HIV (the virus that causes AIDS) probably transferred to humans in Africa between 1884 and 1924.CDC = Center for Disease Control and PreventionWebsites: amfar.org
CD4 cells are the “helper” cells that initiate the body’s response to infections. The HIV virus uses them as host cells in order to make more copies of itself.
Add top 3 diseases people die from with AIDS BROOK. Diana added graphHIV mutates and becomes more pathogenic, in other words stronger and more varied, leading to more T helper cell destructionThe body fails to keep up with replacing the T helper cells that are lost.
The reason this is listed in this way is because blood is the most concentrated, followed by semen, and lastly, breast milk.
Condense slides 21 and 22 ( Maricarmen)
“Infection” implies that not all show symptoms, but “disease” implies that all show symptoms; that is why the name has been changed from STD to STI.
Video link on youtube; might need to download because schools ban youtube
often because they are poor themselves and can’t afford legitimate support payments.
The following slides will address same sex and other sexual minorities. We will refrain from using the words, “gay,” “bisexual”, or “lesbian” in these slides because behavior and identity do not always align with one another. For instance, men who have sex with men may have sex with women and may not identify as gay or bisexual. Same goes for women who have sex with women, they may not identify as lesbian or bisexual. This presentation is only going to scratch the surface on this subject. The CDC initially called AIDS the “gay cancer” and later renamed it GRID (Gay-Related Immune Deficiency). In 1982, the disease was renamed AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome)
Actuality is that the prevalence of many STIs in WSW is comparable or exceeds that of heterosexual womenSkin to skin contact and skin to mucosa contact are acts that can occur during sex amongst wswWhat is bacterial vaginosis?Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the name of a condition in women where the normal balance of bacteria in the vagina is disrupted and replaced by an overgrowth of certain bacteria. It is sometimes accompanied by discharge, odor, pain, itching, or burning.Although BV is common in WSW, routine screening for BV is not recommended, nor is the treatment of partners of women with BV. Encouraging awareness of signs and symptoms of BV in women and encouraging healthy sexual practices (e.g., cleaning shared sex toys between uses) might be helpful.
So what does it mean to be transgender? Transgender people are individuals who transgress societally constructed gender norms in one manner or another. This includes cross dressers, people who identify as male to female (MTF) or FTM (female to male)
The Black & Latino AIDS Project was founded in 1991 by CCM and BPHO, in response to high rates of HIV/AIDS infections and low admission rates to four-year universities in the Black and Latino communities in LA. The goal of BLAIDS is educating the Black and Latino communities about HIV/AIDS, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), teen pregnancy and the pursuit of higher education.
AIDS was officially recognized by the CDC in 1982and its cause, HIV, was identified in 1984 by scientists. By 1986, more than 86,000 cases of AIDS had been reported in 85 countries. As of 2010, there are over 34 million worldwide living with HIV. 3.4 million of them are under the age of 15. In 2011, 2.5 million new cases of HIV were reported.
There are approximately 1.2 million people in the United States living with HIV. Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino communities have been disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS in America. Blacks/African-Americans represented 14% of the U.S. population, but accounted for an estimated 44% of new HIV infections in 2009. Hispanics/Latinos represented 16% of the population, but accounted for 20% of new HIV infections in 2009.
This is the stage when the HIV virus begins to destroy CD4 cells in the body. During this period, people infected with HIV experience “the worst flu ever”, which is really called acute retrovirus syndrome (ARS) or primary HIV infection. 20% of people with HIV do not know they have the virus at this time.
Also known as asymptomatic HIV infection, this is the stage in which HIV is still reproducing in the body, but there is a still a healthy CD4 cell count. This stage lasts about 8 years or longer. During this time, the virus can still be transmitted between people and a HIV test will show a positive result.
