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special types of vehicles-dumpers

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  1. 1. stv cc ppt unit I (1.2) em&ce- capacity and application of earthmovers 1. Dumpers Unit I (1.2) Earth moving and construction equipmentscapacity and applications of earthmovers-1. Dumpers BAM 802 SPECIAL TYPE OF VEHICLES 2013-2014 - C.COOMARASAMY- PROF/AUTO- BIST
  2. 2. 1.2.1. DUMPERS- INTRODUCTION       A dumper is a vehicle designed for carrying bulk material, often on building sites. A dumper is usually an open 4-wheeled vehicle with the load skip in front of the driver. The skip in a dumper can tip to dump the load; this is where the name "dumper" comes from. Dumpers are distinguished from dump trucks/ dumper trucks by configuration: A Dump truck has its cab in front of the load. A Dump truck is a tyre mounted vehicle with a body mounted on chassis and an operator cabin. Dumper Dump truck / Dumper truck
  3. 3. 1.2.1. DUMPERS –INTRODUCTION- PAY LOAD It is the capacity of the equipment for which the customer is paying i.e. we say a truck has payload capacity of 10 ton. This means when we purchase this truck we expect it to carry 10 ton of material and we are ready to pay for this 10 ton truck. Atlas Copco MT2000, 20 ton, 12.5m3 haul truck, rear dump
  4. 4. 1.2.1. DUMPERS-INTRODUCTIONWHAT IS ON ROAD & OFF ROAD?      On road means when a vehicle is running on public road and is bound to follow the common traffic rules with other vehicles plying on the road. Off road means a vehicle is running on a non public road, i.e. private road. This private road may be inside a mine or in a construction site. Moreover the road width may be non standard type and may be designed exclusively to suit the vehicles plying on it. Also the traffic rules may be different in off roads in a particular mine.
  5. 5. DUMPERS Track type Dumpers are normally diesel powered.  A towing eye is fitted for secondary use as a site tractor. Carrying capacity (flat level ground): 500 kg  Dumpers with rubber tracks are used in special circumstances and are popular in some countries.  Early dumpers had a payload of about a ton and were 2-wheel drive, driving on the front axle and steered at the back wheels.  The single cylinder diesel engine (sometimes made by Lister) was started by hand cranking.  The steering wheel turned the back wheels, not front.  Having neither electrics nor hydraulics there was not much to go wrong.  The skip was secured by a catch by the driver's feet.  When the catch is released, the skip tips under the weight of its contents at pivot points below, and after being emptied is raised by hand. Dumper 3 ton 
  6. 6. DUMPERS rigid chassis dumpers from 1,000 to 3,000 kg payload 1000-3000 kg 850 to 10,000 kg. articulated dumpers from 850 to 10,000 kg. Dumper 3 ton 9 Ton
  7. 7. DUMPERS-HOW DOES A DUMPER FUNCTIONS?         In primitive models the body had to be lifted manually but nowadays all dumpers have hydraulic body lifting mechanism. All dumpers have an engine as a prime mover. Then there will be transmission system, differential and final drive. There will also be a hydraulic system for body lifting function and steering function. What is the power flow system in a dumper? The prime mover is an engine. Then there will be a clutch or torque converter from which power flows to gear box or transmission. The output of transmission goes to differential through a propeller shaft. Then there will be hub or final drive on which tyres will be mounted.
  8. 8. DUMPERS-WHAT ARE THE BASIC SYSTEMS?       A dumper has the following systems Power transmission system – consisting of Engine, torque converter, transmission, propel shaft, differential and final drive. Hydraulic system – consisting of Hydraulic pumps, control valves, Hydraulic cylinders (for body lifting and steering), Hydraulic tank and Steering orbitrol. Pneumatic system – consisting of air compressor, air tank, auto drain valve, un loader valve, brake treadle valve (for brake actuation) and accelerator pedal (in case of pneumatic cylinder for engine acceleration). Electrical system – consisting of battery, circuit breakers or fuses, solenoid coils, resistance, relays, sensors, meters/ gauges, starter, alternator, ammeter, switches, bulbs, head light, turning indicators, wiper, fan, horn, reverse horn, brake light. Brake system –. The service brake is air over hydraulic, shoe type and the brakes are applied on all the four wheels. This brake is applied for stopping the machine when in motion.
