Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Ecology Population

3,695 views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine
  • Be the first to comment

Ecology Population

  1. 1. Ecology
  2. 2. Ecology is… <ul><li>The study of the interactions between and among biotic and abiotic factors in the biosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Predicting the effects of changes in ecosystems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Ecology’s Current Major Concerns <ul><li>Climate changes </li></ul><ul><li>Extinctions </li></ul><ul><li>Endangered Species </li></ul><ul><li>Ozone layer </li></ul>
  4. 4. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Biosphere- all organisms on Earth and the abiotic factors that affect them </li></ul><ul><li>Ecosystem- all the organisims and abiotic factors in a defined area </li></ul>
  5. 5. Levels of Organization <ul><li>Community- all of the living organisms in a defined area </li></ul><ul><li>Population- a group of one species in a community </li></ul><ul><li>Organism- a living individual in a population </li></ul>
  6. 6. Interdependence of Systems <ul><li>Many different factors affect any one organism </li></ul><ul><li>Any changes can be both helpful and harmful </li></ul>
  7. 7. Changes in Systems <ul><li>Abiotic factors- non-living conditions that affect living individuals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rainfall, pH, Temperature </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biotic Factors- living organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Predation, Parasites, Decomposition Rates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Range of Tolerance- the extent to which an organism can withstand a particular factor </li></ul>
  8. 8. Responses to Changes <ul><li>Acclimation- adjustment of an individuals zone of tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Homeostasis- control of internal conditions despite external changes </li></ul><ul><li>Dormancy- escape from difficult conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Resource availability- an environment’s ability to meet a community’s </li></ul>
  9. 9. Niches <ul><li>An organism's way of life </li></ul><ul><li>Fundamental Niche- the area in which an organism could potentially live </li></ul><ul><li>Realized Niche- the area that an organism actually lives in </li></ul>
  10. 10. Types of Niches <ul><li>Generalists- live in a broad niche, can live in most places </li></ul><ul><li>Specialist- live in a narrow niche, need very specific things to function in an area </li></ul>
  11. 11. Population <ul><li>Population- group of organisms of the same species in a defined area </li></ul><ul><li>Population Density- the number in a population divided by the area it lives in </li></ul><ul><li>Population Dispersal-Where a population lives </li></ul>
  12. 12. Population Regulation <ul><li>Density Dependent Factors- resource limitations </li></ul><ul><li>Density Independent Factors- weather fluctuations, fires </li></ul><ul><li>Small population problems- inbreeding, Density dependent factors, separation </li></ul>
  13. 13. Patterns of Mortality <ul><li>Survivorship Curves show the probability of an individual surviving to that age </li></ul>
  14. 14. Population Dynamics <ul><li>Birthrate-Mortality Rate = growth rate </li></ul><ul><li>Age Structure- number of individuals in ranges of the population </li></ul><ul><li>Life expectancy- average age at death </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration- movement of individuals into a population </li></ul><ul><li>Emigration- movement of individuals out of a population </li></ul>
  15. 15. Population Measurement <ul><li>Can be difficult to determine </li></ul><ul><li>Numbers come from measuring four aspects of the population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Births +Immigration)-(Deaths +Emigration) </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Types of Growth
  17. 17. Human Population <ul><li>Overextended the carrying capacity for our species </li></ul><ul><li>Several things helped us do this </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hunter/Gatherer  Agriculture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simple tools  Current Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Developed countries show slower growth than developing countries </li></ul>

×