Chapter 22 Italy, 1500 to 1600 Part One
Rome with Renaissance and Baroque Monuments
The Achievements of the Masters High Renaissance <ul><li>Donato Bramante:  the  Pope’s architect. </li></ul><ul><li>Michel...
The Achievements of the Masters High Renaissance <ul><li>Invenzione  – invention </li></ul><ul><li>Ingegno  – ingenuity </...
Self-Portrait c. 1512 Red chalk on paper, 333 x 213 mm Biblioteca Reale, Turin Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci Annunciation 1472-75 Tempera on wood, 98 x 217 cm Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Figure 22-2  LEONARDO DA VINCI, Virgin of the Rocks, ca. 1485. Oil on wood (transferred to canvas), approx. 6’ 3” x 3’ 7” ...
 
 
Fra  Filippo Lippi , 1455 1483
1310 1483
Figure 22-3  LEONARDO DA VINCI, cartoon for Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and the Infant Saint John, ca. 1505–1507. Cha...
 
Leonardo da Vinci,  The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne , 1510,  oil  on  wood   panel , 5 1/2 x 4 1/2 feet (168 x 130 cm...
 
Figure 22-4  LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper (uncleaned), ca. 1495–1498. Fresco (oil and tempera on plaster), 29’ 10” x 13’...
Bartholomew, James the less, Andrew, Judas, Peter, John, Jesus, Thomas, James, Phillip, Matthew, Thaddeus, Simon
 
Study for the Last Supper 1494-95 Pen and ink on paper, 266 x 214 mm Royal Library, Windsor
Study for the Last Supper 1494-95 Red chalk on paper, 260 x 392 mm Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice
Study for the Last Supper c. 1495 Red chalk on red prepared paper, 180 x 150 mm Royal Library, Windsor Study for the Last ...
LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper (cleaned), ca. 1495–1498. Fresco (oil and tempera on plaster), 29’ 10” 13’ 9”. Refectory, S...
Bartholomew, James the less, Andrew, Judas, Peter, John, Jesus, Thomas, James, Phillip, Matthew, Thaddeus, Simon
Jesus
John Phillip
 
Figure 22-5  LEONARDO DA VINCI, Mona Lisa, ca. 1503–1505. Oil on wood, approx. 2’ 6” x 1’ 9”. Louvre, Paris.
 
 
 
Leonardo da Vinci,  Ginevra de' Benci , c. 1474,  oil  on  wood   panel , 15 1/8 x 14 1/2 inches (38.2 x 36.7 cm), Nationa...
Leonardo da Vinci,  Lady with an Ermine , Portrait of Cecilia Gallerani  ( 1483-90,  oil  on  wood   panel , 21 x 15 1/2 i...
Portrait of Cecilia Gallerani (detail) 1483-90 Oil on wood Czartoryski Museum, Cracow
Leonardo da Vinci Adoration of the Magi, 1481-82, Monochrome on panel,8’ x 8’1”, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
Perspectival study of the Adoration of the Magic. 1481 Pen and ink, traces of silverpoint and white on paper, 163 x 290 mm...
Leonardo da Vinci,  Study of proportions, from Vitruvius's De Architectura , red  crayon  with  pen  and  ink  on  paper ,...
Leonardo da Vinci,  Skull , 1489, red  crayon  with  pen  and  ink  on  paper .  This is a  lateral  view of a human skull...
Study of the effect of light on a profile head ( 1487-90 Black chalk, pen and ink on paper, 203 x 143 mm Galleria degli Uf...
Comparison of scalp skin and onion 1489 Pen, ink and red chalk on paper, 203 x 152 mm Royal Library, Windsor  Anatomical s...
Leonardo da Vinci,  Head of a Young Woman , Accademia, Venice.  Heads of an old man and a youth 1495-1500 Red chalk on pap...
Garment study for a seated figure 1470-84 Oil on canvas, 26,5 x 25,3 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris  Study of hands c. 1474 Sil...
Figure 22-6  LEONARDO DA VINCI, Embryo in the Womb, ca. 1510. Pen and ink on paper. Royal Library, Windsor Castle.
Drawing of a Woman's Torso Drawing Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan
Landscape drawing for Santa Maria della Neve on 5th August 1473 1473 Pen and ink, 190 x 285 mm Galleria degli Uffizi, Flor...
Lily (detail) 1480-85 Pe and ink, black chalk on paper, 314 x 177 mm Royal Library, Windsor
Giant Crossbow 1480-82 Drawing Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan Multi Barrel Gun 1480-82 Drawing Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan
Flying machine c. 1487 Metalpoint, pen and ink on paper, 235 x 176 mm Insritut de France, Paris Drawing of a flying machin...
Skis with which one can walk on water (detail) c. 1480 Metalpoint, pen and ink on paper Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan Autom...
Codex on the flight of birds Pen and ink on paper, 210 x 150 mm Biblioteca Reale, Turin
Bird's-eye-view of sea coast c. 1515 Pen, ink, watercolour on paper, 272 x 400 mm Royal Library, Windsor Map of Tuscany an...
Study of a central church c. 1488 Pen, ink and black chalk on paper, 24 x 19 cm Bibliothèque de l'Institut de France, Pari...
Raphael 1483 - 1520
Figure 22-9  RAPHAEL, Philosophy (School of Athens), Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy, 1509–1511. Fresc...
 
