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Presentation at a Virtual Conference: Effects of U.S. Federal Policies on
Electric Vehicle Demand and Charging Infrastructure
ICEX España Exportación e Inversiones
November 16, 2023
David H. Austin
Microeconomic Studies Division
Projecting the Effects of U.S. Federal
Policies on Electric Vehicle Demand
and the Supply of Charging Stations
For information about the conference, see https://tinyurl.com/4jdnjvud. For details about the analysis in this presentation, see David Austin, Modeling the Demand for Electric Vehicles
and the Supply of Charging Stations in the United States, Working Paper 2023-06 (Congressional Budget Office, September 2023), www.cbo.gov/publication/58964.
1
Two recent federal policies encourage the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs):
▪ The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA; Public Law 117-58) of 2021
provides up to $7.5 billion in subsidies for new EV charging stations.
▪ The 2022 reconciliation act (P.L. 117-169) provides tax credits of up to $7,500 per
qualifying EV for qualifying buyers.
CBO’s projections show the likely effects of those policies on EV demand and EV
charger supply.
Introduction
2
▪ Modeling the Demand for EVs
▪ Modeling the Supply of EV Charging Stations
▪ Two Federal Policies
▪ Projected Policy Effects
Outline
3
Modeling the Demand for EVs
4
Demand for EVs is modeled as reflecting an implicit consumer utility function:
𝑢𝑖,𝑗,𝑡 = 𝛼𝑗 + 𝑙𝑛 𝑝𝑗,𝑡 ∙ 𝛽𝑝 + 𝑙𝑛 Τ
𝐿2𝑡 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝐸𝑉𝑡−1 ∙ 𝛽𝐿2 + 𝑙𝑛 Τ
𝐿3𝑡 𝐻𝑤𝑦𝑀𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠 ∙ 𝛽𝐿3 + 𝜓𝑡 + 𝜖𝑖,𝑗,𝑡
i, j, t Consumer i, vehicle type j (car, light truck), time period t
b Elasticities from the literature: bp ~N(-2, 0.25), bL2 = bL3 ~N(0.4,0.01)
pj,t Expected ownership cost of a representative new EV relative to a
comparable internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV)
L2/TotEVt-1 Ratio of slow L2 chargers to the size of the EV fleet in the
previous period
L3/HwyMiles Number of rapid (“DC fast”) L3 chargers per mile of highway
yt Attribute drift: a random walk capturing the demand effect of
unobserved evolution in vehicle attributes and consumer
preferences for EVs versus ICEVs; the model calibration parameter
ei,j,t Mean-zero error term
Electric vehicles include plug-in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles.
Factors That Influence EV Demand
5
Utility-maximizing behavior implies that EV market share is a logistic function
of those determinants:
𝐸𝑉𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑗,𝑡 =
𝑒 𝛼𝑗+𝑋𝑡𝛽𝑗+𝜓𝑡
1 + 𝑒 𝛼𝑗+𝑋𝑡𝛽𝑗+𝜓𝑡
L3 chargers have about twice the effect of L2 chargers on EV sales because:
𝑙𝑛 Τ
𝑇𝑜𝑡𝐸𝑉 𝐻𝑤𝑦𝑀𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠 = 𝑙𝑛(6.7) = 1.9
That equation arises from how the effects of L2 and L3 charger types are
modeled, given the current size of the domestic EV fleet.
EV Market Share
6
EIA = Energy Information Administration. The 2022 reconciliation act is also known as the Inflation Reduction Act.
Projected EV Market Shares Under Various Growth Scenarios
The model can be calibrated,
via adjustments to attribute drift
yt, to project a range of future
EV shares.
A base-case analysis uses the
historic-growth scenario, which
reflects a quadratic curve fit to
EV shares from 2011 to 2022.
The projected EV share in
2030 is 23 percent.
The slow-growth scenario,
reflecting a straight line fit to
EV shares from 2016 to 2022,
projects an EV share of
15 percent in 2030.
The rapid-growth scenario is
symmetrical to the slow-growth
scenario in 2030 and projects
an EV share of 33 percent in
2030.
