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# Fluid Mechanics & Temperature and Heat

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Gives a brief description of several concepts on the topics of Fluid motion and Temperature and Heat.

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### Fluid Mechanics & Temperature and Heat

1. 1. Fluid Mechanics<br />Most Awesome Teachers EVAR!!!!<br />
2. 2. Overview<br />Fluid: A substance that flows<br />Usually a liquid or a gas<br />Hydrostatics: the study of a fluid at rest<br />Ex) Pressure at depth<br />Hydrodynamics: the study of a fluid in motion<br />Ex) Flow rate<br />Ideal Liquid: <br />Incompressible (so that density does not change)<br />Maintain a steady flow rate<br />Non-viscous<br />Irrotational flow<br />
3. 3. Hydrostatic Pressure<br />Measure of the pressure a fluid exerts on the walls of the container<br />SI Units: Newton per meter squared : <br />Aka the Pascal<br />Sometimes measured in atmospheres (atm)<br />1 atm is the pressure exerted at sea level<br />1 atm = 1.013 x 105 Pa<br />
4. 4. Hydrostatic Pressure (cont)<br />p1<br />p1<br />p1<br />h<br />h<br />h<br />p2<br />p2<br />p2<br />p1 is at the surface and is 1 atm<br />To find pressure at depth (p2):<br />p2 is the absolute pressure<br />the total static pressure at a certain depth in a fluid, including the pressure at the surface of the fluid<br />Difference in pressure: <br />Gauge pressure: the difference between the static pressure at a certain depth in a fluid and the pressure at the surface of the fluid<br />Pressure at any depth does not depend of the shape of the container, only the pressure at some reference level (like the surface) and the vertical distance below that level<br />
5. 5. Buoyancy<br />Buoyancy is the weight of the displaced fluid<br />Archimedes’ Principlestates that a body wholly or partly immersed in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces<br />Buoyant Force: the force that pushes the object upwards<br />
6. 6. Fluid Flow Continuity<br />Flow Rate Continuity: the volume or mass entering any point must also exit that point<br />A = Area of the respective tube<br />V = Fluid speed in the respective pipe<br />Mass must be conserved, so mass in M1 = M2<br />A1<br />A2<br />v1<br />v2<br />
7. 7. Mass flow Rate: pAv<br />Density of fluid x Area of tube x velocity of fluid in tube<br />Equation of Continuity: the flow rate through tube 1 is the same as tube 2 so:<br />1 A1 v1 = 2 A2 v2<br />Volume flow rate: the density of the fluid is the same throughout the pipe<br />A1 v1= A2 v2<br />A1<br />A2<br />v1<br />v2<br />
8. 8. Bernoulli’s Principle<br />Bernoulli’s Principle: the total pressure of a fluid along any tube of flow remains constant<br />y = height<br />v = velocity of fluid<br />If density of the fluid is p then:<br />y1<br />y2<br />v2<br />v1<br />
9. 9. Fluid moving through a horizontal pipe (y1 = y2):<br />This equation implies that the higher the pressure at a point in a fluid, the slower the speed, and vice-versa<br />Continuity Principle and Bernoulli’s Principle used together to solve for pressure and fluid speed<br />
10. 10. Temperature and Heat<br />Part the second of Chris, Baby, and Kevin’s epic PowerPoint series<br />
11. 11. Mechanical Equivalent of Heat<br />States that heat and motion are virtually interchangeable and in any circumstance a given amount of work would produce a given amount of heat<br />1 calorie of heat = 4.1868 joules per calorie<br />
12. 12. Heat Transfer<br />Heat Transfer: the movement of heat between two substances, occurs through conduction, convection, and radiation<br />Conduction: heat transfer as the result of collisions between molecules in a material, or between material<br />Since molecules in a solid are not free to move, this is accomplished through vibrational kinetic energy<br />Convection: heat transfer as the result of mass movement of warm material from one region to another<br />Radiation: energy transfer as the result of electromagnetic waves<br />
13. 13. Conduction<br />Rate of heat flow through an object, as a result of conduction<br /> = heat transfer per unit time<br />A = cross sectional area of an object<br /> = object’s thickness<br />T = temperature<br />K= the thermal conductivity of the object<br />SI unit is kcal/(smC) : C = degrees Celsius<br />
14. 14. Radiation<br />Stefan-Boltzmann’s Equation: calculates rate at which an object radiates electromagnetic energy<br /> = rate at which energy leaves the object<br />A = object’s surface area<br />T = object’s temperature in Kelvin<br />e = emissivity of the material<br />Perfect absorber is also a perfect emitter and e = 1<br />