Plato and Aristotle Heradeitus (Michelangelo)
Euclid (Bramante) Geometry
Figure 22-9  RAPHAEL, Philosophy (School of Athens), Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy, 1509–1511. Fresc...
Figure 19-9  GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy, ca. 1305. Fresco, 6’ 6 3/4” x 6’ 3/4”.   1305
1427
1495-98
Figure 22-8  RAPHAEL, Madonna in the Meadow, 1505. Oil on panel, 3’ 8 1/2” x 2’ 10 1/4”. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
 
Figure 21-8  FRA  FILIPPO  LIPPI, Madonna and Child with Angels, ca. 1455. Tempera on wood, approx. 3’ x 2’ 1”. Galleria d...
Figure 22-10  RAPHAEL, Galatea, Sala di Galatea, Villa Farnesina, Rome, Italy, 1513. Fresco, 9’ 8” x 7’ 5”.
 
Figure 22-11  RAPHAEL, Baldassare Castiglione, ca. 1514. Oil on wood transferred to canvas, approx. 2’ 6 1/4” x 2’ 2 1/2”....
DOMENICO GHIRLANDAIO, Giovanna Tornabuoni(?), 1488. Oil and tempera on wood, approx. 2’ 6” x 1’ 8”. Thyssen-Bornemisza Col...
Raphael, Pope Leo X with Two Cardinals, 1518 (150 Kb); Oil on wood, 154 x 119 cm (60 5/8 x 46 7/8 in); Uffizi, Florence
Michelangelo Pieta, 1498 - 1500
Figure 18-51  Virgin with the Dead Christ (Röttgen Pietà), from the Rhineland, Germany, ca. 1300–1325. Painted wood, 2’ 10...
Figure 22-9  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, David, 1501–1504. Marble, 13’ 5” high. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence.
Figure 22-9  Alternate View Full figure, 3/4 length, seen from the right © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
EPIGONOS(?), Gallic chieftain killing himself and his wife. Roman marble copy after a bronze original from Pergamon, Turke...
POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer). marble
LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Rome.
 
 
 
 
Figure 22-10  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Moses, San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy, ca. 1513–1515. Marble, approx. 8’ 4” high.
 