7
Modeling the Supply of
EV Charging Stations
8
Supply is modeled as reflecting profit-maximizing behavior by suppliers,
with free entry and exit:
𝑙𝑛 𝐿𝑘,𝑡 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝛿𝑘 + 𝛾1 ⋅ 𝑙𝑛 𝐸𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑐𝑘𝑡 − 𝛾2 ⋅ 𝑙𝑛 𝛥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑘,𝑡 , 𝜎𝑣 ⋅ 𝑙𝑛 𝐿𝑘,𝑡−1
Lk, k ∈ {2, 3} Types of chargers, L2 or L3
𝛿𝑘 Intercept terms (intersections of ln(Lk,t) with y axes)
γ1 and γ2 Supply elasticities with respect to the size of the EV fleet and
anticipated decreases in cost
EVstockt Registered EVs in year t: initial EV fleet size + (salest) – (scrappaget)
𝛥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑘,𝑡 Expected decrease in the cost of a charger over the next year
𝜎𝑣 Average one-year survival rate of a charger of age n
Factors That Influence the Supply of EV Chargers
9
Two Federal Policies
10
IIJA provides up to $6.25 billion in subsidies for EV chargers built along highways
and up to $1.25 billion in subsidies for community-based EV chargers.
Subsidies cover 80 percent of the private cost to build and install a new EV
charger:
▪ An L2 charger with two ports costs $5,000, declining by 2 percent per year.
▪ An L3 charger with two ports costs $100,000, declining by 2 percent per year.
Federal Charger Subsidies
11
Used EVs qualify for up to $4,000 in federal EV tax credits (not modeled).
▪ New EVs qualify for up to $7,500 per vehicle in federal EV tax credits.
▪ The credits are available through 2032.
– There is no limit on the total number of credits that may be claimed, but eligibility
restrictions increase in stringency over time.
– There are restrictions on the buyer’s income, the vehicle price, the location of
battery assembly, and the source of the critical minerals in the batteries.
▪ Leasing an EV qualifies the lessor for the credit.
– The value of those credits is modeled as being partially passed along to lessees.
▪ Automakers may share advanced manufacturing production (section 45X) tax
credits with EV buyers.
Federal EV Tax Credits
12
Projected Policy Effects
13
EV = electric vehicle; IIJA = Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act.
Median Projected Supply of L3 (“DC Fast”) Charging Stations
With the IIJA subsidies alone,
the number of L3 charging
stations would be projected to
exceed 70,000 by 2041,
versus 76,500 with both the
subsidies and EV tax credits.
The primary effect of the IIJA
subsidies is to speed up the
adoption of EVs.
Growth in the EV fleet due to
the EV tax credits causes a
more sustained increase in
the L3 charger network.
A similar, less pronounced
pattern occurs with L2
chargers.
14
EV = electric vehicle; IIJA = Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act. Inframarginal credits are credits claimed by consumers who would have purchased an EV anyway.
Median Projected Market Share of New Light-Duty EVs
The median projected market
share is 42 percent in 2032 with
the EV tax credits and charger
subsidies (falling to 36 percent in
2033 after the tax-credit program
ends).
The median projected share is
29 percent in 2032 (32 percent in
2033) with neither policy in place.
The difference suggests that
many inframarginal credits will be
claimed, though restrictions on
buyers’ income and vehicle price
will limit such claiming.
Some buyers who do not qualify
will claim a credit by leasing EVs.
(Projected results were modeled
with half of such buyers leasing.)
15
EV = electric vehicle; IIJA = Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act.
Projected Market Shares of New EVs: Likely Range
Each simulation is repeated
5,000 times.
In CBO’s usage, the “likely
range” of future values that
the EV share could take is
given by projections from
the 17th percentile to the
83rd percentile.
Two-thirds of the simulated
outcomes lie within the
likely range.
In 2033, after the tax-credit
program ends, the EV
share is projected to drop.
16
For more information about the other projections, see the reference list at the end of the presentation. EV = electric vehicle.
Comparing CBO’s and Other Projections of EV Market Share
17
EV = electric vehicle; IIJA = Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act.
Median Projected Size of the Domestic EV Fleet for
Vehicles of All Ages
By 2032, the number of
registered EVs is projected
to reach 40 million under the
EV tax credits and charger
subsidies.
Without those policies, the
EV fleet size would not
reach 40 million until three
years later.
The policies also have a
sustained effect: The median
projected EV fleet size
surpasses 145 million in
2050, about two years
before the no-policy
projection reaches that level.
