RACG Conference, 30 March 2009: 21st C Writing


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Presented as part of a workshop on Writing for Success in the 21st C at the 2009 Raising Achievement Closing Gaps Conference in Greensboro, NC.

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RACG Conference, 30 March 2009: 21st C Writing

  1. 1. Writing for Success in the 21st Century: Creating, Composing, and Crafting Across the Curriculum Dr. Carl A. Young & Dr. Carol Pope NC State University: College of Education RACG Conference – Greensboro, NC Monday, March 30, 2009
  2. 2. Agenda & Introductions <ul><li>Introductions </li></ul><ul><li>WAC: Definitions & Research Review </li></ul><ul><li>Framework for Writing / Composing </li></ul><ul><li>21 st Century Teachers & Learners </li></ul><ul><li>Workshop Participant Activities </li></ul><ul><li>Content Area Essay Writing </li></ul><ul><li>Crafting / Revising </li></ul><ul><li>Closure: Question & Answer Session </li></ul>
  3. 3. Q & A Intro Activity <ul><li>Solo: Generate 2-3 good questions to ask in order to learn more about someone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your area of expertise? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is your 21 st century connection? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pair Interviews: Use responses to write a 1-sentence introduction – a “generative” sentence </li></ul><ul><li>Small Groups: Introduce partner to someone new </li></ul><ul><li>Audience Survey – Who are we? Why we’re here! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning to Write <ul><li>Traditionally Part of ELA Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Process Focused </li></ul><ul><li>Involves Invention, Drafting, Revision, Editing, Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Organization, Development, Structure </li></ul><ul><li>G.U.M. as Part of Editing </li></ul>
  5. 5. Learning to Write: Research/Practice <ul><li>Process History </li></ul><ul><li>G.U.M. </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of Writing + Instruction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Writing to Learn <ul><li>Writing Across the Curriculum </li></ul><ul><li>Applicable in All Content Areas </li></ul><ul><li>Tool for Learning Content and Thinking through Language </li></ul><ul><li>Explore, Question, Conceptualize, Discover, Define, Refine </li></ul><ul><li>Contrast to Writing as Testing </li></ul>
  7. 7. Writing to Learn: Research/Practice <ul><li>Enhances Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Develops Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Serve as Natural Content/Writing Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Writing Next connections </li></ul>
  8. 8. Writing Next (2007) – meta-analysis <ul><li>11 Elements found to be effective in helping adolescents learn to write well and to use writing as tool for learning: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Writing Strategies – strategy development </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop background knowledge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Describe strategy – and its purposes, benefits </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Model strategy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Memorize it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide opportunities for independent use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>2. Summarization </li></ul><ul><li>3. Collaborative Writing *21 st C* </li></ul><ul><li>4. Specific Product Goals </li></ul>
  9. 9. Writing Next (2007) – meta-analysis <ul><li>5. Word Processing *21 st C* </li></ul><ul><li>6. Sentence Combining/ Composing </li></ul><ul><li>7. Prewriting </li></ul><ul><li>8. Inquiry Activities *21 st C* </li></ul><ul><li>9. Process Writing Approach </li></ul><ul><li>10. Study of Models (good models for each type of writing students are taught and engaged in, especially those specific to content area expertise) </li></ul><ul><li>11. Writing for Content Learning </li></ul>
  10. 10. A Framework for Teaching Writing and Using Writing to Teach & Learn
  11. 11. The “Givens” for WTL <ul><li>Non-Graded (unless designed to “demonstrate” learning vs. enable learning) </li></ul><ul><li>Content-Focused </li></ul><ul><li>Learning-Focused </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency Development (carries over to learning to write) </li></ul>
  12. 12. 21st Century Teachers and Learners
  13. 13. 21st Century Teachers and Learners at Home
  14. 14. 21st Century Learners at Home and School <ul><li>“ Educators must be prepared to work with how messages are sent, received, and interpreted, as well as how media and technology position us as viewers and users of multimedia texts in the world.” (Albers & Harste, 2007) </li></ul>
  15. 15. Some of the 21 st Century Composing Tools… <ul><li>Blogs, </li></ul><ul><li>Wikis </li></ul><ul><li>Nings </li></ul><ul><li>Social Networking sites </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FaceBook, MySpace, Twitter, LinkedIn, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>YouTube </li></ul><ul><li>Flickr </li></ul><ul><li>Delicious </li></ul><ul><li>Podcasts </li></ul><ul><li>Digital video </li></ul><ul><li>FlipCams, iPods, SmartPhones, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Online gaming and simulations </li></ul><ul><li>Add more here… </li></ul>
