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Creative Commons in practice:
Understanding CC, and applying and using
CC licences
Professor Anne Fitzgerald
Creative Comm...
Photographs, paintings,
images, sculptures…
(artistic works)

Generic 2.0 ‘take the old machine’ by Angelo González, http:...
Music, sound recordings,
radio broadcasts…
Generic 2.0

‘I Giovani e la Musica’ by Super UbO, http://www.flickr.com/photos...
Films, Videos, Theatre,
TV broadcasts…
(cinematograph films, dramatical works, television broadcasts)
Generic 2.0 ‘Apollo ...
Blogs, books, articles, essays…
(literary works, published editions of works)

Generic 2.0

‘_MG_0318’ by Zitona, http://w...
Compilations of data…

("literary work" includes: … a table, or compilation , expressed in words, figures or symbols – s 1...
Copyright as a bundle of
exclusive rights
• For example, for literary, dramatic and musical
works the rights are to:
•
•
•...
Copyright in the digital environment
• When we use digital technology, we automatically
reproduce content and thereby ente...
Copyright
In a nutshell…
• copyright automatically applies to a lot of material
• the exclusive rights of the copyright ow...
Unless the law provides otherwise…

Fair dealing
research or study (s40)
criticism or review (s41)
parody or satire (s41A)...
Copyright
• General rule = You need permission/licence to
do anything within the scope of the copyright
owner’s rights (ec...
Copyright licensing –
traditional practice

©

all rights reserved

• “All rights reserved” (or, at least, most rights res...
©
all rights reserved
Creative Commons
Creative Commons
• a standardised system for licensing the use of
copyright materials
• a suite of 6 standardised licences...
Copyright licensing – with CC licences
• Based on copyright
• Only some rights reserved
• Relatively short, simplified, st...
In short, Creative Commons is ….
• A set of licences that are free for anyone to
use
• Based on copyright
• A copyright li...
Baseline permissions
• Fundamental baseline rights granted by all CC
licences:
– Reproduce
– Distribute
– Publicly perform...
Core Conditions
Attribution (BY) – attribute the author, and no false attribution This
applies to all CC licences

Non Com...
Licence combinations

© 2013 Anne Fitzgerald.
CC BY
• Core condition:
– Attribution (BY) – attribute the author, and no
false attribution
• Baseline Rights:

– Reproduc...
Human-readable summary
“Legal Code”
Machine-readable code

http://creativecommons.org/choose/
http://creativecommons.org/choose/
How to…

(1) Apply a CC licence to your
content
(2) Find CC licensed content
(3) Attribute CC licensed
content
(1) Application
a. Manually
b. Software licence injectors
c. Platform upload settings
Generic 2.0 ‘The Best Things in Life Are…’ by LASZLO ILYES, http://www.flickr.com/photos/laszlo-photo/437476999/
Generic 2.0 ‘Betamax’ by Steve Jurvetson, http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/489257240/
Manually

http://creativecommons.org.au/
http://creativecommons.org/choose/
Wordpress example
Software

http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/search.aspx?q=creative%20commons
http://extensions.services.openoffice.org/project/ccooo
Platform

http://www.flickr.com/photos/upload/
And many more…
Default
Example Work by Australian Government is licensed under
a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License.
In e...
Summary of licence terms
Example Work by Australian Government is licensed under
a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Austra...
Unless otherwise specified…
Unless otherwise specified, material on this website is licensed by
Australian Government unde...
(2) Search
Image, sound and video
260 million of 8 billion photos
licensed under CC
http://www.flickr.com/creativecommons/
•

Creative Commons, The Power of Open, available at http://thepowerofopen.org/,
licensed under CC BY, http://creativecomm...
Generic 2.0 ‘Self-conscious robot’ by NASARobonaut (Kris Kehe), http://www.flickr.com/photos/nasarobonaut/5161876882/
Photos
• Flickr
– Browse
http://www.flickr.com/creativecommons/
– Advanced search
http://www.flickr.com/search/advanced/

...
http://www.flickr.com/search/advanced/
http://www.flickr.com/search/advanced/
Search Filters
• Think about future/downstream uses of your
work – you may be restricted with what you
can do with it

