CC컨퍼런스 공유본색 2 이진순

1,619 views

Published on

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,619
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
742
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • 10/21-10/22 Occupy Seoul March & Candlelight vigils
  • CC컨퍼런스 공유본색 2 이진순

    1. 1. CCKorea 컨퍼런스 < 공유본색 > 2013.10.31. D-camp 이진순 1
    2. 2. Key Questions 1. 인간은 사적 이익을 추구하는 존재인가 ? 2. 인간은 공유를 통해 무엇을 얻기를 원하 나? 3. 공유된 자원이 계속 증식해 나가는 비결 은 무엇인가 ? 4. 공유는 세상을 어떻게 바꾸나 ? 2
    3. 3. Howard Rheingold Author of “Smart Mobs” (2002) Spoke of “New Ways of Collaboration” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d5s3Z0iesRM 3
    4. 4. 두 개의 시각 인간은 근본적으로 사적 이익을 추구하는 이기적 존 재인가 ? 그렇다면 공유와 협력은 어떻게 가능한가 ? 공유지의 비극 (Tragedy of the Commons) We are all in the Same Boat 4
    5. 5. Tragedy of the Commons The tragedy of the commons: - Coined by Garrett Hardin in 1968 - Individuals seek to maximize their own selfinterest and ultimately deplete shared limited resources. - “Everybody’s property is nobody’s property.” 5
    6. 6. Contrasting Research Elinor Ostrom (1990), a political scientist, asked the question: is it really true that humans will always despoil commons? 수천건의 공유사례들 검 토 . ( 수자원 , 임산자원 , 어장 etc.) humans destroyed the commons that they depended on. But she also found many instances in which people escaped the prisoner's dilemma. 6
    7. 7. Prisoner's Dilemma  A game invented at Princeton's Institute of Advanced Science in the 1950's.  Basic scenario: - Two people who committed a crime together are arrested and put in separate rooms, not able to communicate with each other. - They are both given two options, sell out your partner and get a reward or keep quiet and get arrested. - If one testifies against the other and the other remains silent, the betrayer goes free and the silent accomplice receives the full 5-year sentence. If both remain silent (cooperate), both prisoners are sentenced to only six months in jail for a minor charge.  What will happen? 7
    8. 8. 현실 속의 죄수의 딜렘마는 ? An Iterated prisoner's dilemma The game is played repeatedly. Thus each player has an opportunity to punish the other player for previous non-cooperative play. What will happen? Tit-for-Tat (equivalent retaliation): - Robert Axelrod (1984) examined in “The Evolution of Cooperation” whether cooperation can evolve among individuals who pursue their own self-interest. - An agent responds to an opponent’s previous action. If the opponent previously was cooperative, the agent is cooperative. If not, the agent is not. - People learn solidarity and can then break out of the vicious circle. 8
    9. 9. Tit-for-Tat 전략 4 가지 행동양식 1. 일당 상대방을 믿고 협조하라 ( 초기 신뢰 ) 2. 상대방이 협조하면 계속 협조하라 ( 신뢰 유지 ) 3. 만약 상대방이 배신하면 같이 배신하라 ( 응징 !) 4. 배신한 상대방이 협조하면 다시 협조하라 ( 용서 !) 9
    10. 10. 우리의 실제 현실은 죄수의 딜렘마가 가정한 상황과 다르다 . 10
    11. 11. Prisoner's Dilemma  A game invented at Princeton's Institute of Advanced Science in the 1950's.  Basic scenario: - Two people who committed a crime together are arrested and put in separate rooms, not able to communicate with each other. - They are both given two options, sell out your partner and get a reward or keep quiet and get arrested. - If one testifies against the other and the other remains silent, the betrayer goes free and the silent accomplice receives the full 5-year sentence. If both remain silent (cooperate), both prisoners are sentenced to only six months in jail for a minor charge.  What will happen? 11
    12. 12. Ultimatum Game 적정한 합의의 기준  Ultimatum Game ( 최후통첩게임 . Dictator Game): - There are two players; they've never played the game before, they will not play the game again, they don't know each other, and they are, in fact, in separate rooms. - First player is offered a hundred dollars and is asked to propose a split: 50/50, 90/10, whatever that player wants to propose. - The second player either accepts the split -- both players are paid and the game is over -- or rejects the split – neither player is paid and the game is over. 12
    13. 13. 인간의 합리성 10:90 을 받아들일것인가 ? 인간의 합리성은 기계적 인 계산에 의하지 않는다 . 공정함의 기준 13
    14. 14. Communal Benefit "We all face the Prisoner's Dilemma whenever we interact with people we could take advantage of, or people who could take advantage of us, yet we actually manage to trust one another often enough to accomplish things in groups" (Shirky, p. 191). 14
    15. 15. 공유의 기적 , Wikipedia  Encyclopedia  - - News outlet Online community Popularity 31 million articles (3 million in English), 262 language editions (English 52%, Spanish 19%, French 5%, Polish, German, Japanese 3% each) More than 330 million contributors every month One of the top five most visited website in the world. The English-language Wikipedia is the only noncommercial site in the top twenty sites for the US 15
    16. 16. Introduction of Wikis  Launched by Jimmy Wales and Larry Sanger in 2001 by adopting wiki software (developed in 1995) that let any reader add, alter or delete web contents  Written, reviewed, edited, proofread by anybody  The Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. was launched as a nonprofit parent organization of various free-content projects.  Managed by the non-profit - - Wikimedia Foundation Wikipedia Wikinews : a free news source Wikimedia Commons : freely usable images, videos, and sound files Wikibooks : a project to create free textbooks Wikiversity : an interactive learning platform Wiktionary : a multiligual dictionary 16