Currently, there are about
300 million light-duty
vehicles in the United
States.
18
Projected EV Market Share Is Sensitive to the Choice of Scenario
The median peak projected
EV share in 2032 (when
the EV tax credits are still
available) depends on the
scenario:
Rapid-growth scenario:
54 percent
Historic-growth scenario:
42 percent
Slow-growth scenario:
27 percent
19
Projected EV Market Share Is Also Sensitive to Elasticities Used
For example, for the
price elasticity of demand:
Base-case simulations use an
elasticity of −2 for EV demand
with respect to the relative
ownership costs of EVs versus
ICEVs.
Upper- and lower-sensitivity
case simulations use
elasticities of −2.5 and −1.5,
respectively, changing how EV
prices would affect EV sales.
In 2032, the median projected
EV shares are 53 percent and
32 percent, respectively,
versus 42 percent in the base
case.
20
For EPA’s estimated two-thirds EV share, see https://tinyurl.com/y4cbtd2b. EV = electric vehicle; IIJA = Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act.
Illustrative Pathway of EV Market Share Under Proposed
EPA Standards With IIJA Subsidies and EV Tax Credits
The Environmental Protection
Agency (EPA) has proposed
tailpipe emissions standards for
model years 2027 to 2032.
The illustrative pathway uses
EPA’s estimate that automakers
could comply with proposed
standards for 2032 if two-thirds of
their new vehicles sold were EVs.
That would be a nearly 60 percent
increase over the median
projected EV share under the IIJA
and EV tax-credit policies alone.
It would probably increase the
number of tax credits claimed by a
similar percentage.
21
Projections from the following sources are included in the figure on slide 16:
Bloomberg: See Colin McKerracher et al., “Electric Vehicle Outlook 2023,” BloombergNEF
(June 2023), https://about.bnef.com/electric-vehicle-outlook.
Cole et al.: See Cassandra Cole et al., “Policies for Electrifying the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet in
the United States,” AEA Papers and Proceedings, vol. 113 (American Economic Association,
May 2023), pp. 316–322, https://tinyurl.com/fvhan8n5.
EIA: See Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2023 (March 2023),
https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo.
Energy Innovation: See Sara Baldwin and Robbie Orvis, Implementing the Inflation Reduction
Act: A Roadmap for Federal and State Transportation Policy (Energy Innovation, October 2022),
https://tinyurl.com/35vn79vp (PDF).
Goldman Sachs: See Goldman Sachs, “The U.S. Is Poised for an Energy Revolution” (April 17,
2023), https://tinyurl.com/mr3bsuzh.
ICCT/EI: See Peter Slowik et al., Analyzing the Impact of the Inflation Reduction Act on Electric
Vehicle Uptake in the United States (International Council on Clean Transportation, 2023),
https://tinyurl.com/3pw3erjt.
Sources of Other Projections of EV Market Share
22
REPEAT: See Jesse D. Jenkins et al., “Preview: Final REPEAT Project Findings on the Emissions
Impacts of the Inflation Reduction Act and Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act,” REPEAT: Rapid
Energy Policy Evaluation and Analysis Toolkit (Princeton University Zero Lab, April 2023),
https://repeatproject.org/docs/REPEAT_2023_Preview.pdf.
Rhodium: See John Larsen et al., A Turning Point for U.S. Climate Progress: Assessing the Climate
and Clean Energy Provisions in the Inflation Reduction Act (Rhodium Group, August 2022),
https://tinyurl.com/3xn7dky6.
S&P (Global Mobility): See Stephanie Brinley, “EV Chargers: How Many Do We Need?” S&P Global
Mobility (blog entry, January 9, 2023), https://tinyurl.com/t4ku8tre.
USREGEN: See John Bistline, Neil R. Mehrotra, and Catherine Wolfram, “Economic Implications of the
Climate Provisions of the Inflation Reduction Act,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (Brookings,
forthcoming), https://tinyurl.com/mpdhhh7m.
Zhao et al.: See Alicia Zhao et al., An “All-In” Pathway to 2030: The Beyond 50 Scenario (University of
Maryland Center for Global Sustainability and America Is All In, November 2022),
https://tinyurl.com/bdfa5e7w (PDF).