• E...
http://www.zoo-m.com/flickr-storm/
http://www.zoo-m.com/flickr-storm/
http://labs.ideeinc.com/multicolr/
http://labs.ideeinc.com/multicolr/
http://labs.ideeinc.com/multicolr/
Music
• SoundCloud
– Browse: http://soundcloud.com/creativecommons
– Search: http://soundcloud.com/tracks/search

• Free S...
http://soundcloud.com/tracks/search - select ‘Show advanced search options’
• CC BY-NC-SA

http://magnatune.com/
http://magnatune.com/artists/albums/tokyo-tokyoinst/
• 50% to artists

https://magnatune.com/artists/license/project
http://wiki.creativecommons.org/CCPlus
Video
• YouTube
• Vimeo

Generic 2.0 ‘Afghan Air Force and Afghan National Army Combine Combat Training Exercises’ by isaf...
http://www.youtube.com/editor
http://vimeo.com/search
Cross platform search
• CC Search
• Google
• Let’s CC by CC Korea
http://search.creativecommons.org/
http://www.google.ca/advanced_search
 Open Source project by

CC Korea
 Access to searches
across Flickr, Jamendo,
ccMixter, Youtube and
Slideshare

http://e...
http://eng.letscc.net/
http://eng.letscc.net/
(3) Attribution
Attribution
• Title of Work
• Creator’s Name or Other Attribution Parties
• Source of Work (URL/hyperlink)
• Licence (URL/...
Event flyer
Attribution
• Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell
<http://www.flickr.com/photos/35468148654@N01/
509789392> available...
Title
• Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell
<http://www.flickr.com/photos/35468148654@N01/
509789392> available under...
Author’s name
• Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell
<http://www.flickr.com/photos/35468148654@N01/
509789392> availab...
Source of work
• Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell
<http://www.flickr.com/photos/35468148654@N01/
509789392> availa...
Licence
• Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell
<http://www.flickr.com/photos/35468148654@N01/
509789392> available und...
Changes
• Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell
<http://www.flickr.com/photos/35468148654@N01/
509789392> available und...
Licensor
• Tell people how you want to be attributed
Licensing statement unclear
– http://training.gov.au/Home/Copyright - no link
to actual CC BY-ND licence, links to CC Aust...
Licensee
• “In a manner reasonable to the medium you are
using”

• How would you wish to be attributed?
http://www.zoo-m.com/flickr-storm/
Video & Audio
• http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlhlXt1W
ZoI
http://www.mosman.nsw.gov.au/events/2704/living-mosman-photography-competition
Wikipedia
Removal of attribution
• ‘You must, to the extent practicable, remove
the above attribution from any Collection or
Derivat...
• More examples of how CC is being used:
• http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Case_Studies
• Other resources (fact sheets etc...
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)
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Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)

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Presentation by Professor Anne Fitzgerald to the Griffith University Film School, South Bank, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, on 26 September 2013. Presentation provides an overview of Creative Commons licences, and explains how to apply CC licences and how to attribute CC-licensed material

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Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences (26 September 2013)

