The Quick & The Dead


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the presentation was made in ITEC 2011 by Gary Craggs

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The Quick & The Dead

  1. 1. The Quick and the Dead<br />Improving Decision Making in EOD Operators<br />Gary Craggs<br />Explosive Learning Solutions<br />
  2. 2. Decisions, Decisions…<br />Successful ops depend on making the right decision at the right time<br />So it’s important we teach people how to make the right decisions<br />But how good are we at doing that?<br />
  3. 3. Traditional Decision Making<br />Rational, analytical, models<br />Typically, options are formed and evaluated<br />Often taught in management leadership development programmes<br />Good for stable environments but…..<br />
  4. 4. ……...they do not reflect how people actually make critical decisions under pressure<br />
  5. 5. Move to Naturalistic Decision Making <br />US Army recognised this<br />They had invested heavily in decision making training but achieved poor ROI<br />1984 US DoD research call won by Gary Klein<br />Studied “in the field” rather than in the lab<br />Fire fighting commanders<br />Naval officers<br />Nurses<br />Developed concept of “Naturalistic Decision Making<br />
  6. 6. NDM Settings<br />Time pressure<br />High stakes<br />Experienced decision makers<br />Inadequate information<br />Dynamic conditions<br />Team co-ordination <br />
  7. 7. Klein's Findings<br />People did not compare options – many felt they didn’t make “decisions”<br />They chose the first workable option based on their assessment of situation<br />People rarely used analogous situations – they used a blend of situations<br />They improved their options by imagining implementation<br />
  8. 8. Recognition Primed Decision Making Process<br />Decision maker picks up cues that let them recognise patterns<br />Based on these patterns they choose a single course of action (action script)they consider will achieve the outcome<br />The decision maker runs the action script through a mental simulation based on mental models developed through experience<br />Action script is assessed against what is known to work and improved if necessary<br />
  9. 9. Recognition Primed Decision Making Requirements<br />Expertise<br />Situational awareness<br />Spotting patterns and anomalies<br />Knowing limitations<br />Intuition<br />Implicit learning not ESP<br />Identifying cues <br />
  10. 10. Recognition Primed Decision Making Requirements<br />Mental Simulation<br />Ability to imagine and transform images<br />Too simple or too complex it doesn’t work<br />3-6 transitions<br />Storytelling<br />Helps the teller understand<br />Helps the novice gain expertise<br />
  11. 11. EOD Op Training<br />Tends to focus on:<br />Skills<br />Equipment handling<br />Information gathering<br />Co-ordination<br />Application of Procedures<br />Decision making is tested rather than taught<br />
  12. 12. Embedding RPDM in Training<br />Expertise<br />Identify and train-in patterns<br />Develop situational awareness through activity/media rich scenarios<br />Intuition<br />Identify and train-in cues<br />
  13. 13. Embedding RPDM in Training<br />Mental Simulation<br />Encourage imagination<br />Cognitive walk through exercises<br />Storytelling<br />Trainer mentors<br />Warts and all presentations<br />Actual individuals not actors<br />
  14. 14. Conclusions<br />Rational decision making models do not work in pressure situations<br />RPDM is how people actually do make decisions in high pressure situations<br />Techniques for employing and improving RPDM can be taught<br />