A New Safety Standardfor High Tech ProductsA New Approach to Safety for A/V and ICT Equipment — IEC 62368-1
A New Safety Standard for High Tech ProductsA New Approach to Safety for A/V and ICTEquipment — IEC 62368-1In January 2010...
A New Safety Standard for High Tech ProductsTC108 outlined the following objectives        Considering the Characteristics...
A New Safety Standard for High Tech Products         IEC 380                                    IEC 435  Office Equipment ...
A New Safety Standard for High Tech ProductsAnother example of a new term used in                          primer on HBSE ...
A New Safety Standard for High Tech ProductsIt is noted, in general, that ordinary persons are always allowed access to Cl...
A New Safety Standard for High Tech ProductsOnce the form of energy is classified,             • One (supplementary safegu...
A New Safety Standard for High Tech ProductsIn terms of the first edition of IEC 62368-1, it         first edition of IEC ...
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A new approach to safety for a v and ict equipment-iec 62368-1 v6

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In January 2010, “IEC 62368-1 Ed 1.0: Audio/Video, Information and Communication Technology Equipment — Safety Requirements” was published as an international standard. The development was an outcome of almost eight years of planning, hard work and dedication by IEC TC108, the IEC technical committee responsible for standards for safety of electronic equipment within the field of audio/video, information technology, and communication technology.

This paper provides background on the new standard and looks ahead to the challenges and potential impact of its implementation.

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A new approach to safety for a v and ict equipment-iec 62368-1 v6

  1. 1. A New Safety Standardfor High Tech ProductsA New Approach to Safety for A/V and ICT Equipment — IEC 62368-1
  2. 2. A New Safety Standard for High Tech ProductsA New Approach to Safety for A/V and ICTEquipment — IEC 62368-1In January 2010, “IEC 62368-1 Ed 1.0: Audio/Video, Information and CommunicationTechnology Equipment — Safety Requirements” was published as an internationalstandard. The development was an outcome of almost eight years of planning,hard work and dedication by IEC TC108, the IEC technical committee responsiblefor standards for safety of electronic equipment within the field of audio/video,information technology, and communication technology.This paper provides background on the new standard and looks ahead to the challengesand potential impact of its implementation.The Origins of IEC 62368-1In the final years of the 20th Century, an explosion of multimedia technology beganto erase the distinctions between different types of products. Suddenly, computers,A/V equipment, and other new information and communications technology becameinterconnected and interchangeable. Products originally designed for business camehome, and electronic equipment long used almost exclusively by adults was masteredand embraced by children.The industry recognized that existing standards could not keep up with theconvergence of technology, and that a new standard was needed to replace IEC 60065,which governed safety of A/V equipment, and IEC 60950-1 (IEC 950 at the time), whichgoverned safety of IT equipment. Thus, the IEC TC108 committee was formed. Thenew technical committee’s charge was to develop a safety standard for informationtechnology equipment, office appliances, consumer electronics and telecommunicationequipment as well as combinations of each.The new standard would be based on Hazard-Based Safety Engineering (HBSE)principles, a process that integrates safety compliance early in the product design cycle,and supported by sound engineering principles, research and field data.page 2
  3. 3. A New Safety Standard for High Tech ProductsTC108 outlined the following objectives Considering the Characteristics On IEC TC108, UL holds the secretaryfor the new Standard: of IEC 62368-1 (Al Brazauski) and assistant secretary • A single standard for a broad range In preparing for this new safety standard (Margie Burke) roles. UL also of products, leading to design and for A/V, information and communication maintains similar roles on the ANSI manufacture of safe products technology equipment, the objective is U.S. National Committee Technical • Technology neutral, facilitating to consider how it differs from traditional Advisory Group (TAG) for IEC TC108. innovation and commercialization of standards that address safety of other forms of electronic equipment, including UL also has a variety of staff new technology