  1. 1. Creative Commons in practice: Understanding CC, and applying and using CC licences Professor Anne Fitzgerald Creative Commons Australia Queensland University of Technology Griffith University Film School South Bank, Brisbane 26 September 2013 © 2013 Anne Fitzgerald. This presentation is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 T Australia licence.
  2. 2. Photographs, paintings, images, sculptures… (artistic works) Generic 2.0 ‘take the old machine’ by Angelo González, http://www.flickr.com/photos/21251150@N04/5291456294
  3. 3. Music, sound recordings, radio broadcasts… Generic 2.0 ‘I Giovani e la Musica’ by Super UbO, http://www.flickr.com/photos/14443853@N07/5362778675
  4. 4. Films, Videos, Theatre, TV broadcasts… (cinematograph films, dramatical works, television broadcasts) Generic 2.0 ‘Apollo 11 Video Restoration Press Conference / Newseum’ by NASA Goddard Space Flight Centre, http://www.flickr.com/photos/24662369@N07/3726614425
  5. 5. Blogs, books, articles, essays… (literary works, published editions of works) Generic 2.0 ‘_MG_0318’ by Zitona, http://www.flickr.com/photos/zitona/5021203226/
  6. 6. Compilations of data… ("literary work" includes: … a table, or compilation , expressed in words, figures or symbols – s 10, Copyright Act 1968) ) Generic 2.0 ‘_MG_0318’ by Zitona, http://www.flickr.com/photos/zitona/5021203226/
  7. 7. Copyright as a bundle of exclusive rights • For example, for literary, dramatic and musical works the rights are to: • • • • reproduce in material form publish publicly perform communicate to the public in electronic form – transmit; – make available • make an adaptation or translation • control rental, where work is a computer program or is reproduced in a sound recording: s 31(1) © 2013 Anne Fitzgerald..
  8. 8. Copyright in the digital environment • When we use digital technology, we automatically reproduce content and thereby enter the copyright “zone”, – because digital technology needs to reproduce material so it can be played, run or even viewed. – Copyright has been further extended to protect • Broader range of subject matter – e.g. computer programs • Broader range of rights – e.g. right to communicate electronically to the public • Technological Protection Measures (TPMs) (eg encryption/anticopying devices) applied to control access or copying; • Electronic Rights Management Information (ERMI) © 2013 Anne Fitzgerald..
  9. 9. Copyright In a nutshell… • copyright automatically applies to a lot of material • the exclusive rights of the copyright owner are very broad • remedies for infringement are strong and enforcement is effective (through civil and criminal actions) • exceptions are limited (e.g. fair dealing) available Which means that..... • the consequences of infringement will deter use/reuse unless it is clear that the use is permitted © 2013 Anne Fitzgerald..
  10. 10. Unless the law provides otherwise… Fair dealing research or study (s40) criticism or review (s41) parody or satire (s41A) reporting of news (s42) legal advice (s43) Generic 2.0 That time of year again… by Etwood, http://flickr.com/photos/etwood/231364920
  11. 11. Copyright • General rule = You need permission/licence to do anything within the scope of the copyright owner’s rights (economic or moral rights) unless the law provides otherwise (eg where there is an exception permitting that use) • express permission to use should be obtained – importance of clear statement of permitted uses – any other rights/obligations (other than copyright) also need to be considered © 2013 Anne Fitzgerald..
  12. 12. Copyright licensing – traditional practice © all rights reserved • “All rights reserved” (or, at least, most rights reserved) • Use requires prior permission from the copyright owner unless within an exception to owner’s rights (e.g. fair dealing) under the Copyright Act • Negotiating terms is cumbersome, time consuming, expensive – inefficiency means high transaction costs • Has led to multiple non-standard licences • Problem of “orphan” works – no identifiable copyright owner from whom permission may be obtained • Arose from pre-internet era - not geared to the immediate and global nature of the internet © 2013 Anne Fitzgerald.
  13. 13. © all rights reserved
  14. 14. Creative Commons
  15. 15. Creative Commons • a standardised system for licensing the use of copyright materials • a suite of 6 standardised licences – available in 3 forms: plain english (summary); legal code and machine-readable code • Each licence grants baseline permissions to users to use copyright material – that is, to copy, publish, distribute in digital form, publicly perform – whether the whole or a substantial part of it • on specified, standardised core conditions © 2013 Anne Fitzgerald..