Figure 22-10  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Moses, San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy, ca. 1513–1515. Marble, approx. 8’ 4” hig...
Seated boxer, from Rome, Italy, ca. 100–50 BCE. Bronze, approx. 4’ 2 1/2” high. Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome.
Figure 22-10  Alternate View Total view © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
 
Slave (awakening) 1519-36 Marble, height 267 cm Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
Figure 22-11  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Bound Slave, 1513–1516. Marble, approx. 6’ 10 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris.
Sleeping satyr (Barberini Faun), from Rome, Italy, ca. 230–200 BCE. Marble, approx. 7’ 1” high. Glyptothek, Munich
Slave (dying) c. 1513 Marble, height 229 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris
 
 
Reconstruction of the interior 1480s Cappella Sistina, Vatican
Figure 22-13  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1508–1512. Fresco, approx...
 
 
Figure 22-12  Interior of the Sistine Chapel (view facing east), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, built 1473. Copyright © Nippon...
Figure 22-14  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Creation of Adam (detail), ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy...
 
 
 
 
 
 
<ul><li>On the side walls of the chapel, five prophets alternate with the same number of sibyls, so that each prophet is p...
Jonah 1511 Fresco, 400 x 380 cm Cappella Sistina, Vatican
 
 
Figure 22-15  Cleaning of ceiling of Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1977–1989.
Figure 22-16   Detail of the Azor-Sadoch lunette’s left side over one of the Sistine Chapel windows at various stages of t...
Figure 22-25  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Last Judgment, fresco on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, ...
Figure 17-25  GISLEBERTUS, Last Judgment, west tympanum of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France, ca. 1120–1135. Marble, approx. 21’...
 
Figure 22-25  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Last Judgment, fresco on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, ...
 
 
 
 
 
 
Figure 22-22  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, New Sacristy (Medici Chapel), San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy, 1519–1534
Figure 22-22  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, tomb of Giuliano de’ Medici, New Sacristy (Medici Chapel), San Lorenzo, Florence, I...
 
Night 1526-33 Marble, length: 194 cm Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence
Day 1526-33 Marble, length: 185 cm Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence
Figure 22-22  Alternate View View from left © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
 
Twilight 1524-31 Marble, length: 195 cm Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence
Dawn 1524-31 Marble, length: 203 cm Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence
Pietà c. 1550 Marble, height: 226 cm Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence
BRAMANTE <ul><li>Examine the achievements of Donato Bramante:  concrete, the dome, and the new St. Peter’s in Rome. </li><...
Figure 22-23  DONATO D’ANGELO BRAMANTE, plan for the new Saint Peter’s, the Vatican, Rome, Italy, 1505.
Restored view (a), plan (b), and section (c) of Old Saint Peter’s, Rome, Italy, begun ca. 320. (The restoration of the for...
 
 
Figure 22-24  CHRISTOFORO FOPPA CARADOSSO, medal showing Bramante’s design for the new Saint Peter’s, 1506. British Museum...
 
Figure 22-22   DONATO D’ANGELO BRAMANTE, Tempietto, San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, Italy, 1502(?).
Temple of Vesta (?), Tivoli, Italy, early first century BCE.
Michelangelo, the Architect <ul><li>Examine how Michelangelo updated and preserved Bramante’s plans for the new St. Peters...
Figure 22-28  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, plan for Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1546.
Bramante Michelangelo
Figure 22-29  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Saint Peter’s (view from the northwest), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1546–1564. Dome...
Figure 22-29  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Saint Peter’s (view from the northwest), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1546–1564. Dome...
Figure 22-29  Alternate View  Total  © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
Figure 22-30  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, drawing of south elevation of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1546–1564 (...
Figure 22-26  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, aerial view of Capitoline Hill (Campidoglio), Rome, Italy, designed ca. 1537.  © 20...
Figure 22-26  Alternate View   General view of the complex from SW, with Capitoline Museum, paving, sculpture and Palace o...
Figure 22-27  MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Museo Capitolino, Capitoline Hill, Rome, Italy, designed ca. 1537.
Fig. 22-54  Michelangelo, Vestibule of the Laurentian Library, Florence, Italy, 1524-1559  Mannerism
End <ul><li>The Reformation and Counter-Reformation and their impact on the art of this period </li></ul><ul><li>The incre...
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H ren through michelangelo

