Congressional Budget Office
What Changes in Federal Policy
Might Spur Innovation?
Presentation at the Kauffman Foundation ...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 2
Possible Policy Approaches for Increasing Innovation:
 Increase or Re...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 3
Possible Policy Approach for Increasing Innovation:
Increase or Redire...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 4
Federal spending for R&D in real dollars has increased in the past few...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 5
Although federal spending for R&D has increased in real
dollars, it ha...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 6
Relative to GDP, federal spending for research has
changed little and ...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 7
Because of caps on discretionary funding under current law,
federal di...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 8
Because of caps on discretionary funding under current law, federal
di...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 9
Defense and nondefense R&D have represented fairly stable shares
of th...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 10
Possible Policy Approach for Increasing Innovation:
Increase or Redir...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 11
Federal spending for education and training increased
with ARRA and a...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 12
A mismatch between the supply and demand for STEM (science,
technolog...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 13
Federal support for education could be increased in
several ways
STEM...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 14
Possible Policy Approach for Increasing Innovation:
Change Tax Treatm...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 15
The federal tax treatment of private investment could be
improved in ...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 16
Possible Policy Approach for Increasing Innovation:
Increase Immigrat...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 17
Immigrants represent larger shares of Nobel Prize winners and
founder...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 18
In the engineering and technology industries, immigrant-
founded star...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 19
(Thousands of visas issued)
Temporary Student Visas
Temporary Worker
...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 20
Immigration of highly skilled workers could be increased
in several w...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 21
Possible Policy Approach for Increasing Innovation:
Pursue Patent Ref...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 22
Faster growth in patents does not necessarily raise
productivity grow...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 23
Patent processing has become more delayed
Data from U.S. Patent and T...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 24
Possible Policy Approach for Increasing Innovation:
Reconsider Regula...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 25
Policymakers balance innovation against other
regulatory goals
Innova...
C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 26
Conclusion
A wide array of federal policy approaches could be pursued...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

What Changes in Federal Policy Might Spur Innovation?

3,701 views

Published on

Presentation by Doug Elmendorf, CBO Director, at the Kauffman Foundation Conference on Federal Tax Policy and Entrepreneurship

0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
3,701
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
2,116
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
28
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

What Changes in Federal Policy Might Spur Innovation?

