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Ecology Population


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Ecology Population

  1. 1. Ecology
  2. 2. Ecology is… <ul><li>The study of the interactions between and among biotic and abiotic factors in the biosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting the effects of changes in ecosystems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ecology’s Current Major Concerns <ul><li>Climate changes </li></ul><ul><li>Extinctions </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered Species </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone layer </li></ul>
  4. 4. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Biosphere- all organisms on Earth and the abiotic factors that affect them </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem- all the organisims and abiotic factors in a defined area </li></ul>
  5. 5. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Community- all of the living organisms in a defined area </li></ul><ul><li>Population- a group of one species in a community </li></ul><ul><li>Organism- a living individual in a population </li></ul>
  6. 6. Interdependence of Systems <ul><li>Many different factors affect any one organism </li></ul><ul><li>Any changes can be both helpful and harmful </li></ul>
  7. 7. Changes in Systems <ul><li>Abiotic factors- non-living conditions that affect living individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainfall, pH, Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors- living organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation, Parasites, Decomposition Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Range of Tolerance- the extent to which an organism can withstand a particular factor </li></ul>
  8. 8. Responses to Changes <ul><li>Acclimation- adjustment of an individuals zone of tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis- control of internal conditions despite external changes </li></ul><ul><li>Dormancy- escape from difficult conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Resource availability- an environment’s ability to meet a community’s </li></ul>
  9. 9. Niches <ul><li>An organism's way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Niche- the area in which an organism could potentially live </li></ul><ul><li>Realized Niche- the area that an organism actually lives in </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Niches <ul><li>Generalists- live in a broad niche, can live in most places </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist- live in a narrow niche, need very specific things to function in an area </li></ul>
  11. 11. Population <ul><li>Population- group of organisms of the same species in a defined area </li></ul><ul><li>Population Density- the number in a population divided by the area it lives in </li></ul><ul><li>Population Dispersal-Where a population lives </li></ul>
  12. 12. Population Regulation <ul><li>Density Dependent Factors- resource limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Density Independent Factors- weather fluctuations, fires </li></ul><ul><li>Small population problems- inbreeding, Density dependent factors, separation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Patterns of Mortality <ul><li>Survivorship Curves show the probability of an individual surviving to that age </li></ul>
  14. 14. Population Dynamics <ul><li>Birthrate-Mortality Rate = growth rate </li></ul><ul><li>Age Structure- number of individuals in ranges of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy- average age at death </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration- movement of individuals into a population </li></ul><ul><li>Emigration- movement of individuals out of a population </li></ul>
  15. 15. Population Measurement <ul><li>Can be difficult to determine </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers come from measuring four aspects of the population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Births +Immigration)-(Deaths +Emigration) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Types of Growth
  17. 17. Human Population <ul><li>Overextended the carrying capacity for our species </li></ul><ul><li>Several things helped us do this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunter/Gatherer  Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple tools  Current Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developed countries show slower growth than developing countries </li></ul>