  1. 1. Chapter 22 Italy, 1500 to 1600 Part One
  2. 2. Rome with Renaissance and Baroque Monuments
  3. 3. The Achievements of the Masters High Renaissance <ul><li>Donato Bramante: the Pope’s architect. </li></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo Buonarroti: sculptor with divine power. </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo da Vinci: inventor, naturalist, and painter of the soul . </li></ul><ul><li>Raphael Raffaelo Sanzio: the true painter. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Achievements of the Masters High Renaissance <ul><li>Invenzione – invention </li></ul><ul><li>Ingegno – ingenuity </li></ul><ul><li>Fantasia – imagination </li></ul><ul><li>Capriccio - originality </li></ul>
  5. 5. Self-Portrait c. 1512 Red chalk on paper, 333 x 213 mm Biblioteca Reale, Turin Leonardo da Vinci
  6. 6. Leonardo da Vinci Annunciation 1472-75 Tempera on wood, 98 x 217 cm Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  7. 7. Figure 22-2 LEONARDO DA VINCI, Virgin of the Rocks, ca. 1485. Oil on wood (transferred to canvas), approx. 6’ 3” x 3’ 7” Louvre, Paris “ The unified representation of objects in an atmospheric setting.” p. 615 “ Emotionally compelling, visually unified, and spatially convincing.” p. 615
  8. 10. Fra Filippo Lippi , 1455 1483
  9. 11. 1310 1483
  10. 12. Figure 22-3 LEONARDO DA VINCI, cartoon for Virgin and Child with Saint Anne and the Infant Saint John, ca. 1505–1507. Charcoal heightened with white on brown paper, approx. 4’ 6” x 3’ 3”. National Gallery, London. <ul><li>Use of fine cotton papers (less expensive) used in printing: </li></ul><ul><li>More drawings made </li></ul><ul><li>Use of new drawing material </li></ul><ul><li>Greater freedom in style </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing as fundamental element of good design </li></ul>
  11. 14. Leonardo da Vinci, The Virgin and Child with Saint Anne , 1510, oil on wood panel , 5 1/2 x 4 1/2 feet (168 x 130 cm), Louvre, Paris. Head of the Virgin in Three-Quarter View Facing Right , 1508–12 Leonardo da Vinci (Italian, 1452–1519) Italian Charcoal, black and red chalks; traces of framing line in pen and brown ink at upper right; 8 x 6 1/8 in. (20.3 x 15.6 cm)
  12. 16. Figure 22-4 LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper (uncleaned), ca. 1495–1498. Fresco (oil and tempera on plaster), 29’ 10” x 13’ 9”. Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan.
  13. 17. Bartholomew, James the less, Andrew, Judas, Peter, John, Jesus, Thomas, James, Phillip, Matthew, Thaddeus, Simon
  14. 19. Study for the Last Supper 1494-95 Pen and ink on paper, 266 x 214 mm Royal Library, Windsor
  15. 20. Study for the Last Supper 1494-95 Red chalk on paper, 260 x 392 mm Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice
  16. 21. Study for the Last Supper c. 1495 Red chalk on red prepared paper, 180 x 150 mm Royal Library, Windsor Study for the Last Supper c. 1495 Black chalk on paper, 190 x 149 mm Royal Library, Windsor
  17. 22. LEONARDO DA VINCI, Last Supper (cleaned), ca. 1495–1498. Fresco (oil and tempera on plaster), 29’ 10” 13’ 9”. Refectory, Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan .
  18. 23. Bartholomew, James the less, Andrew, Judas, Peter, John, Jesus, Thomas, James, Phillip, Matthew, Thaddeus, Simon
  19. 24. Jesus
  20. 25. John Phillip
  21. 27. Figure 22-5 LEONARDO DA VINCI, Mona Lisa, ca. 1503–1505. Oil on wood, approx. 2’ 6” x 1’ 9”. Louvre, Paris.
  22. 31. Leonardo da Vinci, Ginevra de' Benci , c. 1474, oil on wood panel , 15 1/8 x 14 1/2 inches (38.2 x 36.7 cm), National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC.