CD4 cell count drops below 200 Opportunistic infectionsoccur (most common are tuberculosis, toxoplasmosis, pneumonia) These diseases and infections would not cause harm to a normal person, but can be FATAL for someone with a weak immune system
1. Blood2. Semen3. Pre-ejaculate4. Vaginal Secretions5. Breast Milk
TearsSalivaSweatUrine* In order to contract HIV by making out, you would have to swallow a whole gallon of someone’s spit!*
Hugging, Kissing or Shaking Hands Sharing Utensils Using Public Bathrooms Donating Blood Mosquito Bites
The HIV test looks for CD4 antibodies your blood. NOT for the virus You do not have anyYou have enough or enough CD4 CD4 antibodies antibodiesPositive test result Negative test result Your body has not You have been made enough You do not have HIVinfected with HIV antibodies to be detected
It takes about 3 months after the initial HIV infection for people to develop CD4 antibodies. It is best to wait at least three months after the last time you could have been exposed to HIV before taking the test. Get tested again at 6 months to ensure that your first test was not a false positive or false negative.
Advantages: Can be purchased from a local pharmacies Disadvantages: Many home test kits are NOT approved by the FDA and are not efficient, which can lead to unreliable results Also very expensive! $$$
The rapid HIV test consists of taking a small blood or saliva sample. ADVANTAGE: Short amount of time (20 min) to receive your results. DISADVANTAGE: Tests are expensive and there are a few places that offer it free of charge. Positive results must be followed up by a confirmatory test.
Takes place in a clinic. Personal information and results will be kept in your medical record. ADVANTAGE Quality Counseling FREE! It becomes a part of your medical history, which is important if you ever have to get future surgeries, become pregnant, etc. DISADVANTAGE Takes a little longer to get results.
This test also takes place in a clinic. You’re given a code that you’ll use to call and get your results. DISADVANTAGES Also takes a little longer to get results ADVANTAGES Quality counseling Anonymous FREE
Sexually Transmitted Infections STIs are infections that are usually transmitted from person to person through sexual intercourse or other intimate contact. If untreated, they can cause permanent damage, such as infertility, and can lead to life-threatening conditions. STI transmission can be prevented by the use of condoms or the practice of abstinence.
There are 65 million people living in the US with an incurable STI. That is 1 in 4 people! In theUS there are over 19 million new STI’s every year, and almost half of them are among young people ages 15- 24 years old
Vaginal Sex Oral Sex Anal Sex Any exchange of bodily fluids (blood, semen, vaginal secretions, pre-ejaculate, breast milk) STIs canstill be transmitted even when there are no symptoms!
It is a bacterial infection that can be treated with antibiotics More than 50% of those infected have no symptoms at all In 2010, the rate of infection for females was 2.5 times greater than the rate for males. Also in 2010, the highest age-specific rates of reported chlamydia for women were 15-24 years, and 20-24 years for men.
Female Symptoms Both Male Symptoms• Abnormal • Pain while • Clear or cloudy Discharge urinating or discharge from penis during • Pain and swelling of• Painful periods or the testicles bleeding intercourse • Burning and itching between periods • Increased at the opening of• Abdominal pain urination the penis or fever • Sore throat and fever
Also known as “the clap” It is a bacterial infection that can be treated with antibiotics Symptoms usually appear within 2-5 days of exposure but many people show no symptoms
Female symptoms Both Male symptoms• Vaginal Discharge • Pain while • Discharge from urinating penis (green, yellow,• Pain in the lower or white in color) abdomen • Increased • Red or swollen• Fever urination opening of the penis• Pain during • Sore throat • Tender or swollen intercourse testicles
Genital herpes is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by the herpes simplex viruses type 1 (HSV-1) or type 2 (HSV-2). Most genital herpes is caused by HSV-2 1out of 6people, 14 to 49 years of age, have genital herpes Approximately 500,000 NEW cases every year in the U.S.!
Symptoms Small, red bumps, blisters and open sores in the genital, anal and nearby areas. Pain or itching around genital area, buttocks or inner thighs
A virus that primarily infects the liver causing inflammationResults from exposure to bodily fluids containing blood, including unprotected sexual contact and contaminated needles.Can be prevented by a vaccine Symptoms -Abdominal Pain -Dark Urine -Joint Pain -Loss of appetite -Weakness/fatigue -Nausea and vomiting -Yellowing of the skin
The most widespread STI in the United States, and has no cure There are over 100 types of HPV, some which can cause complications such as cervical cancer. HPV strains that can cause cervical cancer can be prevented by a vaccine such as Gardasil, which can be taken by both women and men
Symptoms Warts in the genital area- may be raisedor flat, alone or in groups, small or large and are sometimes cauliflower shaped. Lesions may appear on the anus, scrotum, groin, thighs, penis, cervix or in the vagina.