Sources of Other Projections of EV Market Share (Continued)

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Projecting the Effects of U.S. Federal Policies on Electric Vehicle Demand and the Supply of Charging Stations

  • 1. Presentation at a Virtual Conference: Effects of U.S. Federal Policies on Electric Vehicle Demand and Charging Infrastructure ICEX España Exportación e Inversiones November 16, 2023 David H. Austin Microeconomic Studies Division Projecting the Effects of U.S. Federal Policies on Electric Vehicle Demand and the Supply of Charging Stations For information about the conference, see https://tinyurl.com/4jdnjvud. For details about the analysis in this presentation, see David Austin, Modeling the Demand for Electric Vehicles and the Supply of Charging Stations in the United States, Working Paper 2023-06 (Congressional Budget Office, September 2023), www.cbo.gov/publication/58964.
  • 2. 1 Two recent federal policies encourage the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs): ▪ The Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act (IIJA; Public Law 117-58) of 2021 provides up to $7.5 billion in subsidies for new EV charging stations. ▪ The 2022 reconciliation act (P.L. 117-169) provides tax credits of up to $7,500 per qualifying EV for qualifying buyers. CBO’s projections show the likely effects of those policies on EV demand and EV charger supply. Introduction
  • 3. 2 ▪ Modeling the Demand for EVs ▪ Modeling the Supply of EV Charging Stations ▪ Two Federal Policies ▪ Projected Policy Effects Outline
  • 5. 4 Demand for EVs is modeled as reflecting an implicit consumer utility function: 𝑢𝑖,𝑗,𝑡 = 𝛼𝑗 + 𝑙𝑛 𝑝𝑗,𝑡 ∙ 𝛽𝑝 + 𝑙𝑛 Τ 𝐿2𝑡 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝐸𝑉𝑡−1 ∙ 𝛽𝐿2 + 𝑙𝑛 Τ 𝐿3𝑡 𝐻𝑤𝑦𝑀𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠 ∙ 𝛽𝐿3 + 𝜓𝑡 + 𝜖𝑖,𝑗,𝑡 i, j, t Consumer i, vehicle type j (car, light truck), time period t b Elasticities from the literature: bp ~N(-2, 0.25), bL2 = bL3 ~N(0.4,0.01) pj,t Expected ownership cost of a representative new EV relative to a comparable internal combustion engine vehicle (ICEV) L2/TotEVt-1 Ratio of slow L2 chargers to the size of the EV fleet in the previous period L3/HwyMiles Number of rapid (“DC fast”) L3 chargers per mile of highway yt Attribute drift: a random walk capturing the demand effect of unobserved evolution in vehicle attributes and consumer preferences for EVs versus ICEVs; the model calibration parameter ei,j,t Mean-zero error term Electric vehicles include plug-in electric and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. Factors That Influence EV Demand
  • 6. 5 Utility-maximizing behavior implies that EV market share is a logistic function of those determinants: 𝐸𝑉𝑠ℎ𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑗,𝑡 = 𝑒 𝛼𝑗+𝑋𝑡𝛽𝑗+𝜓𝑡 1 + 𝑒 𝛼𝑗+𝑋𝑡𝛽𝑗+𝜓𝑡 L3 chargers have about twice the effect of L2 chargers on EV sales because: 𝑙𝑛 Τ 𝑇𝑜𝑡𝐸𝑉 𝐻𝑤𝑦𝑀𝑖𝑙𝑒𝑠 = 𝑙𝑛(6.7) = 1.9 That equation arises from how the effects of L2 and L3 charger types are modeled, given the current size of the domestic EV fleet. EV Market Share
  • 7. 6 EIA = Energy Information Administration. The 2022 reconciliation act is also known as the Inflation Reduction Act. Projected EV Market Shares Under Various Growth Scenarios The model can be calibrated, via adjustments to attribute drift yt, to project a range of future EV shares. A base-case analysis uses the historic-growth scenario, which reflects a quadratic curve fit to EV shares from 2011 to 2022. The projected EV share in 2030 is 23 percent. The slow-growth scenario, reflecting a straight line fit to EV shares from 2016 to 2022, projects an EV share of 15 percent in 2030. The rapid-growth scenario is symmetrical to the slow-growth scenario in 2030 and projects an EV share of 33 percent in 2030.