  23. 32. Leonardo da Vinci, Lady with an Ermine , Portrait of Cecilia Gallerani ( 1483-90, oil on wood panel , 21 x 15 1/2 inches (53.4 x 39.3 cm), Czartoryski Museum, Cracow.
  24. 33. Portrait of Cecilia Gallerani (detail) 1483-90 Oil on wood Czartoryski Museum, Cracow
  25. 34. Leonardo da Vinci Adoration of the Magi, 1481-82, Monochrome on panel,8’ x 8’1”, Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  26. 35. Perspectival study of the Adoration of the Magic. 1481 Pen and ink, traces of silverpoint and white on paper, 163 x 290 mmGalleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  27. 36. Leonardo da Vinci, Study of proportions, from Vitruvius's De Architectura , red crayon with pen and ink on paper , 13 1/2 x 9 5/8 inches (34.3 x 24.5 cm), Accademia, Venice.
  28. 37. Leonardo da Vinci, Skull , 1489, red crayon with pen and ink on paper . This is a lateral view of a human skull with the left half of the calvaria removed to expose the interior. This is one of a huge number of anatomical drawings Leonardo made, to most of which he added written notes. He said he had dissected over thirty human bodies-- men and women of varied ages.
  29. 38. Study of the effect of light on a profile head ( 1487-90 Black chalk, pen and ink on paper, 203 x 143 mm Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence Male head in profile with proportions c. 1490 Pen and ink on paper, 280 x 222 mm Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice
  30. 39. Comparison of scalp skin and onion 1489 Pen, ink and red chalk on paper, 203 x 152 mm Royal Library, Windsor Anatomical studies of a male shoulder 1509-10 Pen and ink on paper, 292 x 198 mm Royal Library, Windsor
  31. 40. Leonardo da Vinci, Head of a Young Woman , Accademia, Venice. Heads of an old man and a youth 1495-1500 Red chalk on paper, 208 x 150 mm Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  32. 41. Garment study for a seated figure 1470-84 Oil on canvas, 26,5 x 25,3 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris Study of hands c. 1474 Silverpoint and white highlights on pink prepared paper, 214 x 150 mm Royal Library, Windsor
  33. 42. Figure 22-6 LEONARDO DA VINCI, Embryo in the Womb, ca. 1510. Pen and ink on paper. Royal Library, Windsor Castle.
  34. 43. Drawing of a Woman's Torso Drawing Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan
  35. 44. Landscape drawing for Santa Maria della Neve on 5th August 1473 1473 Pen and ink, 190 x 285 mm Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence
  36. 45. Lily (detail) 1480-85 Pe and ink, black chalk on paper, 314 x 177 mm Royal Library, Windsor
  37. 46. Giant Crossbow 1480-82 Drawing Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan Multi Barrel Gun 1480-82 Drawing Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan
  38. 47. Flying machine c. 1487 Metalpoint, pen and ink on paper, 235 x 176 mm Insritut de France, Paris Drawing of a flying machine c. 1485 Pen and ink on paper, 23 x 16 cm Bibliothèque de l'Institut de France, Paris
  39. 48. Skis with which one can walk on water (detail) c. 1480 Metalpoint, pen and ink on paper Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan Automobile 1478-80 Metalpoint, pen and brush on paper, 27 x 20 cm Biblioteca Ambrosiana, Milan
  40. 49. Codex on the flight of birds Pen and ink on paper, 210 x 150 mm Biblioteca Reale, Turin
  41. 50. Bird's-eye-view of sea coast c. 1515 Pen, ink, watercolour on paper, 272 x 400 mm Royal Library, Windsor Map of Tuscany and the Chiana Valley c.1502 Black chalk, pen, ink and colour on paper, 338 x 488 mm Royal Library, Windsor