  9. 9. Folding ROPS DUMPERS- MODERN DUMPERS       Modern dumpers have payloads of up to 10 tonnes and usually steer by articulating at the middle of the chassis (pivot steering). They have multi-cylinder diesel engines, some turbocharged, electric start and hydraulics for tipping and steering and are more expensive to make and operate. An A-frame known as a ROPS (Roll-Over Protection) frame, may be fitted over the seat to protect the driver if the dumper rolls over. Some dumpers have FOPS (Falling Object Protection) as well. Lifting skips are available for discharging above ground level. In the 1990s dumpers with swivel skips, which could be rotated to tip sideways, became popular, especially for working in narrow sites such as road works. Dumpers are the most common cause ROPS/FOPS Level 2 of accidents involving construction plant. safety cab
  10. 10. DUMPERS Maximum safe load 1,000 kg Heaped 500 litres Struck 400 litres Water 280 litres 1 Ton 3 Ton 6 Ton Maximum safe load 3,000 kg Heaped 1,640 litres Struck 1,210 litres Water 990 litres Maximum safe load 6,000 kg Heaped 3,400 litres Struck 2,525 litres Water 1,925 litres 9 Ton Maximum safe load 9,000 kg Heaped 4,600 litres Struck 3,830 litres
  11. 11. DUMP TRUCKS/ DUMPER TRUCKS     A dump truck has its cab in front of the load. A dump truck (or, UK, dumper truck) is a truck used for transporting loose material (such as sand, gravel, or dirt) for construction. A typical dump truck is equipped with a hydraulically operated open-box bed hinged at the rear, the front of which can be lifted to allow the contents to be deposited on the ground construction plant only behind the truck at the site of delivery. In the UK and Australia the term applies to off-road construction plant only, and the road vehicle is known as a tipper, tipper lorry (UK) or tip truck (AU) dump truck / dumper truck
  12. 12. DUMP TRUCKS / DUMPER TRUCKS     The body can be lifted or opened hydraulically for unloading of the material inside the body. This is a common term used for a wide variety of configuration of trucks used for road vehicle transporting material. The payload capacity ranges from 10 ton trucks used mainly for construction purposes and small private mines tipper tipper lorry (UK) or to 400 ton trucks which are tip truck (AU) mainly off road vehicles and are used exclusively in mines for carrying of overburden or ore. The smaller versions can be used both on road and off road; whereas the higher versions are exclusively used for transportation only.
  13. 13. DUMP TRUCKS / DUMPER TRUCKS-TYPES           1. Standard dump truck 2 Transfer dump truck 3 Truck and pup 4 Super dump truck 5 Semi trailer end dump truck 6 Semi trailer bottom dump truck 7 Double and triple trailer bottom dump truck 8 Side dump truck 9 Winter service vehicles 10 Off-highway dump trucks  10.1 Haul truck  10.2 Articulated hauler A Kenworth K-100 dump truck Isuzu NPR 300Tipper
  15. 15. DUMP TRUCKS/ DUMPER TRUCKS-TYPES      a) Dump Trucks Dump Trucks are exclusively meant for hauling various materials to a large distance. b) Rear Dump Trucks As the name suggests, the dumping of the material (load) is done over the rear by tilting the body using hydraulic cylinders. c) Bottom Dump Trucks If trucks are used to haul materials, such as sand, gravel, reasonably dry earth, coal etc. which flow easily, the use of bottom dump trucks will reduce time. d) Articulated Dump Trucks These kind of trucks facilitate better maneuverability . e) Tipping Trucks Tipping trucks are smaller version of dump trucks.
  17. 17. DUMP TRUCKS / DUMPER TRUCKS  Jurong Model : SD30(FJ30)  Payload : 3000Kg Capacity of bucket: 1.5 m3 Drive type : 4*4 Max.speed : 25/28Km/h Grade ability : 36% Min.turning radius : 4.5m Overall size : 3900*1800*1820/2600mm Weight : 2500Kg
  18. 18. DUMP TRUCKS/ DUMPER TRUCKS VOLVO dumpers: Model Load capacity SAE 2:1 heap A25E 4x4 24 000 kg 13 m3 A25F, A30F 24 000 kg / 28 000 kg 15,0 m3 / 17,5 m3 A35F, A40F 33 500 kg / 39 000 kg 20,5 m3 / 24,0 m3 A35F FS, A40F FS 33 500 kg / 39 000 kg 20,5 m3 / 24,0 m3
  19. 19. DUMP TRUCKS/ DUMPER TRUCKS DIMENSIONS  Vehicle conforming to ECC security compliance directives - 2006/42 ECC.  Perlini Equipment