Muscular dystrophy


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Muscular dystrophy

  1. 1. Muscular Dystrophy Courtney Barlow
  2. 2. Definition: <ul><li>Muscular Dystrophy (MD) consists of a group of more than 30 generic diseases characterized by progressive weakness and degeneration of skeletal muscles that control movement or even cardiac muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>The disorders differ in terms of the distribution and extent of muscle weakness depending on the age of onset, rate of progression, and pattern of inheritance. </li></ul><ul><li>Some forms of MD are seen in infancy or childhood while others might not appear until middle age or later. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Background <ul><li>Muscular Dystrophy is not multiple sclerosis, which is an acquired disease and usually starts in early adult life. And unlike multiple sclerosis, muscular dystrophy is an inherited muscular disorder. </li></ul><ul><li>An estimated 200,000 Americans of all ages are affected by several types of MD. </li></ul><ul><li>The different types of MD are: Facioscapulohumeral MD, Limb-girdle MD, Myotonic Dystrophy, Ocular Dystrophy, Duchenne MD, and Beaker’s MD. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Background Cont. <ul><li>Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy: </li></ul><ul><li>Usually appears between the ages of 10 and 40 </li></ul><ul><li>Affects the muscles of upper arm, shoulder girdle, and face. </li></ul><ul><li>Progression is slow and rarely leads to complete disability. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Background Cont. <ul><li>Limb-girdle Muscular Dystrophy: </li></ul><ul><li>Affects muscles of the hips and shoulders. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually starts in late childhood or early 20’s. </li></ul><ul><li>Progression is slow. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Background Cont. <ul><li>Myotonic Dystrophy: </li></ul><ul><li>Rare form of dystrophy </li></ul><ul><li>Affects the hands and feet. </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles are unable to relax for several seconds after forceful contraction. </li></ul><ul><li>Infants show pronounced floppiness and are slow to develop. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Background Cont. <ul><li>Ocular Dystrophy: </li></ul><ul><li>Rare form. </li></ul><ul><li>Affects the eyes and throat. </li></ul><ul><li>Can lead to double vision, drooping eyelids, and difficulty swallowing because of degeneration of throat muscles. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Background Cont. <ul><li>Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy: </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic, inherited through a recessive sex-linked gene. </li></ul><ul><li>Most common form appearing in males, but could be passed to a female who becomes a carrier. </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms appear within the first 3 years of life. </li></ul><ul><li>First muscles to weaken are hip-girdle muscles followed by the shoulder muscles, respiratory muscles, and heart muscles. </li></ul><ul><li>Uncertain step, frequent falling, and difficulty getting off floor. </li></ul><ul><li>Progresses steadily and life beyond 20 is not likely. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Background Cont. <ul><li>Becker’s Muscular Dystrophy: </li></ul><ul><li>Similar to Duchenne MD </li></ul><ul><li>May also be curvature of spine </li></ul><ul><li>Muscles may appear bulky due to muscles wasting away and replaced with fat. </li></ul><ul><li>Starts later in childhood and progression is slow. </li></ul><ul><li>No cure developed. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Characteristics <ul><li>Physical Characteristics of individuals with types of MD were briefly stated under the various types of dystrophy. </li></ul><ul><li>Most individuals require assistance with personal hygiene, eating, and dressing. </li></ul><ul><li>This dependence on others affects the individual with MD, and, as with any other severe physical disability, there can be psychological and social problems. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Strategies For Teaching <ul><li>Create a classroom environment to meet their specific educational and physical needs. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow extra time for students to move from place to place within the classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>Respect the students wish to achieve but also their wish to be as independent as possible if desired. </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative learning is excellent for most students with MD. Teaming together with peers provides an opportunity to interact with others, make new friends, and be accepted easier. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Strategies For Teaching <ul><li>Keep MD students active for as long as possible to keep their healthy muscles in good condition. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage independence to avoid self-esteem problems associated with dependence on others, and encourage social opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommend counseling for both the student and family members to ease the burden of dealing with muscular dystrophy on their own. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Works Cited <ul><li>Nielsen, Lee B. Brief Reference of Student Disabilities . second ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, 2009. 155-57. Print. </li></ul>