  42. 51. Study of a central church c. 1488 Pen, ink and black chalk on paper, 24 x 19 cm Bibliothèque de l'Institut de France, Paris http://www.bl.uk/onlinegallery/ttp/ttpbooks.html  
  43. 52. Raphael 1483 - 1520
  44. 53. Figure 22-9 RAPHAEL, Philosophy (School of Athens), Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy, 1509–1511. Fresco, approx. 19’ x 27’. Raphael 1483 - 1520
  45. 55. Plato and Aristotle Heradeitus (Michelangelo)
  46. 56. Euclid (Bramante) Geometry
  47. 57. Figure 22-9 RAPHAEL, Philosophy (School of Athens), Stanza della Segnatura, Vatican Palace, Rome, Italy, 1509–1511. Fresco, approx. 19’ x 27’. Raphael 1483 - 1520
  48. 58. Figure 19-9 GIOTTO DI BONDONE, Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Padua, Italy, ca. 1305. Fresco, 6’ 6 3/4” x 6’ 3/4”. 1305
  49. 59. 1427
  50. 60. 1495-98
  51. 61. Figure 22-8 RAPHAEL, Madonna in the Meadow, 1505. Oil on panel, 3’ 8 1/2” x 2’ 10 1/4”. Kunsthistorisches Museum, Vienna.
  52. 63. Figure 21-8 FRA FILIPPO LIPPI, Madonna and Child with Angels, ca. 1455. Tempera on wood, approx. 3’ x 2’ 1”. Galleria degli Uffizi, Florence.
  53. 64. Figure 22-10 RAPHAEL, Galatea, Sala di Galatea, Villa Farnesina, Rome, Italy, 1513. Fresco, 9’ 8” x 7’ 5”.
  54. 66. Figure 22-11 RAPHAEL, Baldassare Castiglione, ca. 1514. Oil on wood transferred to canvas, approx. 2’ 6 1/4” x 2’ 2 1/2”. Louvre, Paris.
  55. 67. DOMENICO GHIRLANDAIO, Giovanna Tornabuoni(?), 1488. Oil and tempera on wood, approx. 2’ 6” x 1’ 8”. Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection, Madrid, Spain.
  56. 68. Raphael, Pope Leo X with Two Cardinals, 1518 (150 Kb); Oil on wood, 154 x 119 cm (60 5/8 x 46 7/8 in); Uffizi, Florence
  57. 69. Michelangelo Pieta, 1498 - 1500
  58. 70. Figure 18-51 Virgin with the Dead Christ (Röttgen Pietà), from the Rhineland, Germany, ca. 1300–1325. Painted wood, 2’ 10 1/2” high. Rheinisches Landemuseum, Bonn. GOTHIC
  59. 71. Figure 22-9 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, David, 1501–1504. Marble, 13’ 5” high. Galleria dell’Accademia, Florence.
  60. 72. Figure 22-9 Alternate View Full figure, 3/4 length, seen from the right © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
  61. 73. EPIGONOS(?), Gallic chieftain killing himself and his wife. Roman marble copy after a bronze original from Pergamon, Turkey, ca. 230–220 BCE, approx. 6’ 11” high. Museo Nazionale Romano-Palazzo Altemps, Rome.
  62. 74. POLYKLEITOS, Doryphoros (Spear Bearer). marble
  63. 75. LYSIPPOS, Apoxyomenos (Scraper). Rome.
  64. 80. Figure 22-10 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Moses, San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy, ca. 1513–1515. Marble, approx. 8’ 4” high.
  65. 82. Figure 22-10 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Moses, San Pietro in Vincoli, Rome, Italy, ca. 1513–1515. Marble, approx. 8’ 4” high.
  66. 83. Seated boxer, from Rome, Italy, ca. 100–50 BCE. Bronze, approx. 4’ 2 1/2” high. Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome.
  67. 84. Figure 22-10 Alternate View Total view © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
  68. 86. Slave (awakening) 1519-36 Marble, height 267 cm Galleria dell'Accademia, Florence
  69. 87. Figure 22-11 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Bound Slave, 1513–1516. Marble, approx. 6’ 10 1/2” high. Louvre, Paris.
  70. 88. Sleeping satyr (Barberini Faun), from Rome, Italy, ca. 230–200 BCE. Marble, approx. 7’ 1” high. Glyptothek, Munich
  71. 89. Slave (dying) c. 1513 Marble, height 229 cm Musée du Louvre, Paris
  72. 92. Reconstruction of the interior 1480s Cappella Sistina, Vatican
  73. 93. Figure 22-13 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1508–1512. Fresco, approx. 128’ x 45’.
