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England 1760 – 1840 Extreme social/econom ic change. Steam engine perfected = greater productivity. Technological improvement - mass production - increased availability & lower costs.
• Graphic communications – more important & accessible.• Photography was invented.• Fast expansion of jobbing printers, advertising & posters.• Advancements in font types & sizes – problems for printing.• 1800 – Charles Stanhope invented the printing press which reduced required manual force and could print a sheet double the conventional size.• John Walter II & Friedrich Koening created 2 double-cylinder steam powered press – used to print The Times.• 1815 – William Cowper & Ambrose Applegath developed the 4 cylinder steam-powdered press.
Mechanization of Typography• Mid 19th century – presses could mass produce up to 25000 copies per hour – but each letter had to be set by hand = limited newspapers.• Advancements in technology – machine set typography printed on machine made paper. The first steam-poweredcylinder press, 1814. Koenig’s invention caused the speed of printing to skyrocket, while its price dropped considerably.
Photography• Joseph Niepce – Frenchman who produced the 1st photographic image.• He coated a pewter sheet with light-sensitive asphalt which hardens when exposed to light.• He then contact printed a drawing, which had been oiled to make it transparent, to the pewter, washed it with lavender oil and then etched it with acid. This was called „sun engraving.‟
• After a long process of experimenting and collaboration with Louis Jacques Daguerre – perfected process in 1839.• About the same time in England – William Henry Fox Talbot produced a process that formed the basis for photography.• In the late 1840s Talbot developed a new process called “calotype” – increased light sensitivity of paper.• In 1888 – American dry-plate manufacturer, George Eastman introduced the Kodak camera.• Photography was used as a research tool.• 1880-1890 – photomechanical reproduction replaced skilled craftsmen, process reduced printing time.• Moving images became a possibility.
Photography as Reportage • 1st occurrence of reportage photography – American Civil War. • Mathew Brady – photographed the war.
Victorian Era 1849 – Queen Victoria’s husband conceived the idea of a grand exhibition with hundreds of exhibitors from allindustrial nations – known as the Crystal Palace Exhibition.
Chromolithography• Lithography = a method of printing using an etching stone on a completely smooth surface.• Chromolithography = method for making colour prints.• By 1860 its popularity had grown immensely.• Without traditions & constraints of the letter press, designers could invent any letter form and utilize an unlimited palette of vibrant colours that they could
• Circuses and carnivals first to use these new methods for their posters.• Chromolithography was then moved onto labels & packages.• By 1897, chromolithography became obsolete.
Battle of the Signboards• Mid 19th century – letterpress poster & broadsheet were challenged by more visual & pictorial posters.• Lithography allowed for a more illustrative approach to public communication.• Large woodblocks were printed in sections – then assembled by poster hangers.• In France – letterpresses and lithographers combined their skills to create colourful lithographic illustrations – pasted onto large
Images for Children• Pre-Victorian Era – children were treated like adults.• Victorians began to treat them more tenderly with the development of toybooks – colourful picture books for preschool children.• Walter Crane (1845-1915)• Randolph Caldecott (1846-1886)• Kate Greenaway (1846-1901)
Rise of AmericanEditorial & Advertising Design • James & John Harper launched a printing firm in New York (1817.) • The firm opened the era of the pictorial magazine with Harper’s New Monthly Magazine.
Victorian Typography• In the Victorian Era, the taste for ornate elaboration was a major influence.• Outlandish and fantasy lettering was very popular – many trademarks in the era reflect the Victorian love of ornamental complexity.• Even today, Victorian design conventions are still found, particularly in commercial promotion.