  1. 1. Congressional Budget Office What Changes in Federal Policy Might Spur Innovation? Presentation at the Kauffman Foundation Conference on Federal Tax Policy and Entrepreneurship Douglas W. Elmendorf Director September 27, 2013 Note: Data in the figures reflect recent revisions by the Bureau of Economic Analysis to estimates of gross domestic product (GDP) in past years and CBO’s extrapolation of those revisions to projected future GDP.
  2. 2. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 2 Possible Policy Approaches for Increasing Innovation:  Increase or Redirect Federal Funding for Research and Development  Increase or Redirect Federal Support for Education  Change Tax Treatment of Private Investment  Increase Immigration of Highly Skilled Workers  Pursue Patent Reform  Reconsider Regulatory Goals
  3. 3. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 3 Possible Policy Approach for Increasing Innovation: Increase or Redirect Federal Funding for Research and Development
  4. 4. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 4 Federal spending for R&D in real dollars has increased in the past few decades in health and defense but has changed little in all other areas (Billions of 2012 dollars) Health Defense Other Data from American Association for the Advancement of Science, Trends in Federal R&D by Function, FY 1949-2013.
  5. 5. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 5 Although federal spending for R&D has increased in real dollars, it has declined slightly relative to GDP (Percentage of GDP) R&D in Billions of 2012 Dollars R&D as a Share of GDP (Billions of 2012 dollars)
  6. 6. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 6 Relative to GDP, federal spending for research has changed little and for development has declined (Percentage of GDP) (Percentage of GDP) Basic Research Applied Research Development Data from National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators 2012 (2012). (Percentage of GDP) Industry Federal Industry Federal Industry Federal
  7. 7. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 7 Because of caps on discretionary funding under current law, federal discretionary spending is leveling out in real terms Actual Projected Defense Nondefense (Billions of 2012 dollars)
  8. 8. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 8 Because of caps on discretionary funding under current law, federal discretionary spending is declining relative to the size of the economy (Percentage of GDP) Actual Projected Defense Nondefense
  9. 9. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 9 Defense and nondefense R&D have represented fairly stable shares of the respective discretionary spending (Percentage of defense or nondefense discretionary outlays) Defense Nondefense
  10. 10. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 10 Possible Policy Approach for Increasing Innovation: Increase or Redirect Federal Support for Education
  11. 11. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 11 Federal spending for education and training increased with ARRA and an expansion of Pell grants
  12. 12. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 12 A mismatch between the supply and demand for STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) skills contributes to job vacancies in manufacturing About one-quarter of manufacturing businesses report vacancies of 3 months or more  A lack of math and computer skills among job applicants is a leading reason—and demand for those skills is growing  However, employers’ wage and hiring practices also play a role Such long-term job vacancies vary by size and type of business  Larger establishments are more likely to have vacancies, but smaller ones tend to suffer more when they occur  Irrespective of size, low-tech establishments experience vacancies more often than high-tech ones
  13. 13. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 13 Federal support for education could be increased in several ways STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) education  Increase funding for academic research in STEM fields  Provide more scholarships for STEM students  Train math and science teachers to be more effective  Develop innovative approaches to math and science education General education  Hold down interest rates on student loans  Provide more generous Pell grants for lower-income students
  14. 14. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 14 Possible Policy Approach for Increasing Innovation: Change Tax Treatment of Private Investment
  15. 15. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 15 The federal tax treatment of private investment could be improved in several ways Enhance the R&D tax credit:  Make it permanent (at the end of this year, it will expire for the 16th time in 32 years)  Increase the credit for newer or merged firms from its current 14% to the 20% that older firms get  Include other types of investment, such as software developed for internal use Lower the tax rates paid by U.S. multinational corporations  Unclear if such a change would spur innovation Increase support for manufacturing  Unclear if such a change would spur innovation
  16. 16. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 16 Possible Policy Approach for Increasing Innovation: Increase Immigration of Highly Skilled Workers
  17. 17. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 17 Immigrants represent larger shares of Nobel Prize winners and founders of public venture-backed companies than of the U.S. population 0% 5% 10% 15% 20% 25% 30% US Population in 2000 US-based Nobel Prize Winners from 1990-2000 Founders of Public Venture- backed Companies (Percent) Percentage of U.S. Population in 2000 Percentage of Founders of Public Venture-Backed Companies Data from Giovanni Peri , “Higher Education, Innovation, and Growth,” In Giorgio Brunello, Pietro Garibaldi, and Etienne Wasmer, eds., Education and Training in Europe (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007); Stuart Anderson and Michaela Platzer (2006), American Made: The Impacts of Immigrant Entrepreneurs and Professionals on U.S. Competitiveness, National Venture Capital Association (2006), www.nvca.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=254&Itemid=103. Percentage of U.S.-Based Nobel Prize Winners, 1990-2000
  18. 18. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 18 In the engineering and technology industries, immigrant- founded startups are especially prevalent in Silicon Valley (Percent) Data from Vivek Wadhwa, AnnaLee Saxenian, and F. Daniel Siciliano, “Then and Now: American’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Part VII,” The Kauffman Foundation (October 2012), p. 27.
  19. 19. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 19 (Thousands of visas issued) Temporary Student Visas Temporary Worker Non-H-1B Visas Permanent Family Visas A small share of visas goes to workers because of their skills
  20. 20. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 20 Immigration of highly skilled workers could be increased in several ways  Raise or eliminate quotas for temporary workers with H-1B visas  Increase visas for permanent workers  Allow foreign students in STEM fields to stay in the country after graduation, either temporarily or permanently
  21. 21. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 21 Possible Policy Approach for Increasing Innovation: Pursue Patent Reform
  22. 22. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 22 Faster growth in patents does not necessarily raise productivity growth (Annualized percentage growth) Data from U.S. Patent and Trademark Office and Congressional Budget Office.
  23. 23. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 23 Patent processing has become more delayed Data from U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, Performance and Accountability Report (various years) and, in particular, Performance and Accountability Report Fiscal Year 2012, Table 3: Patent Applications Pending Prior to Allowance (FY1991 - FY2012), p. 177. (Months) (Millions)
  24. 24. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 24 Possible Policy Approach for Increasing Innovation: Reconsider Regulatory Goals
  25. 25. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 25 Policymakers balance innovation against other regulatory goals Innovation is balanced against safety, fairness, privacy, government cost, and other considerations. Areas of regulation where the encouragement of innovation has received attention in the past and might receive greater attention in the future include regulation of medical devices, auctions of wireless spectrum, and oversight of e-commerce, among others.
  26. 26. C O N G R E S S I O N A L B U D G E T O F F I C E 26 Conclusion A wide array of federal policy approaches could be pursued to spur innovation, including increased spending on research and development, increased support for education (especially in science), lower taxes on private investment, greater immigration of skilled workers, patent reform, and adjustments to regulatory policies. However, those approaches would necessitate a redirection of federal money from other purposes or compromises on other national goals, which would require that spurring innovation be an important national priority.

×