  • 8. 7 Modeling the Supply of EV Charging Stations
  • 9. 8 Supply is modeled as reflecting profit-maximizing behavior by suppliers, with free entry and exit: 𝑙𝑛 𝐿𝑘,𝑡 = 𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝛿𝑘 + 𝛾1 ⋅ 𝑙𝑛 𝐸𝑉𝑠𝑡𝑜𝑐𝑘𝑡 − 𝛾2 ⋅ 𝑙𝑛 𝛥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑘,𝑡 , 𝜎𝑣 ⋅ 𝑙𝑛 𝐿𝑘,𝑡−1 Lk, k ∈ {2, 3} Types of chargers, L2 or L3 𝛿𝑘 Intercept terms (intersections of ln(Lk,t) with y axes) γ1 and γ2 Supply elasticities with respect to the size of the EV fleet and anticipated decreases in cost EVstockt Registered EVs in year t: initial EV fleet size + (salest) – (scrappaget) 𝛥𝐶𝑜𝑠𝑡𝑘,𝑡 Expected decrease in the cost of a charger over the next year 𝜎𝑣 Average one-year survival rate of a charger of age n Factors That Influence the Supply of EV Chargers
  • 11. 10 IIJA provides up to $6.25 billion in subsidies for EV chargers built along highways and up to $1.25 billion in subsidies for community-based EV chargers. Subsidies cover 80 percent of the private cost to build and install a new EV charger: ▪ An L2 charger with two ports costs $5,000, declining by 2 percent per year. ▪ An L3 charger with two ports costs $100,000, declining by 2 percent per year. Federal Charger Subsidies
  • 12. 11 Used EVs qualify for up to $4,000 in federal EV tax credits (not modeled). ▪ New EVs qualify for up to $7,500 per vehicle in federal EV tax credits. ▪ The credits are available through 2032. – There is no limit on the total number of credits that may be claimed, but eligibility restrictions increase in stringency over time. – There are restrictions on the buyer’s income, the vehicle price, the location of battery assembly, and the source of the critical minerals in the batteries. ▪ Leasing an EV qualifies the lessor for the credit. – The value of those credits is modeled as being partially passed along to lessees. ▪ Automakers may share advanced manufacturing production (section 45X) tax credits with EV buyers. Federal EV Tax Credits
  • 14. 13 EV = electric vehicle; IIJA = Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act. Median Projected Supply of L3 (“DC Fast”) Charging Stations With the IIJA subsidies alone, the number of L3 charging stations would be projected to exceed 70,000 by 2041, versus 76,500 with both the subsidies and EV tax credits. The primary effect of the IIJA subsidies is to speed up the adoption of EVs. Growth in the EV fleet due to the EV tax credits causes a more sustained increase in the L3 charger network. A similar, less pronounced pattern occurs with L2 chargers.
  • 15. 14 EV = electric vehicle; IIJA = Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act. Inframarginal credits are credits claimed by consumers who would have purchased an EV anyway. Median Projected Market Share of New Light-Duty EVs The median projected market share is 42 percent in 2032 with the EV tax credits and charger subsidies (falling to 36 percent in 2033 after the tax-credit program ends). The median projected share is 29 percent in 2032 (32 percent in 2033) with neither policy in place. The difference suggests that many inframarginal credits will be claimed, though restrictions on buyers’ income and vehicle price will limit such claiming. Some buyers who do not qualify will claim a credit by leasing EVs. (Projected results were modeled with half of such buyers leasing.)
  • 16. 15 EV = electric vehicle; IIJA = Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act. Projected Market Shares of New EVs: Likely Range Each simulation is repeated 5,000 times. In CBO’s usage, the “likely range” of future values that the EV share could take is given by projections from the 17th percentile to the 83rd percentile. Two-thirds of the simulated outcomes lie within the likely range. In 2033, after the tax-credit program ends, the EV share is projected to drop.
  • 17. 16 For more information about the other projections, see the reference list at the end of the presentation. EV = electric vehicle. Comparing CBO’s and Other Projections of EV Market Share
  • 18. 17 EV = electric vehicle; IIJA = Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act. Median Projected Size of the Domestic EV Fleet for Vehicles of All Ages By 2032, the number of registered EVs is projected to reach 40 million under the EV tax credits and charger subsidies. Without those policies, the EV fleet size would not reach 40 million until three years later. The policies also have a sustained effect: The median projected EV fleet size surpasses 145 million in 2050, about two years before the no-policy projection reaches that level. Currently, there are about 300 million light-duty vehicles in the United States.