  16. 16. TPACK: A Framework for Teacher Knowledge and Practice in the 21 st Century & Beyond <ul><li>Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Mishra & Koehler, 2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>TPACK Professional Development Initiative: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Literacies Teacher Leadership Institute </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Efforts to Operationalize TPACK for all Content Area Teachers: http://activitytypes.wmwikis.net/ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Harris, Hofer, Blanchard, Grandgenet, Schmidt, van Olphen, & Young, 2009) </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 21 st Century: Emerging Technologies & New Literacies <ul><li>Emerging technologies and the new literacies they make possible provide new modes and media for communication and, likewise, create new opportunities and challenges for what it means to teach ___ (fill in blank with your content area). </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging technologies provide students and teachers with an opportunity to use media to create, produce, manipulate, and share evolving conceptions of text and multimedia products. Digital video is one particularly dynamic technology with compelling implications for the K-12 classroom. </li></ul><ul><li>DV Sound Bite (Young, 2009) on 21 st Century Literacies </li></ul>
  18. 18. 21 st Century: New Literacies <ul><li>… reflect a shift emphasizing the importance of “being multiliterate across a range of various dialects, cultural spaces, and semiotic forms” as students engage in learning in which they “communicate across cultures (and sometimes across languages), largely in spaces mediated by technology.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young, Hicks, & Kajder (2009) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>… are characterized by a focus on… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>collective intelligence, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inquiry-based learning and problem-solving, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>multimodal learning, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expertise that is distributed and collaborative, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>value as a function of dispersion, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>and tools that make possible a different, global approach to mediating and relating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knobel, M., & Lankshear, C. (2006); Coiro, J., Knobel, M., Lankshear, C. & Leu, D. (2008) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ In effect, literacy in the 21st century requires an ability to adapt to and apply emerging technologies constantly.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Kajder & Young, 2009) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Literacy has always been a collection of cultural and communicative practices shared among members of particular groups. As society and technology change, so does literacy. Because technology has increased the intensity and complexity of literate environments, the twenty-first century demands that a literate person possess a wide range of abilities and competencies, many literacies. These literacies—from reading online newspapers to participating in virtual classrooms—are multiple, dynamic, and malleable. As in the past, they are inextricably linked with particular histories, life possibilities and social trajectories of individuals and groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Twenty-first century readers and writers need to… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop proficiency with the tools of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build relationships with others to pose and solve problems collaboratively and cross-culturally </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and share information for global communities to meet a variety of purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage, analyze and synthesize multiple streams of simultaneous information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create, critique, analyze, and evaluate multi-media texts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attend to the ethical responsibilities required by these complex environments </li></ul></ul>More Specifically: NCTE’s Definition of 21 st Century Literacies (2008)
  20. 20. 21 st Century: Implications for Writing <ul><li>In her 2009 NCTE Report “Writing in the 21 st Century,” Kathleen Blake Yancey identifies three challenges / opportunities: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>developing new models of writing ; new models of composing; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>designing a new curriculum supporting those models; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creating models for teaching that curriculum; creating new pedagogies for enacting that curriculum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We also believe… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emerging technologies and new literacies expand opportunities for writing to learn; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a new learning ecology (Spires et al, 2009) reflective of 21 st C classrooms is needed for teachers to engage in these opportunities and meet the challenges associated with them, especially the notion of evolving literacies. </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. 21 st Century Examples: Composing, Crafting, Publishing <ul><li>DV Sound Bite Project </li></ul><ul><li>WolfPack Writing Poets </li></ul><ul><li>The Outsiders Project (TOP) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Storytelling (Reading Inventories; Book Trailers) </li></ul>Online Examples: http://newlitcollaborative.ning.com/profiles/blogs/site-09-presentation-narrative
  22. 22. WORKSHOP ACTIVITIES <ul><li>Process: Engage you in initial steps of a few activities, and then let you choose one to take further after orientation to each. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities: </li></ul><ul><li>DV Sound Bite </li></ul><ul><li>Songwriting in the Content Areas </li></ul><ul><li>A Case for Inquiry </li></ul>