the standards it replaces. As indicated in participating in leadership and • Clear identification of any hazards expert roles on several national the introduction to IEC 62368-1: • Performance-based, rather than committees associated with IEC “This International Standard is a product prescribed constructions, allowing TC108, including, safety standard that classifies energy proven prescriptive construction sources, prescribes safeguards against National Committees, TC108 options, as warranted those energy sources, and provides • Denmark – Ole Nielsen (chair) • A (Type) test standard, but not a simple guidance on the application of, and • Germany – Werner Haab merger of IEC 60065 and IEC 60950-1 (past chair) requirements for those safeguards. The • Japan – Ikuro Kinno prescribed safeguards are intended to • Useful to designers, but suitable for • Korea – J.K. Park reduce the likelihood of pain, injury and, in suppliers, purchasers and certifiers to the case of fire, property damage.” U.S. TAG assess compliance • Robert Backstrom (fire) • Harmonization with allowance This statement illustrates that new • Thomas Burke (information for warranted national/regional terminology is used in the standard, technology equipment) differences such as the word “safeguard.” For those • Thomas Lanzisero (electric shock) already familiar with IEC 60950-1 and • Craig Sato (audio-video/Equally important was to attempt to meet other horizontal IEC standards, it is consumer electronics)all of the above in a user-friendly manner. recommended to review the standard’s Werner Haab of UL also had aFrom the beginning, UL has played a Annex W, comparison of terms introduced leadership role on the team assignedsignificant role in the development of in this standard. It provides a correlation to develop the new Test Report FormIEC 62368-1, directly within IEC TC108 and between some of the common and new (TRF) for IEC 62368-1.through leadership and participation in terms used in this standard and thosevarious national committees for IEC TC108. used in other standards, like IEC 60950-1 and IEC 60664, among others.With this amount of involvement, both atleadership and expert levels, UL’s insightand influence is invaluable in preparing forthe future implementation of IEC 62368-1.page 3
  4. 4. A New Safety Standard for High Tech Products IEC 380 IEC 435 Office Equipment Data Processing Document A MERGER ACOS Advisory Committee on Safety IEC 60950-1 IEC GUIDE 112 IEC 60065 TC 74 TC 92 Information Guide on the Safety of Audio Video and TC108 Technology TC108 Multimedia Equipment Similar Apparatus Equipment NOT A MERGER IEC 62368-1 TC 108 Audio/Video, Information HBSDT and Communication Technology EquipmentFigure 1: Progression of StandardsIEC 62368-1 was developed using hazard-based safety engineering, and those familiar with basic HBSE realize that safeguards are criticalin preventing energy hazards from doing harm. In the three-block model for safety, if safeguards are adequate, there will be no harm.(See Figures 2 and 3) Hazardous Energy Source Transfer Mechanism Body PartFigure 2: Three-Block Model for Pain and Injury Hazardous Energy Source Safeguard Body PartFigure 3: Three-Block Model for Safetypage 4
  5. 5. A New Safety Standard for High Tech ProductsAnother example of a new term used in primer on HBSE in the context of electronic prescriptive requirements may havethe new standard is Electrical Energy Source equipment. Users should study the been developed with a different form ofClass 1 (ES1). The terms Safety Extra Low introduction carefully as it makes it possible construction in mind when the technicalVoltage (SELV) and Limited Current Circuit to quickly understand the fundamentals of committee originally adopted them.(LCC), which are definitions and concepts the standard. A common misconception held by somein IEC 60950-1, are no longer used in IEC The key new application processes not familiar with the development of62368-1. Instead, safe voltage and associated with IEC 62368-1 include the IEC 62368-1 is that engineers using thecurrent limits have been combined identification and classification of energy standard will perform free-form HBSE-basedin the definition of ES1. sources, identification of safeguards, investigations on products without anySimilarly, for those more familiar with IEC and evaluation of the suitability of these prescriptive requirements. This is not the60950-1 that identifies persons interfacing safeguards — through either performance- case. The standard and its requirementswith the equipment as either “users” or based criteria (requirements) or prescriptive were developed using HBSE and the integral“service persons,” IEC 62368-1 uses the