  74. 96. Figure 22-12 Interior of the Sistine Chapel (view facing east), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, built 1473. Copyright © Nippon Television Network Corporation, Tokyo.
  75. 97. Figure 22-14 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Creation of Adam (detail), ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1511–1512. Fresco, approx. 9’ 2” x 18’ 8”.
  76. 104. <ul><li>On the side walls of the chapel, five prophets alternate with the same number of sibyls, so that each prophet is paired with a sibyl on the opposite wall: the Delphic Sibyl and Joel, Isaiah, and the Erythraean Sibyl, the Cumaean Sibyl and Ezekiel, Daniel and the Persian Sibyl, the Libyan Sibyl, and Jeremiah. This studied parallelism alludes both to the theme of the universality of the message of Redemption and the idea of the perfect concordance of the Revelation in the Judaic world and in the pagan one. </li></ul><ul><li>The other two prophets - Zechariah and Jonah - are represented on the major axis of the Sistine Chapel. This arrangement has a particular significance, too, since Zechariah, depicted above the chapel door that the pope solemnly passed through on Palm Sunday - recalling the regal entry of Christ into Jerusalem and beginning the ceremonies of Holy Week - was considered to be the main prophet of the Passion of Christ, while Jonah, placed above the altar, was usually thought to be the precursor of the risen Christ. </li></ul>
  77. 105. Jonah 1511 Fresco, 400 x 380 cm Cappella Sistina, Vatican
  78. 108. Figure 22-15 Cleaning of ceiling of Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1977–1989.
  79. 109. Figure 22-16 Detail of the Azor-Sadoch lunette’s left side over one of the Sistine Chapel windows at various stages of the restoration process, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1977–1989. Copyright © Nippon Television Network Corporation, Tokyo.
  80. 110. Figure 22-25 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Last Judgment, fresco on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1534–1541. Copyright © Nippon Television Network Corporation, Tokyo.
  81. 111. Figure 17-25 GISLEBERTUS, Last Judgment, west tympanum of Saint-Lazare, Autun, France, ca. 1120–1135. Marble, approx. 21’ wide at base.
  82. 113. Figure 22-25 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Last Judgment, fresco on the altar wall of the Sistine Chapel, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1534–1541. Copyright © Nippon Television Network Corporation, Tokyo.
  83. 120. Figure 22-22 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, New Sacristy (Medici Chapel), San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy, 1519–1534
  84. 121. Figure 22-22 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, tomb of Giuliano de’ Medici, New Sacristy (Medici Chapel), San Lorenzo, Florence, Italy, 1519–1534. Marble, central figure approx. 5’ 11” high.
  85. 123. Night 1526-33 Marble, length: 194 cm Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence
  86. 124. Day 1526-33 Marble, length: 185 cm Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence
  87. 125. Figure 22-22 Alternate View View from left © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
  88. 127. Twilight 1524-31 Marble, length: 195 cm Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence
  89. 128. Dawn 1524-31 Marble, length: 203 cm Sagrestia Nuova, San Lorenzo, Florence
  90. 129. Pietà c. 1550 Marble, height: 226 cm Museo dell'Opera del Duomo, Florence
  91. 130. BRAMANTE <ul><li>Examine the achievements of Donato Bramante: concrete, the dome, and the new St. Peter’s in Rome. </li></ul>
