Session 3_Srijita Dasgupta


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Session 3_Srijita Dasgupta

  1. 1. Fifth International Conference on Community Based Adaptation to Climate Change 24-31 March 2011 Bangladesh Adaptation Capacity of Fishing Communities to Climate Vulnerabilities and Changes for improving their Livelihoods- A Case Study Conducted in Cox’s Bazaar District of Bangladesh Srijita Dasgupta Mahidol University International College Bangkok, Thailand
  2. 2. Outline of the presentation <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Demographic process and transformation </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Issues </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Trends in adaptation mechanisms </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction <ul><li>About 40 000 traditional marine fishing households (HHs) in Cox’s Bazaar; 60- 70% HHs live in exposed areas </li></ul><ul><li>Majority of them belong to Hindu caste-based “Jaladas” (Literally slaves of water) group </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly 50 000 men are directly involved in active fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Fishers are integral parts of marine fisheries resource management initiatives; fishing is the primary economic activity for livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>Poorest of the poor and number of female-headed households are above the national average </li></ul><ul><li>Indigenous knowledge and worldviews carry significant value in the management and conservation of fisheries resources </li></ul><ul><li>Most vulnerable to climate change impacts </li></ul>
  4. 4. Source of Information <ul><li>Duration: November –December 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed research method covering both quantitative and qualitative paradigms </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative tool: Rapid Roving Survey </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative tools: Focused Group Discussion; key informant interviews; Participant observation </li></ul><ul><li>Interview with Government Fishery Officials </li></ul><ul><li>Secondary information from ECFC project </li></ul>
  5. 5. Demographic process and transformation <ul><li>-> Traditional caste-based marine fishers </li></ul><ul><li>-> Emergence of new fishing communities </li></ul><ul><li>-> Multiple layers of middlemen, moneylenders and other exploiters </li></ul>
  6. 6. Effects of Climate change <ul><li>Stress and perturbations on fishers </li></ul><ul><li>Decline in Catch Per Unit Efforts (CPUE) </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived higher mortality of fish due to disturbances in aquatic ecosystems </li></ul><ul><li>Colossal loss of fisheries due to fry fishing </li></ul><ul><li>Spawning and breeding success perceived to decline </li></ul><ul><li>Fishing rendered to seasonal activity instead of year round employment </li></ul><ul><li>Increased frequency of natural calamities and higher death rates for sea-bound fishers, no on-boat safety measures </li></ul>
  7. 7. Issues <ul><li>Climate change causes displacement of traditional fishers </li></ul><ul><li>Limited resilience to cope with impacts of climate change vulnerabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Very limited physical resource base and susceptibility to loss of assets due to calamities </li></ul><ul><li>Less harvestable fish and threatened animal protein base </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing dependence of fishers on non-fisheries activities negates lifestyles and cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Continued overexploitation of marine fish and hence declining productivity </li></ul>
  8. 8. Adaptation Strategy <ul><li>Inadequate food consumption; poor quality meals and resultant malnutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Increased child labour (domestic help) </li></ul><ul><li>Women reveal enhanced social capital to draw benefits </li></ul><ul><li>Early dropout from school </li></ul><ul><li>Off-farm activities (seasonal) </li></ul><ul><li>Living in housings that are dilapidated because of poor construction and absence of repairs </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern of social marriage weakened </li></ul>100% Resource erosion Period 1971 2011 40%
  9. 9. Trends in Adaptation Mechanisms Past Present Future ● Abundance of fish resources ● Higher CPUE ● Stable market ● Dominance in fishing profession and wisdom ● Indiscriminate fishing ● Involvement of children in fishing ● Livelihood sources diversified; part-time jobs in laundry/ barber shops/rickshaw puller ● Weaving by women ● Children education ● Permanent land settlement rights ● Designated fishing zone for small-scale fishers and access rights ● Appropriate marketing outlets ● More involvement with local institutions
  10. 10. Recommendations <ul><li>1.Empowering these communities through supporting </li></ul><ul><li>community-level institutional development – organizations </li></ul><ul><li>and cooperatives of poor and marginal fishers – that </li></ul><ul><li>increases their voice and lends weight to their opinion in </li></ul><ul><li>decision-making processes affecting their livelihoods </li></ul><ul><li>2.Supporting initiatives for sustainable fishing practices </li></ul><ul><li>including ban on fishing in over-exploited areas and </li></ul><ul><li>increasing efficiency of fishing through use of appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>fishing gear and fuel-efficient fishing vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>3.Supporting risk reduction initiatives within fishing </li></ul><ul><li>communities, including conservation of natural storm barriers </li></ul><ul><li>(reefs, wetlands, mangroves); warning systems (weather </li></ul><ul><li>forecasts and severe weather warning via mobile phone </li></ul><ul><li>messages); preparation measures and recovery processes </li></ul>
  11. 11. Recommendation continued… 4.Enhancing fishers’ access to markets and technical information by streamlining the live and dry fish marketing channels and limiting the control and influence of urban-based fish traders 5.Increasing viability of small-scale coastal and marine fisheries by recognizing this activity as a separate sector of the economy and establishing a separate bank in the public sector modelled on Bangladesh Krishi Bank to enhance fishers’ access to finance on easy terms 6.National-level planning in support of adaptation capacity should consider risk assessment of future fish stock variation and likelihood of resource degradation and produce sectoral plans accordingly.
  12. 12. Thank you for your attention