terms construction criteria (requirements). In evaluation process is HBSE-based, but the“ordinary person” and “skilled person,” in fact, in keeping with one of IEC TC108’s key standard does indeed have prescriptiveaddition to an “instructed person.” Instructed objectives, the standard attempts to provide requirements.person refers to someone instructed or a performance-based approach as the first As Table 1 outlines in more detail, IECsupervised by a “skilled person” on energy option for demonstrating compliance, 62368-1 addresses a variety of forms ofsources who is expected to interact with with proven prescriptive construction energy, including electrical energy, thermalthe equipment safely with regard to options as alternatives. Performance-based energy, chemical reaction, kinetic energy,those energy sources. The type of persons requirements are usually preferred in this thermal energy and radiated energy. Energyexpected to interface with the equipment or context since they tend be technology sources, regardless of form, are designatedparts of the equipment influences the types, neutral. Usually, any construction can be either Class 1, 2 or 3, depending on energynumber, and form of safeguards required. shown to be in compliance if it can comply magnitude. As characterized in Table 2,Clause 0, Introduction to the Standard, with the performance criteria. This level classifying energy sources correctly andsummarizes all the key principles of IEC of flexibility is not always possible with accurately is an important element of the62368-1 and serves as an informative prescriptive construction criteria since implementation of this standard.FORMS OF ENERGY EXAMPLES OF BODY RESPONSE OR PROPERTY DAMAGE CLAUSEElectrical energy, e.g., energized conductive parts Pain, fibrillation, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest, skin burn or internal 5 organ burnThermal energy, e.g., electrical ignition and spread of fire Electrically caused fire leading to burn-related pain or injury or property damage 6Chemical energy, e.g., electrolyte, poison Skin damage, lung and other organ damage, or poisoning 7Kinetic energy, e.g., moving parts of the equipment or Laceration, puncture, abrasion, contusion, crush, amputation, or loss of a limb, 8a moving body part against an equipment part eye, ear, etc.Thermal energy, e.g., hot accessible parts) Skin burn 9Radiated energy, e.g., electromagnetic, optical or Loss of sight, skin burn or loss of hearing, etc. 10acoustic energyTable 1: Forms of Energypage 5
  6. 6. A New Safety Standard for High Tech ProductsIt is noted, in general, that ordinary persons are always allowed access to Class 1 energy sources, and are permitted access to Class 2 energysources under single fault conditions. For example, for AC voltages below 1kHz, the ES1 voltage limit is 30 Vrms, 42.4 Vp, and 60 Vdc, and theES2 voltage limit is 50 Vrms, 70.7 Vp, and 120 Vdc.ENERGY SOURCE EFFECT ON BODY EFFECT ON COMBUSTIBLE MATERIALSClass 1 Not painful, but may be detected Ignition not likelyClass 2 May be painful, but not an injury Ignition possible, but limited growth and spread of fireClass 3 Injury Ignition likely, with rapid growth and spread of fireTable 2: Response to Energy Class Hazardous Energy Source Safeguard Body Part Prospective Touch Voltage or Electrical Insulation Body Resistance Touch CurrentFigure 4: Model for Protection against Electrically Caused Pain or Injury Hazardous Energy Source Safeguard Fuel MaterialElectrical Energy Conversion Thermal Resistance Material does not exceedto Thermal Energy ignition temperature Hazardous Energy Source Fuel Material SafeguardElectrical Energy Conversion Fuel Ignition Enclosure containsto Thermal Energy the FIreFigure 5: Models for Protection against Fire Basic Safeguard Under Normal and Abnormal Operating Conditions (Top) Supplementary Safeguard Under Single Fault Conditions (Bottom)page 6
  7. 7. A New Safety Standard for High Tech ProductsOnce the form of energy is classified, • One (supplementary safeguard) inthe existence and suitability of required place against fire under single faultsafeguards needs to be evaluated. As conditions. As in IEC 60950-1, theindicated previously, performance-based suitability of the supplementarycriteria have been established as the first safeguard can be demonstratedoption, with known and proven prescriptive through either performance-basedconstruction designs offered as suitable (single faults) or construction-basedalternatives. Table 3 provides examples of (fire enclosure) criteriasafeguard characteristics. A high-level process for determiningMany of these safeguards are required in compliance with the main provisions ofexisting standards as