Women Men Two types: Cervarix Prevents HPV types and Gardasil Does not cure existing that cause both genital HPV infections or diseases warts and cancersTargets HPV types Most effective when given Most common sidethat mostly cause before first sexual contact effect is soreness incervical cancer. the arm Very safe and effective for people of ages 9-26 Can possibly prevent Does not prevent penile and all HPV types Series of three shots oropharyngeal cancers
Syphilis is a bacterial infection that can be treated with antibiotics It has been called the great imitator because so many of the signs and symptoms are indistinguishable from those of other diseases It is a three stage infection with different symptoms in each stage
Symptoms: Appearance of chancres (small painlesssores) and swollen lymph nodes Symptoms: Skin rash, fever, weight loss, fatigueSymptoms: The diseases begins to damage internal organs (e.g., brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones and joints) Damage is serious enough to cause death
Public liceare small, six-legged creatures that infect the pubic hair area and lay eggs. They are usually spread during sexual activity. Symptoms: Itching in the area covered by pubic hair Skin reaction that is bluish-gray in color. Sores (lesions) in the genital area due to bites and scratching
Don’t putyourself at risk! When getting piercing/tattoos, make sure needles are sterile. Condoms are highly protective against HIV/AIDS and other STIs.
1. Check the expiration date2. Make sure there is an air bubble3. Slide the condom to the side and open the package4. Place condom on banana (ridges up) & slide all the way down; if penis has foreskin, pull the foreskin back before unrolling the condom5. Roll condom off of banana and place in napkin
A thin sheath or pouch worn by a woman during sex, that completely lines the vagina and helps prevent pregnancy, HIV, and STIs. For extensive information on the use, advantages, and disadvantages of a female condom, please visit: http://www.avert.org/fem ale-condom.htm
The only way to be 100% safe from contracting HIV or STIs is: ABSTINENCE and not sharing needles of any kind!!
3 in 10 teen girls in the US will get pregnant at least once before age 20 About¼ of teen moms have a second child within 24 months of the first birth.
Parenthood is the leading reason why teen girls drop out of school. Less than ½ of teen mothers ever graduate from high school and fewer than 2% earn a college degree by age 30.
Babies don’t make relationships stronger, the fact is 8 out of 10 fathers dont marry the mother of their child. Its also true that these absent fathers pay less than $800 annually for child support.
Men who have sex with Men (MSM) accounted for 61% of all new HIV infections Young MSM accounted for 69% of new HIV infections among persons aged 13-29 and 44% of infections among all MSM Unprotected Anal Intercourse (UAI) is most highly associated with HIV transmission Drugs and Alcohol abuse have been associated with this behavior The use of the internet for soliciting sex partners also appears to be associated with UAI
Misconception that Women who have sex with Women (WSW) are at lower risk for contracting STIs WSW are less likely to seek routine medical care, including preventative care screening Bacterial Vaginosis Common in women but even more so in WSW HPV Transmission Skin to skin contact Skin to mucosa contact
Misconception that sexually altered organs are not affected by some STIs such as gonorrhea Increase prevalence of syphilis, HSV, HPV, and gonorrhea HIV is a MAJOR issue in the transgender community Issues of identity, domestic abuse, commercial sex work, and sexual violence are critical to address in an HIV-risk assessment of transgender patients Male to Female (MTF) transgender individuals made up 22% of HIV cases in Los Angeles
Addressing drug and alcohol abuse Unlubricated Condom for oral sex Avoid even brief unprotected anal penetration “dipping” Condom USE! With plenty of water-based lubrication to avoid condom malfunction, breakage, and prevent tearing of tissue Minimize sexual transfer of vaginal fluids and menstrual blood Use of latex gloves, dental dams, and other latex barriers