Immunizations Immunizations help protect you or your child from disease. They also help reduce the spread of disease to others and prevent epidemics. Most are given as shots. They are sometimes called vaccines, or vaccinations
How Immunizations Work when you get a vaccine, you get a tiny amount of a weakened or dead form of the organism that causes the disease. This amount is not enough to give you the actual disease. But it is enough to cause your immune system to make antibodies that can recognize and attack the organism if you are ever exposed to it.
What Diseases Can BePrevented by Immunizations Bacterial meningitis. Chickenpox. Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (also known as whooping cough). Flu (influenza). This vaccine is not given to children younger than 6 months. Haemophilus influenzae type b disease, or Hib disease. Hepatitis A. Hepatitis B. Human papillomavirus (HPV). Measles, mumps, and rubella. Pneumococcal disease. Polio. Rotavirus
Tuberculosis Latent TB. In this condition, you have a TB infection, but the bacteria remain in your body in an inactive state and cause no symptoms. Latent TB, also called inactive TB or TB infection, isnt contagious. Active TB. This condition makes you sick and can spread to others. It can occur in the first few weeks after infection with the TB bacteria, or it might occur years later. Most people infected with TB germs never develop active TB. Signs and symptoms of active TB include: Cough Unexplained weight loss Fatigue Fever Night sweats Chills Loss of appetite
Polio Polio is a contagious viral illness that in its most severe form causes paralysis, difficulty breathing and sometimes death. Symptoms Loss of reflexes Severe muscle aches or spasms Loose and floppy limbs (flaccid paralysis), often worse on one side of the body
Hepatitis B Hepatitis B is a serious liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). For some people, hepatitis B infection becomes chronic, leading to liver failure, liver cancer or cirrhosis — a condition that causes permanent scarring of the liver. Symptoms Abdominal pain Dark urine Fever Joint pain Loss of appetite Nausea and vomiting Weakness and fatigue Yellowing of your skin and the whites of your eyes (jaundice) Some people never develop symptoms
Diphtheria Diphtheria (dif-THEER-e-uh) is a serious bacterial infection usually affecting the mucous membranes of your nose and throat. Diphtheria typically causes a sore throat, fever, swollen glands and weakness. But the hallmark sign is a sheet of thick, gray material covering the back of your throat. This material can block your windpipe so that you have to struggle for breath.
Pertussis Whooping cough (pertussis) is a highly contagious respiratory tract infection. In advanced stages, its marked a severe, hacking cough followed by a high-pitched intake of breath that sounds like "whoop.“ Once you become infected with whooping cough, it takes three to 12 days for signs and symptoms to appear. Theyre usually mild at first and resemble those of a common cold: Runny nose Nasal congestion Sneezing Red, watery eyes A mild fever Dry cough After a week or two, signs and symptoms worsen. Severe and prolonged coughing attacks may: Bring up thick phlegm Provoke vomiting Result in a red or blue face Cause extreme fatigue End with a high-pitched "whoop" sound during the next breath of air
Tetanus Tetanus is a serious bacterial disease that affects your nervous system, leading to painful muscle contractions, particularly of your jaw and neck muscles. Tetanus can interfere with your ability to breathe and, ultimately, threaten your life. Tetanus is commonly known as "lockjaw.“ Symptoms Spasms and stiffness in your jaw muscles Stiffness of your neck muscles Difficulty swallowing Stiffness of your abdominal muscles Painful body spasms, lasting for several minutes, typically triggered by minor occurrences, such as a draft, loud noise, physical touch or light
Measles Measles is a childhood infection caused by a virus. Once quite common, measles can now be prevented with a vaccine. Signs and symptoms of measles include cough, runny nose, inflamed eyes, sore throat, fever and a red, blotchy skin rash Also called rubeola, measles can be serious and even fatal for small children. While death rates have been falling worldwide as more children receive the measles vaccine, the disease still kills several hundred thousand people a year, most under the age of 5.
Important Information aboutVaccines Children must get all recommended vaccinations according to scheduled times or they may be ineffective Immunizations protect against several dangerous diseases. A child who is not immunized is more likely to suffer illness, become permanently disabled or become under-nourished and die. It is safe to immunize a child who has a minor illness, a disability or who is malnourished All pregnant women need to be protected against tetanus. A new or sterile needle and syringe must be used for every person being immunized. People should insist on this.