  16. 16. Copyright licensing – with CC licences • Based on copyright • Only some rights reserved • Relatively short, simplified, standardised licences which provide permission in advance • BUT – do not cover all possible kinds of permissions – other kinds of permissions will have to be negotiated – Do not contain detailed provisions covering all relevant aspects of the law – Must be read in the context of copyright law (legislation & judgments) and often other relevant bodies of law (e.g. private international law – “jurisdictional” issues and applicable law) – Also have to be read in context of other relevant “information” laws notably privacy (data protection), security, and interception of communications (telecommunications) - See Chang v. Virgin Mobile USA, LLC, 2009 WL 111570 (N.D.Tex. January 16, 2009) © 2013 Anne Fitzgerald..
  17. 17. In short, Creative Commons is …. • A set of licences that are free for anyone to use • Based on copyright • A copyright licence (permission to use) • A way of managing copyright, particularly for material distributed online © 2013 Anne Fitzgerald..
  18. 18. Baseline permissions • Fundamental baseline rights granted by all CC licences: – Reproduce – Distribute – Publicly perform • Additional baseline permission granted in four of the six CC licences to create derivative works and – Reproduce – Distribute – Publicly perform the derivative work © 2013 Anne Fitzgerald.
  19. 19. Core Conditions Attribution (BY) – attribute the author, and no false attribution This applies to all CC licences Non Commercial (NC) – no “commercial use” (as defined) No Derivatives (ND) – no changes allowed to original work Share Alike (SA) – changes allowed, but new work is to be distributed under the same licence as the original work * ND and SA cannot be used together © 2013 Anne Fitzgerald..
  20. 20. Licence combinations © 2013 Anne Fitzgerald.
  21. 21. CC BY • Core condition: – Attribution (BY) – attribute the author, and no false attribution • Baseline Rights: – Reproduce – Distribute – Publicly perform – Create derivative works (and reproduce, distribute and publicly perform the derivative work) © 2013 Anne Fitzgerald..
  22. 22. Human-readable summary
  23. 23. “Legal Code”
  24. 24. Machine-readable code http://creativecommons.org/choose/
  25. 25. http://creativecommons.org/choose/
  26. 26. How to… (1) Apply a CC licence to your content (2) Find CC licensed content (3) Attribute CC licensed content
  27. 27. (1) Application a. Manually b. Software licence injectors c. Platform upload settings
  28. 28. Generic 2.0 ‘The Best Things in Life Are…’ by LASZLO ILYES, http://www.flickr.com/photos/laszlo-photo/437476999/
  29. 29. Generic 2.0 ‘Betamax’ by Steve Jurvetson, http://www.flickr.com/photos/jurvetson/489257240/
  30. 30. Manually http://creativecommons.org.au/
  31. 31. http://creativecommons.org/choose/
  32. 32. Wordpress example
  33. 33. Software http://www.microsoft.com/en-us/download/search.aspx?q=creative%20commons
  34. 34. http://extensions.services.openoffice.org/project/ccooo
  35. 35. Platform http://www.flickr.com/photos/upload/
  36. 36. And many more…
  37. 37. Default Example Work by Australian Government is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License. In essence, you are free to copy, distribute and adapt the work, as long as you attribute the work to Australian Government and abide by the other licence terms. The work should be attributed in the following way: © Australian Government 2010.
  38. 38. Summary of licence terms Example Work by Australian Government is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License. In essence, you are free to copy, distribute and adapt the work, as long as you attribute the work to Australian Government and abide by the other licence terms. The work should be attributed in the following way: © Australian Government 2010.
  39. 39. Unless otherwise specified… Unless otherwise specified, material on this website is licensed by Australian Government under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License. In essence, you are free to copy, distribute and adapt the material, as long as you attribute the work to Australian Government and abide by the other licence terms. Australian Government material should be attributed in the following way: © Australian Government 2010.
  40. 40. (2) Search Image, sound and video
  41. 41. 260 million of 8 billion photos licensed under CC http://www.flickr.com/creativecommons/
  42. 42. • Creative Commons, The Power of Open, available at http://thepowerofopen.org/, licensed under CC BY, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/.
  43. 43. Generic 2.0 ‘Self-conscious robot’ by NASARobonaut (Kris Kehe), http://www.flickr.com/photos/nasarobonaut/5161876882/
  44. 44. Photos • Flickr – Browse http://www.flickr.com/creativecommons/ – Advanced search http://www.flickr.com/search/advanced/ • Flickr-Storm – http://www.zoo-m.com/flickr-storm/ • Idée Inc. Multicolr Search Lab – http://labs.ideeinc.com/multicolr/ Generic 2.0 ‘Everyone needs a getaway’ by kennymatic (Kenny Louie), http://www.flickr.com/photos/99472898@N00/3875936992
