. 27. AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE <ul><li>Circumstances surrounding America’s first and current immigrants, and great ideas by enlightenment philosophers </li></ul><ul><li>Form the core set of values that define the American political culture </li></ul><ul><li>One of the core values is majority rule </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that the “will of the people” ought to guide public policy </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  27. 28. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning ARPL/HIP/THE IMAGE WORKS “I agree to this Constitution, with all of its faults, if they are such: because I think a general government necessary for us, and there is no form of government but what may be a blessing to the people if well administered. I doubt too whether any convention we can obtain may be able to make a better constitution. For when you assemble a number of men to have the advantage of their joint wisdom, you inevitably assemble with those men all their prejudices, their passions, their errors of opinion, their local interests, and their selfish views. From such an assembly can a perfect production be expected? It therefore astonishes me . . . to find this system approaching so near to perfection.” —Benjamin Franklin (1788)
  28. 29. AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE <ul><li>Another core value in the American political culture is minority rights </li></ul><ul><li>Rights and liberties that can’t be taken away by government </li></ul><ul><li>Rights to speak freely, to choose a religion, or not to practice religion, are among the many liberties protected by the Bill of Rights </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  29. 30. AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE <ul><li>Another core value in the American political culture is limited government </li></ul><ul><li>Americans have generally supported Thomas Jefferson’s belief that—“the government that governs least governs best” </li></ul><ul><li>Problems that may be solved without government should be solved that way </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  30. 31. AMERICAN POLITICAL CULTURE <ul><li>Americans also generally believe that individuals are primarily responsible for their lot in life— individualism </li></ul><ul><li>Individualism promotes another core value— equality of opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Everyone should be given the same opportunity to achieve success </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  31. 32. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  32. 33. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning Barack Obama’s bid for the presidency in 2008 represented a new chapter in the history of diversity as a value in American political culture. AP PHOTO/RICK BOWMER
  33. 34. IS AMERICAN DEMOCRACY ON THE DECLINE? <ul><li>The Case For and Against Decline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The decline in voter turnout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The 2000 presidential election crisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The suspension of civil liberties to protect national security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The disproportionate influence of money and wealth on politics </li></ul></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  34. 35. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning © 2012 CENGAGE LEARNING
  35. 36. IS AMERICAN DEMOCRACY ON THE DECLINE? <ul><ul><li>Politics that are more negative and conflictual </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “red” state/“blue” state divide </li></ul></ul><ul><li>If we examine these characteristics with some historical perspective </li></ul><ul><li>It is possible to draw quite different conclusions </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  36. 37. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning One of the negative ads of the 2008 presidential campaign attacked Democratic candidate Barack Obama for his association with William Ayers, a co-founder of the Weather Underground, a radical 1960s anti-Vietnam War group that carried out bombings at the Capitol and the Pentagon. The Web video ad questioned Obama’s judgment for his association with Ayers, seen here in a 1980 photo entering the Criminal Courts Building in Chicago. Ayers, labelled as a terrorist in the ad, is now a college professor, and he and Obama served together on the board of a school reform organization in the mid-1990s. AP PHOTO/KNOBLOCK
  37. 38. AMERICAN GOVERNMENT… IN POPULAR PERSPECTIVE <ul><li>VOTER TURNOUT IN U.S. PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS </li></ul><ul><li>Before 1828, only a few states held popular elections to determine how a state’s electoral votes would be allocated </li></ul><ul><li>Since then, most states have popular elections for electors who in turn select the president </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  38. 39. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  39. 40. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning A young woman participates in a protest of the USA Patriot Act at Boston’s historic Faneuil Hall in September 2003 MARILYN HUMPHRIES/THE IMAGE WORKS
  40. 41. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning Discussion of the “blue vs. red” political divisions in America ignores the possibility that there may actually be a “purple America,” as shown in this map from Time magazine. (Closely contested districts in 2004 are shown in purple; one-sided Republican districts are shown in red, and one-sided Democratic districts are shown in blue. ROBERT J. VANDERBEI, PRINCETON UNIVERSITY
  41. 42. HISTORICAL, POPULAR, AND GLOBAL PERSPECTIVES <ul><li>History can identify patterns, recurring problems, and trends in U.S. politics </li></ul><ul><li>The popular perspective shows how the will of the people impacts U.S. politics </li></ul><ul><li>A global perspective offers insights into how people around the world perceive American government </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  42. 43. POLITICS INTERACTIVE! <ul><li>THE POLITICS OF NEGATIVITY? </li></ul><ul><li>I n 2008, candidates were accused of being celebrities, liars, plagiarists, adulterers, and terrorist supporters </li></ul><ul><li>, Annenberg School at the University of Pennsylvania, is an antidote to some of the negativity and misrepresentation </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  43. 44. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning © 2012 CENGAGE LEARNING
  44. 45. POLITICS INTERACTIVE! <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Find the politics interactive link for details and examples of negative campaigning in American politics </li></ul><ul><li>Consult as well the various links that relate to negativity in American politics in historical, popular, and global perspectives </li></ul>Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning
  45. 46. Copyright © 2012 Cengage Learning The duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton, which killed Hamilton, is perhaps one of the most famous and extreme instances of negativity in American politics. NORTH WIND PICTURE ARCHIVES