stv cc ppt unit I (1.2) em&ce- capacity and application of earthmovers
Unit I (1.2)
Earth moving and construction equipmentscapacity and applications of earthmovers-1. Dumpers
BAM 802 SPECIAL TYPE OF VEHICLES
- C.COOMARASAMY- PROF/AUTO- BIST
1.2.1. DUMPERS- INTRODUCTION
A dumper is a vehicle designed for carrying bulk material, often on
A dumper is usually an open 4-wheeled vehicle with the load skip
in front of the driver.
The skip in a dumper can tip to dump the load; this is where the name
"dumper" comes from.
Dumpers are distinguished from dump trucks/ dumper trucks by
A Dump truck has its cab in front of the load.
A Dump truck is a tyre mounted vehicle with a body mounted on
chassis and an operator cabin.
Dump truck / Dumper truck
1.2.1. DUMPERS –INTRODUCTION- PAY LOAD
It is the capacity of the equipment for which the customer is paying i.e. we
say a truck has payload capacity of 10 ton.
This means when we purchase this truck
we expect it to carry 10 ton of material and
we are ready to pay for this 10 ton truck.
Atlas Copco MT2000,
20 ton, 12.5m3 haul truck, rear dump
1.2.1. DUMPERS-INTRODUCTIONWHAT IS ON ROAD & OFF ROAD?
On road means when a vehicle is running on public road and is
bound to follow the common traffic rules
with other vehicles plying on the road.
Off road means a vehicle is running on a
non public road, i.e. private road.
This private road may be
inside a mine or in
a construction site.
Moreover the road width may be
non standard type and may be
designed exclusively to suit the
vehicles plying on it.
Also the traffic rules may be
different in off roads in
a particular mine.
Dumpers are normally diesel powered.
A towing eye is fitted for secondary use as
a site tractor.
Carrying capacity (flat level ground): 500 kg
Dumpers with rubber tracks are used in
special circumstances and are popular in some countries.
Early dumpers had a payload of about a ton and were
2-wheel drive, driving on the front axle and steered at the back
The single cylinder diesel engine (sometimes made by Lister)
was started by hand cranking.
The steering wheel turned the back wheels, not front.
Having neither electrics nor hydraulics there was
not much to go wrong.
The skip was secured by a catch by the driver's feet.
When the catch is released, the skip tips under
the weight of its contents at pivot points below,
and after being emptied is raised by hand.
Dumper 3 ton
rigid chassis dumpers from 1,000 to 3,000 kg
850 to 10,000 kg.
articulated dumpers from 850 to 10,000 kg.
Dumper 3 ton
188.8.131.52. DUMPERS-HOW DOES A DUMPER FUNCTIONS?
In primitive models the body had to be lifted manually but
nowadays all dumpers have hydraulic body lifting mechanism.
All dumpers have an engine as a prime mover.
Then there will be transmission system, differential and
There will also be a hydraulic system for body lifting function
and steering function.
What is the power flow system in a dumper?
The prime mover is an engine.
Then there will be a
clutch or torque converter
from which power flows
to gear box or transmission.
The output of transmission
goes to differential through a
Then there will be hub or final drive on which
tyres will be mounted.
184.108.40.206. DUMPERS-WHAT ARE THE BASIC SYSTEMS?
A dumper has the following systems Power transmission system – consisting of Engine, torque
converter, transmission, propel shaft, differential and final drive.
Hydraulic system – consisting of Hydraulic pumps, control valves,
Hydraulic cylinders (for body lifting and steering), Hydraulic tank and
Pneumatic system – consisting of air compressor, air tank, auto
drain valve, un loader valve, brake treadle valve (for brake
actuation) and accelerator pedal (in case of pneumatic cylinder for
Electrical system – consisting of battery, circuit breakers or fuses,
solenoid coils, resistance, relays, sensors, meters/ gauges, starter,
alternator, ammeter, switches, bulbs, head light, turning indicators,
wiper, fan, horn, reverse horn, brake light.
Brake system –. The service brake is air over hydraulic, shoe type
and the brakes are applied on all the four wheels. This brake is
applied for stopping the machine when in motion.
220.127.116.11. DUMPERS- MODERN DUMPERS
Modern dumpers have payloads of up to 10 tonnes
and usually steer by articulating at the
middle of the chassis (pivot steering).
They have multi-cylinder diesel engines, some turbocharged,
electric start and hydraulics for tipping and steering and are
more expensive to make and operate.
An A-frame known as a ROPS (Roll-Over Protection) frame,
may be fitted over the seat to protect the driver if the dumper rolls
Some dumpers have FOPS (Falling Object Protection) as well.
Lifting skips are available for discharging above ground level.
In the 1990s dumpers with swivel skips,
which could be rotated to tip sideways,
became popular, especially for working in
narrow sites such as road works.
Dumpers are the most common cause
ROPS/FOPS Level 2
of accidents involving construction plant.
safe load 1,000 kg
Heaped 500 litres
Struck 400 litres
Water 280 litres
safe load 3,000 kg
Struck 1,210 litres
Water 990 litres
safe load 6,000 kg
Struck 2,525 litres
Water 1,925 litres
9 Ton Maximum
safe load 9,000 kg
Struck 3,830 litres
18.104.22.168. DUMP TRUCKS/ DUMPER TRUCKS
A dump truck has its cab in front of the load.
A dump truck (or, UK, dumper truck) is a
truck used for transporting loose material
(such as sand, gravel, or dirt) for construction.
A typical dump truck is equipped with
a hydraulically operated open-box bed hinged at the rear,
the front of which can be lifted to allow the
contents to be deposited on the ground
construction plant only
behind the truck at the site of delivery.
In the UK and Australia
the term applies to
off-road construction plant only, and
the road vehicle is known as a tipper,
tipper lorry (UK) or
tip truck (AU)
dump truck / dumper truck
22.214.171.124. DUMP TRUCKS / DUMPER TRUCKS
The body can be lifted or opened hydraulically for
unloading of the material inside the body.
This is a common term used for a wide variety of
configuration of trucks used for
The payload capacity ranges from
10 ton trucks used mainly for
construction purposes and
small private mines
tipper tipper lorry (UK) or
to 400 ton trucks which are
tip truck (AU)
mainly off road vehicles and are
used exclusively in mines for carrying of
overburden or ore.
The smaller versions can be used both on road and off road;
higher versions are exclusively used for transportation only.
126.96.36.199. DUMP TRUCKS / DUMPER TRUCKS-TYPES
1. Standard dump truck
2 Transfer dump truck
3 Truck and pup
4 Super dump truck
5 Semi trailer end dump truck
6 Semi trailer bottom dump truck
7 Double and triple trailer bottom dump truck
8 Side dump truck
9 Winter service vehicles
10 Off-highway dump trucks
10.1 Haul truck
10.2 Articulated hauler
K-100 dump truck
Isuzu NPR 300Tipper
188.8.131.52. DUMP TRUCKS/ DUMPER TRUCKS-TYPES
a) Dump Trucks
Dump Trucks are exclusively meant for hauling various materials
to a large distance.
b) Rear Dump Trucks
As the name suggests, the dumping of the material (load) is done
over the rear by tilting the body using hydraulic cylinders.
c) Bottom Dump Trucks
If trucks are used to haul materials, such as sand, gravel,
reasonably dry earth, coal etc. which flow easily, the use of
bottom dump trucks will reduce time.
d) Articulated Dump Trucks
These kind of trucks facilitate better maneuverability .
e) Tipping Trucks
Tipping trucks are smaller version of dump trucks.
184.108.40.206. DUMP TRUCKS / DUMPER TRUCKS-TYPES