  92. 131. Figure 22-23 DONATO D’ANGELO BRAMANTE, plan for the new Saint Peter’s, the Vatican, Rome, Italy, 1505.
  93. 132. Restored view (a), plan (b), and section (c) of Old Saint Peter’s, Rome, Italy, begun ca. 320. (The restoration of the forecourt is conjectural.)
  94. 135. Figure 22-24 CHRISTOFORO FOPPA CARADOSSO, medal showing Bramante’s design for the new Saint Peter’s, 1506. British Museum, London.
  95. 137. Figure 22-22 DONATO D’ANGELO BRAMANTE, Tempietto, San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, Italy, 1502(?).
  96. 138. Temple of Vesta (?), Tivoli, Italy, early first century BCE.
  97. 139. Michelangelo, the Architect <ul><li>Examine how Michelangelo updated and preserved Bramante’s plans for the new St. Peters, but added “the sculptor’s touch.” </li></ul>
  98. 140. Figure 22-28 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, plan for Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1546.
  99. 141. Bramante Michelangelo
  100. 142. Figure 22-29 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Saint Peter’s (view from the northwest), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1546–1564. Dome completed by GIACOMO DELLA PORTA, 1590. © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
  101. 143. Figure 22-29 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Saint Peter’s (view from the northwest), Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1546–1564. Dome completed by GIACOMO DELLA PORTA, 1590.
  102. 144. Figure 22-29 Alternate View Total © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
  103. 145. Figure 22-30 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, drawing of south elevation of Saint Peter’s, Vatican City, Rome, Italy, 1546–1564 (engraving by ÉTIENNE DUPÉRAC, ca. 1569). Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York (Harris Brisbane Dick Fund, 1941).
  104. 146. Figure 22-26 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, aerial view of Capitoline Hill (Campidoglio), Rome, Italy, designed ca. 1537. © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
  105. 147. Figure 22-26 Alternate View General view of the complex from SW, with Capitoline Museum, paving, sculpture and Palace of Senators © 2005 Saskia Cultural Documentation, Ltd.
  106. 148. Figure 22-27 MICHELANGELO BUONARROTI, Museo Capitolino, Capitoline Hill, Rome, Italy, designed ca. 1537.
  107. 149. Fig. 22-54 Michelangelo, Vestibule of the Laurentian Library, Florence, Italy, 1524-1559 Mannerism
  108. 150. End <ul><li>The Reformation and Counter-Reformation and their impact on the art of this period </li></ul><ul><li>The increasing commissions by the Church to assert power and authority during the Counter-Reformation </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on the use of a classical vocabulary to create harmony, beauty, balance – look to the natural world </li></ul><ul><li>The importance of Invenzione – invention, Ingegno – ingenuity, Fantasia – imagination, Capriccio – originality to art and culture </li></ul><ul><li>Leonardo – bridges the techniques and ideas of 15th century with Renaissance ideals – scientific studies (compare to 15th century Italian and Northern) </li></ul><ul><li>Michelangelo as the brooding artist-genius, uses powerful figure style to capture religious themes – pent-up emotion, inventive changes to classical forms in architecture (compare to Greek, Roman, Donatello) </li></ul><ul><li>Examine the achievements of Donato Bramante: concrete, the dome, and the new St. Peter’s in Rome (compare to Greek, Rome 15th Century). </li></ul>

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