  • 19. 18 Projected EV Market Share Is Sensitive to the Choice of Scenario The median peak projected EV share in 2032 (when the EV tax credits are still available) depends on the scenario: Rapid-growth scenario: 54 percent Historic-growth scenario: 42 percent Slow-growth scenario: 27 percent
  • 20. 19 Projected EV Market Share Is Also Sensitive to Elasticities Used For example, for the price elasticity of demand: Base-case simulations use an elasticity of −2 for EV demand with respect to the relative ownership costs of EVs versus ICEVs. Upper- and lower-sensitivity case simulations use elasticities of −2.5 and −1.5, respectively, changing how EV prices would affect EV sales. In 2032, the median projected EV shares are 53 percent and 32 percent, respectively, versus 42 percent in the base case.
  • 21. 20 For EPA’s estimated two-thirds EV share, see https://tinyurl.com/y4cbtd2b. EV = electric vehicle; IIJA = Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act. Illustrative Pathway of EV Market Share Under Proposed EPA Standards With IIJA Subsidies and EV Tax Credits The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed tailpipe emissions standards for model years 2027 to 2032. The illustrative pathway uses EPA’s estimate that automakers could comply with proposed standards for 2032 if two-thirds of their new vehicles sold were EVs. That would be a nearly 60 percent increase over the median projected EV share under the IIJA and EV tax-credit policies alone. It would probably increase the number of tax credits claimed by a similar percentage.
  • 22. 21 Projections from the following sources are included in the figure on slide 16: Bloomberg: See Colin McKerracher et al., “Electric Vehicle Outlook 2023,” BloombergNEF (June 2023), https://about.bnef.com/electric-vehicle-outlook. Cole et al.: See Cassandra Cole et al., “Policies for Electrifying the Light-Duty Vehicle Fleet in the United States,” AEA Papers and Proceedings, vol. 113 (American Economic Association, May 2023), pp. 316–322, https://tinyurl.com/fvhan8n5. EIA: See Energy Information Administration, Annual Energy Outlook 2023 (March 2023), https://www.eia.gov/outlooks/aeo. Energy Innovation: See Sara Baldwin and Robbie Orvis, Implementing the Inflation Reduction Act: A Roadmap for Federal and State Transportation Policy (Energy Innovation, October 2022), https://tinyurl.com/35vn79vp (PDF). Goldman Sachs: See Goldman Sachs, “The U.S. Is Poised for an Energy Revolution” (April 17, 2023), https://tinyurl.com/mr3bsuzh. ICCT/EI: See Peter Slowik et al., Analyzing the Impact of the Inflation Reduction Act on Electric Vehicle Uptake in the United States (International Council on Clean Transportation, 2023), https://tinyurl.com/3pw3erjt. Sources of Other Projections of EV Market Share
  • 23. 22 REPEAT: See Jesse D. Jenkins et al., “Preview: Final REPEAT Project Findings on the Emissions Impacts of the Inflation Reduction Act and Infrastructure Investment and Jobs Act,” REPEAT: Rapid Energy Policy Evaluation and Analysis Toolkit (Princeton University Zero Lab, April 2023), https://repeatproject.org/docs/REPEAT_2023_Preview.pdf. Rhodium: See John Larsen et al., A Turning Point for U.S. Climate Progress: Assessing the Climate and Clean Energy Provisions in the Inflation Reduction Act (Rhodium Group, August 2022), https://tinyurl.com/3xn7dky6. S&P (Global Mobility): See Stephanie Brinley, “EV Chargers: How Many Do We Need?” S&P Global Mobility (blog entry, January 9, 2023), https://tinyurl.com/t4ku8tre. USREGEN: See John Bistline, Neil R. Mehrotra, and Catherine Wolfram, “Economic Implications of the Climate Provisions of the Inflation Reduction Act,” Brookings Papers on Economic Activity (Brookings, forthcoming), https://tinyurl.com/mpdhhh7m. Zhao et al.: See Alicia Zhao et al., An “All-In” Pathway to 2030: The Beyond 50 Scenario (University of Maryland Center for Global Sustainability and America Is All In, November 2022), https://tinyurl.com/bdfa5e7w (PDF). Sources of Other Projections of EV Market Share (Continued)