well, although they IEC 62368-1 follows a two-step processare not formally identified as “safeguards” described below.in the way they are in this new standard. Begin with specific energy source (hazardFor example, electrical insulation is one clause) and:form of a safeguard that can be used toprevent risk of electric shock. Once the Step 1: Identify and classify each typeelectrical energy source is classified, the of energy source independently forlevel and appropriateness of the insulation the hazard clause, e.g., for electricallyis evaluated, in accordance with sub-clause caused injury, characterize each circuit as ES1, ES2 or ES3 (per Clause 5).5.4. The actual requirements for insulationare very similar to the requirements that are Step 2: After energy sources arepart of IEC 60065 and IEC 60950-1 today, classified, identify the safeguardse.g., prescriptive requirements for clearances, required and qualify them per eithercreepage distances and solid insulation. the performance test, or constructionFigure 4 illustrates a model for protection option (alternative to performanceagainst electrically caused pain or injury. test, when known).As indicated in Figure 5, a similar process is Repeat steps 1 and 2 for everyused for identifying safeguards required to similar energy source, e.g., circuit,prevent electrically caused fire. Again, this as applicable.is based on the three block model for safety Repeat the step 1 and step 2 cycledepicted in Figure 3. for each different type of energyIn the case of electrically caused fire, as source (hazard clause), e.g., Clausedescribed in Figure 5, two safeguards 8 - mechanical energy (MS), Clause 10typically are required: - radiation energy (RS), etc. • One (basic safeguard) in place under UL expects that as IEC 62368-1 is put into both normal and abnormal operating use and users become more familiar with it conditions, and typically proven by and its approach to investigating electronic using materials not exceeding 90 equipment, best practices will be identified percent of the material auto-ignition that help increase efficient and effective use temperature and of the standard.page 7
  8. 8. A New Safety Standard for High Tech ProductsIn terms of the first edition of IEC 62368-1, it first edition of IEC 62368-1 will likely only be in the development process for theis also important to acknowledge that even used by a relatively small segment of the new standard and will remain engagedwith its initial publication, the work of IEC industry, and more widespread use of the with its continuing development andTC108 is not complete. Because IEC 62368-1 standard will not occur until publication implementation. We are already in theis a new standard — and because its scope of the second edition, when areas needing process of applying the standard in productcovers a very wide variety of technologies, evaluations to provide more effective input further attention are addressed. IEC TC108 isconstructions and industry segments — into the next editions of the standard, actively working on the second edition of IECadditional work is required to resolve any develop tools to facilitate its use and develop 62368-1 and is targeting publication in 2013.lingering deficiencies discovered as it is education programs for those interested inintroduced and implemented. In fact, the As mentioned, UL has been deeply involved learning more about the standard.SAFEGUARD BASIC SAFEGUARD SUPPLEMENTARY SAFEGUARD REINFORCED SAFEGUARD Effective under normal Effective in the event of the failure Effective under normal conditions operating conditions of the basic safeguard and in the event of a single faultEquipment safeguard Basic insulation Supplementary insulation Reinforced insulationA physical part of the equipment Normal temperature below Fire enclosure Not applicable auto-ignition temperatureInstallation safeguard Wire size Overcurrent protection device Socket outletA physical part of a manmade installationPersonal safeguard Glove Insulating floor mat Electrically insulated glove for(in the absence of equipment safeguard) handling live conductorsA physical device worn on the bodyInstructional safeguard Instructional safeguard to After opening a door, instructional Instruction for avoiding hot parts(in the absence of equipment safeguard) disconnect telecommunication safeguard instructing to avoid in an office photocopier, or aA voluntary or instructed behavior cable before opening the cover touching hot parts continuous roll paper cutter on aintended to reduce the likelihood of commercial printertransfer or energy to a body partTable 3: Examples of Safeguard Characteristicspage 8

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