  23. 23. DV Sound Bite Activity Steps (Young, 2009) <ul><li>1. Initial Freewrite: In small group (4), c hoose a content area theme (e.g., democracy, evolution, computation, comprehension, etc.) or use the model theme – wisdom . Each member freewrites individually. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Think, Pair, Share: Share freewrites and craft a group definition. Then… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If you have access, create Wordle using group definition: ( http://www.wordle.net/ ). Save URL and/or image for possible later use. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop sound bite. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>View possible DV models… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial Thoughts on 21 st Century Literacies </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom: http://www.wisdombook.org/ </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop here for now… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Later: Develop storyboard and film group sound bite! </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. DV Sound Bite Activity Steps (Young, 2009) <ul><li>Next steps with your own students: </li></ul><ul><li>3. Read and Process: As teacher, you would provide students with focus text(s) to inform their critical understanding of and ability to apply the theme you chose to focus upon as a part of your class objectives and content area. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Revise and Share DV Sound Bite: Have students use new knowledge gained from focus texts to revise individual and collaborative definitions, as well as sound bite. Develop storyboard for new dv sound bite and film. Share with class. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Critical Reflection: Have students reflect on the differences between their initial definitions and dv sound bites and the ones now informed by focus texts. They should discuss and provide support for the choices they made in both the composing and revising processes. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Content Area Songwriting Activity <ul><li>In small groups, choose a content area focus. </li></ul><ul><li>Write lyrics that will explain that content to students. </li></ul><ul><li>Use a familiar tune in conjunction with your lyrics (or one from back of handout). </li></ul><ul><li>Stop here for now… </li></ul><ul><li>Later: Create a dramatic performance for your song and perform! Possibly record it – digital audio or video! </li></ul>
  26. 26. A Case for Inquiry <ul><li>Connections to Writing Next , New Literacies Research, and more. </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry-based reading, writing, and learning strategies cut across all content areas. </li></ul><ul><li>John Dewey (1938), Ken Macrorie (1980), George Hillocks (1986), Arthur Applebee (1981), Kathy short and Jerome Harste (1996), Stephanie Harvey (1998), and others have all pointed out the benefits of inquiry-based learning strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>Hillocks (1986) draws on a history of studies dealing with inquiry to conclude that instructional strategies involving inquiry achieve significantly better results than those that do not. </li></ul><ul><li>Inquiry activities can be large scale projects or smaller interactive lessons. </li></ul>
  27. 27. A Framework for Inquiry
  28. 28. Motivating Student Learning with Inquiry: Alternatives to the Traditional Research Paper <ul><li>K-W-L Charts </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Stations </li></ul><ul><li>I-Search Paper </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Word Search; Name Search; I-Chart; We-Search </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WebQuests / Web Inquiry Project (WIPs) </li></ul><ul><li>Multigenre Research & Writing Project </li></ul><ul><li>Multigenre Reading Project </li></ul><ul><li>Oral History ( Foxfire Project; Sitting On the Courthouse Bench: An Oral History of Grundy, Virginia ) </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Storytelling/History (Rest of the Story Project podcasts) </li></ul><ul><li>SCIM-C Model [(S)ummarize; (C)ontextualize; (I)nfer; (M)onitor; (C)orroborate] </li></ul><ul><li>GATHER Model [ G et overview of historical problem, A sk Questions, T riangulate Data, H ypothesize Answers, E xplore & Interpret Data, R ecord & Support Conclusions] </li></ul><ul><li>Others? Yes, there are more!  </li></ul>
  29. 29. Workshop Activities Follow Up <ul><li>In small groups, choose 1 to complete: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DV Sound Bite Storyboard & Performance Plan (possibly film with Flipcam) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Area Song & Performance Plan (possibly film with Flipcam) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Content Area Inquiry-based Learning Activity / Project Plan (Alternative to Traditional Research Paper) </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Essay Writing on Content <ul><li>Meta-cognition--i.e., thinking about thinking (your experiences today) </li></ul><ul><li>Classroom Applications </li></ul><ul><li>Partners in Teaching Writing </li></ul><ul><li>R.A.M.P. Assignments </li></ul><ul><li>Practice Invention, Drafting, Revising, Editing </li></ul>
  31. 31. Crafting/Revising <ul><li>Purpose & Audience Clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Mode/Form Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Language (appropriate for audience & purpose) </li></ul><ul><li>Order Review for Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Sentence Clarity </li></ul><ul><li>G.U.M. for Editing </li></ul>
  32. 32. Closure: Questions & Answers <ul><li>Thank you! Feel free to contact us. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Carol Pope: [email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dr. Carl Young: [email_address] </li></ul></ul>