    17. 17. Wikipedia is Reliable? Professor Wikipedia on Youtube Criticism “If anyone can edit anything on the site any time they want, how in the world can you trust what you read there?” 17
    18. 18. Experiment 1 Prof. Alex Halavais (2004) at University of Buffalo has tested Wikipedia by creating thirteen errors on various posts on Wikipedia. Then, he observed whether and how quickly the errors would be fixed. What do you guess about the result? (1)30% were fixed within a week. (2)45% were fixed within three days. (3)75% were fixed within a day. (4)100% were fixed within a few hours. 18
    19. 19. Experiment 2 In 2005, the journal “Nature” examined Wikipedia and Britannica to compare the accuracy of entries. Experts did a peer review of 42 science entries from both sources. What would be the findings? (1)Britannica is more accurate than Wikipedia (2)Wikipedia is more accurate than Britannica (3)There is no particular difference 19
    20. 20. Nature found that: The Nature concluded that: "Wikipedia comes close to Britannica in terms of the accuracy of its science entries.” The exercise revealed numerous errors in both encyclopaedias, but among 42 entries tested, the difference in accuracy was not particularly great: the average science entry in Wikipedia contained around four inaccuracies; Britannica, about three. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v438/n7070/full/4 20
    21. 21. Experiment 3 The Denver Post (2007) graded Wikipedia by asking five experts to review entries in their field of study. What do you think the result would be like? “Four out of five agreed their relevant Wikipedia entries are accurate, informative, comprehensive and a great resource for students.” 21
    22. 22. 브리태니커의 퇴장 ?  Britannica ends print copies “The Encyclopedia Britannica, which has been in continuous print since it was first published in Edinburgh, Scotland in 1768, said Tuesday it will end publication of its printed editions and continue with digital versions available online.” (March 14, 2012)  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4JpQu_DTZWo&feature=player_embed 22
    23. 23. New Ways of Knowledge Production  - Collaborative production Open source production Unmanaged division of labor “Discussion” tag allows editors or contributors to carry out the negotiation over what should appear in the entry being created  - Self-correction Continuing process: Every entry is provisional “History” tag  Publish-then-filter model cf. Nupedia: Predecessor of Wikipedia (2000), - Written, reviewed, and managed by experts, through peer review processes - From March 2000 to September 2003, 24 articles were completed and 74 were in progress  Communal Property - Authorship detached from ownership - No advertising, Noncommercial purposes, Open source movement 23
    24. 24. Imbalanced Participation  Power law distribution : (eg1). of 205 edits by 129 contributors, six accounted for a quarter of the edits. (eg2) Revision history on ODU 24
    25. 25. Collaboration and Harmony A handful of most active contributors and the majority of less active contributors Desire to make a mark Desire to do meaningful contribution Desire to do a good thing 25
    26. 26. Worse is Better? - Richard Gabriel, a software engineer at Sun Microsystems - “A short and uninformative article can be the anchor for the good article that will eventually appear” (Shirky, pp. 121-122) The earliest post about McDonald’s The earliest post about Justin Timberlake The latest post about McDonald’s The latest post about Justin Timberlake 26
    27. 27. 공유자산의 지속가능한 발전 How could Wikipedia survive and develop despite risks of vandalism? “Wikipedia assumes that new errors will be introduced less frequently than existing ones will be corrected. This assumption has proven correct” (Shirky, p. 119) 27
    28. 28. 공유는 세상을 어떻게 바꾸나 새로운 집단행동의 등장 인터넷액티비즘 (Technology-enabled Collective Action) 1. Leadership/organization 2. Membership 3. Repertoires 4. Continuity 5. Major communication channels 28
    29. 29. Empowered Citizens Movement-entrepreneurs (MEs): “Individuals who are motivated by individual grievances to undertake social movement activity and who rely on their own skills to conduct their actions” (Earl & Schussman, 2003) 29
    30. 30. Decentralized Leadership: Rhizomatic Form (by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari) 30
    31. 31. Parody & Culture Jamming Playful parodying of corporate advertisements and logos to produce critical messages 31
    32. 32. Subvertisement Compound word of subversion and advertisement Nike “Just Do It” http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=His_Xqibzug&feature=related 32
    33. 33. Global Networks of Civic Action Simultaneous action on multiple fronts in multiple ways (Smith, 2000). 33
    34. 34. Thomas Jefferson says, “He who receives ideas from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine receives light without darkening me. That ideas should freely spread from one to another over the globe…” 35

    ×