  45. 45. http://www.flickr.com/search/advanced/
  46. 46. http://www.flickr.com/search/advanced/
  47. 47. Search Filters • Think about future/downstream uses of your work – you may be restricted with what you can do with it • E.g. incorporate a CC BY-NC photo into your poster – but want to use it to advertise your business?
  48. 48. http://www.zoo-m.com/flickr-storm/
  49. 49. http://www.zoo-m.com/flickr-storm/
  50. 50. http://labs.ideeinc.com/multicolr/
  51. 51. http://labs.ideeinc.com/multicolr/
  52. 52. http://labs.ideeinc.com/multicolr/
  53. 53. Music • SoundCloud – Browse: http://soundcloud.com/creativecommons – Search: http://soundcloud.com/tracks/search • Free Sound Archive • Magnatune • Jamendo Generic 2.0 ‘Elvis!’ by Kevin Dooley, http://www.flickr.com/photos/12836528@N00/4464019859
  54. 54. http://soundcloud.com/tracks/search - select ‘Show advanced search options’
  55. 55. • CC BY-NC-SA http://magnatune.com/
  56. 56. http://magnatune.com/artists/albums/tokyo-tokyoinst/
  57. 57. • 50% to artists https://magnatune.com/artists/license/project
  58. 58. http://wiki.creativecommons.org/CCPlus
  59. 59. Video • YouTube • Vimeo Generic 2.0 ‘Afghan Air Force and Afghan National Army Combine Combat Training Exercises’ by isafmedia , http://www.flickr.com/photos/29456680@N06/5413482056
  60. 60. http://www.youtube.com/editor
  61. 61. http://vimeo.com/search
  62. 62. Cross platform search • CC Search • Google • Let’s CC by CC Korea
  63. 63. http://search.creativecommons.org/
  64. 64. http://www.google.ca/advanced_search
  65. 65.  Open Source project by CC Korea  Access to searches across Flickr, Jamendo, ccMixter, Youtube and Slideshare http://eng.letscc.net/
  66. 66. http://eng.letscc.net/
  67. 67. http://eng.letscc.net/
  68. 68. (3) Attribution
  69. 69. Attribution • Title of Work • Creator’s Name or Other Attribution Parties • Source of Work (URL/hyperlink) • Licence (URL/hyperlink) • Changes to the source work (if any)
  70. 70. Event flyer
  71. 71. Attribution • Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell <http://www.flickr.com/photos/35468148654@N01/ 509789392> available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed. en>.
  72. 72. Title • Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell <http://www.flickr.com/photos/35468148654@N01/ 509789392> available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed. en>.
  73. 73. Author’s name • Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell <http://www.flickr.com/photos/35468148654@N01/ 509789392> available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed. en>.
  74. 74. Source of work • Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell <http://www.flickr.com/photos/35468148654@N01/ 509789392> available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed. en>.
  75. 75. Licence • Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell <http://www.flickr.com/photos/35468148654@N01/ 509789392> available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed. en>.
  76. 76. Changes • Image: crop of SparkFun by Jared Tarbell <http://www.flickr.com/photos/35468148654@N01/ 509789392> available under Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) 2.0 Generic licence <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0/deed. en>.
  77. 77. Licensor • Tell people how you want to be attributed
  78. 78. Licensing statement unclear – http://training.gov.au/Home/Copyright - no link to actual CC BY-ND licence, links to CC Australia homepage
  79. 79. Licensee • “In a manner reasonable to the medium you are using” • How would you wish to be attributed?
  80. 80. http://www.zoo-m.com/flickr-storm/
  81. 81. Video & Audio • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlhlXt1W ZoI
  82. 82. http://www.mosman.nsw.gov.au/events/2704/living-mosman-photography-competition
  83. 83. Wikipedia
  84. 84. Removal of attribution • ‘You must, to the extent practicable, remove the above attribution from any Collection or Derivative Work if requested to do so by the Licensor or Original Author.’
  85. 85. • More examples of how CC is being used: • http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Case_Studies • Other resources (fact sheets etc.): http://wiki.creativecommons.org/Documentation • On business models, see further Cheryl Foong, “Sharing with Creative Commons: a business model for content creators” (2010) Platform: Journal of Media and Communication 64, available at http://eprints.qut.edu.au/40800/ • My publications are available at http://eprints.qut.edu.au/view/person/Foong,_Cheryl.html) This slideset is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Australia License.

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