Evolution

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Evolution

  1. 1. Evolution
  2. 2. How do we know how old Earth is? <ul><li>Earth is 4.5 Billion years old </li></ul><ul><li>Measured using Radioactive dating </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measuring the length of half lives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon 14- 5730 years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Potassium 40- 1.3 billion years </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uranium 235- 703000000 years </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Early Earth Models <ul><li>Primordial soup- Oparin suggested that the oceans contained lots of Organic molecules </li></ul>
  4. 4. Early Earth <ul><li>Miller and Urey form organic compounds while simulating early earth conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Cell-like creatures appear with lipid membranes and RNA self replicating genomes </li></ul>
  5. 5. Cell-like Structures Appear <ul><li>Membrane bound </li></ul><ul><li>Self replicating </li></ul><ul><li>Heterotrophic forms appear first </li></ul>
  6. 6. RNA-First Nucleic Acid <ul><li>More stable </li></ul><ul><li>Simpler structure </li></ul><ul><li>Enzymatic activity- Ribozyme </li></ul>
  7. 7. First Prokaryotes Anaerobic Heterotrophic Chemosynthetic Photosynthetic Aerobic Cellular Respiration Oxygen Pollution Event
  8. 8. Origin of Life <ul><li>Spontaneous Generation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pasteur-Curve necked flask </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spallanzani- Broth experiments </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Fossil Record <ul><li>The bodies of dead animals are sometimes made into rocks </li></ul><ul><li>These Fossils provide a record of what was here when we weren’t </li></ul>
  10. 10. Theories of Evolution <ul><li>Lamark </li></ul><ul><li>Use and Disuse theory </li></ul><ul><li>Acquired trait </li></ul><ul><li>Giraffe Example </li></ul><ul><li>Darwin </li></ul><ul><li>Sailed on a ship to the Galapagos islands </li></ul><ul><li>Found evidence of speciation in several types of finches </li></ul><ul><li>Not the only one to develop this theory, just the first to publish </li></ul>
  11. 11. Darwin’s Explanation <ul><li>Natural selection </li></ul><ul><li>All individuals of a species differ in small ways </li></ul><ul><li>Some differences make life easier </li></ul><ul><li>The individuals with an easier life will live to reproduce more </li></ul><ul><li>Very visible in isolated island ecosystems </li></ul>
  12. 12. Other types of selection <ul><li>Artificial Selection- human’s choosing desirable traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX- Domestic animals, Crops </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sexual Selection- mates choosing the most desirable partner based on specific traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EX- Peacocks </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Human Evolution <ul><li>Man did not “come” from monkeys </li></ul><ul><li>We DO share an ancient ancestor </li></ul><ul><li>Homo sapiens sapiens adapted to their environment using technology </li></ul>
  14. 14. Current Theories <ul><li>Creationism- the belief that each creature was designed by a higher power </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent Design- The belief that the world and its systems, such as evolution, were created by a higher power </li></ul><ul><li>Natural Selection- The process of evolution was not designed, but more of a happy accident all creatures are a result of this happy accident, but there is no great designer </li></ul>

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