Successfully reported this slideshow.

The Other Second-Wave: Women of Color


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

The Other Second-Wave: Women of Color

  1. 1. During Second-Wave Feminism, the women’s movement became explicitly plural. Why? 1. Black women felt their needs and experiences were not fully addressed in mainstream feminism. 2. Black women argued that an autonomous movement was needed to battle intersecting oppressions (gender , as well as race and class)
  2. 2.  This approach is one that places Black Women (or Black Feminism) at the center of the movement.  Leaders included: From L-R: Angela Davis, Alice Walker (author of The Color Purple), Audre Lorde, and Frances Beal (author of Black Woman’s Manifesto)
  3. 3. Black feminists: 1. REJECTED sexism in the black liberation movement 2. REJECTED racism from white feminists 3. REJECTED classism by highlighting how middle- class assumptions and values were inherent in both movements
  4. 4. Key Differences: 1. Abortion – class issues and history of eugenics and forced sterilization (see image) 2. Family – perception that white feminists saw family as an obligation, while black feminists saw family as a refuge 3. Motherhood – black feminists argued for choice and control (rather than full retreat)
  5. 5. Black feminists faced criticism from members in the Black community (being called “race traitors”) and the Black Liberation Movement, who largely:  Adopted middle-class values  Sought to maintain traditional gender roles in the Black community  Feared that birth control would lead to Black women refusing to have babies (and thus the Black population would dwindle) Black feminists challenged each of these barriers!
  6. 6.  Movement develops a bit later, 1970-1980  Developed out of 1960s Chicano movement that focused on social justice, equality, educational reform, etc.  Begins with realization that the Chicano movement’s emphasis on “cultural pride and cultural survival” fails to see the need for change in male-female relationships in Chicano community
  7. 7. A. Skeptical of “machismo” 1. Recognized it as cultural trait that blinded Chicanos to the economic challenges and colony-like exploitation (578) 2. Disagreed that machismo was a positive value for Chicano communities B. Split develops between Loyalists and non- Loyalists
  8. 8. Founded on completely different sense of equality than mainstream feminism, which can be seen in two main ways:  Tribal sovereignty is valued over personal sovereignty (American Indian before woman)  Social structure is different in Native American culture, which emphasizes extended family (rather than nuclear family) Zitkala-Sa, Sioux writer and political activist
  9. 9. Importance of tribal sovereignty was based on two main ideas: 1. People must have sovereignty to keep legal and spiritual connection to the land AND to survive as a people (tribe) 2. Equality within tribal community is MORE important than equality within standards of feminism or American norms