Tips data decisionmaking-4-16-12


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Tips data decisionmaking-4-16-12

  1. 1. 1 USING DISCIPLINE DATA TO SOLVE PROBLEMSTennessee School-Wide Positive Behavior Supports Conference May 10-11,2012
  2. 2. Exceptional Children Division Behavior Support & Special Programs2 Positive Behavior Intervention & Support Initiative
  3. 3. Desired Outcomes3 The goal of this training is to help schools move beyond simple collection of discipline data to using the collected data to solve problems.
  4. 4. Rationale4 Data should be used regularly to problem solve because it…  provides an objective viewpoint of the current state.  Increases efficiency by making needed action items clear.  provides information about effectiveness of practices so modifications can be made in a timely manner.  ensures that strategies and interventions are
  6. 6. Data Sources6 Discipline data is collected in many ways:  Office referrals  In and out of school suspensions  Classroom management systems  Behavior contracts
  7. 7. Data Sources: Office Referral7 Information  Office referrals are the most commonly used discipline data source.  Regardless of the collection method, it is important to gather enough information to determine patterns and design effective solutions.  Ensuring accurate collection of data is an important component of the PBIS team’s role.
  8. 8. 8 Average Referrals Per Day
  9. 9. Types of Problem Behavior9
  10. 10. 10 Student Referrals 2 or more referrals
  11. 11. 11 Location
  12. 12. Data Sources: Other Data To12 Consider  Time of day  Probable motivation  Administrator decision  ODR rate compared to national average  Others involved
  13. 13. SWIS summary 2010-11 (Majors Only)4,634 schools; 2,394,591 students; 1,802,178 ODRs Grade Number of Mean Mean Median 25th 75th Range Schools Enrollmen ODRs per ODRs per Percentile Percentile t per 100 stud/ 100 per ODR/100/ ODR/100/ school school day school day school day school day K-6 2979 456 .32 (.41) .21 .11 .39 6-9 889 626 .65 (.81) .46 .25 .79 9-12 390 818 .85 (.86) .62 .34 1.07 PreK-8 254 438 .49 (.49) .32 .18 .65 PreK-12 50 455 1.1 (3.0) .37 .18 .71
  14. 14. Data Sources: Questions to15 Consider  Is our database accurate and reliable?  Are we capturing information about behavior in classrooms?  What modifications does our system need (if any)?  What training does our staff need regarding tracking and accessing data?  How can we ensure our teachers are utilizing the data in an interactive manner to design effective solutions to problem behavior on a regular basis?
  16. 16. Meeting Foundations: Elements17  Team purpose  Defined agreements about processes  Established roles and responsibilities  Electronic meeting minutes
  17. 17. Meeting Foundations: Overview18 1. Meeting starts and ends on time 2. Consistent attendance by team members 3. Agenda is used to guide meeting topics 4. Process is in place to monitor progress of implemented solutions (review previous meeting minutes) 5. System is used for documenting decisions 6. Team members prepare for and meet responsibilities during meeting 7. Next meeting is scheduled 8. All team members (absent or present) are given minutes within 24 hours of the meeting 9. Decision makers are present when needed 10. Protocol is established for when administrator is unable to attend 11. Efforts are making a difference in the lives of children/students
  18. 18. 1. Inform facilitator of attendance issues before meeting 2. Avoid side talk 3. Remind each other to stay focused 4. Start and end on time 5. Be an active participant19
  19. 19. Meeting Foundations: Roles20  Core roles Can one person serve  Facilitator multiple roles?  Minute taker Are there other roles  Data analyst needed? EX: communication  Communication coordinator coordinator, timekeeper  Time keeper  Administrator  Active team member  Backup for each role
  20. 20. Meeting Foundations: Roles21 Facilitator:  Secures date, time, and location for meetings  Manages room set-up (projector, chairs, smartboard, etc.)  Guides team members in the meeting  Ensures participation by all members, using facilitative techniques  Works with the time keeper and the minutes taker to guarantee agenda is followed and time is honored  Acts as liaison between team and administration
  21. 21. Meeting Foundations: Roles22 Minutes Taker:  Arranges for back-up minutes taker, if absent  Manages the Meeting Minutes and Problem- Solving Action Plan  Captures the discussions and decisions made by the team in a concise, accurate method  Is comfortable reviewing, evaluating and revising items with the team  Sends minutes of meeting to team members within established time limit  Ensures minutes/action plan is posted and/or shared with appropriate staff members
  22. 22. Meeting Foundations: Roles23 Data Analyst:  Competent using technology  Has access to necessary data  Able to perform cursory analysis of data to identify possible problems  Comfortable mining data live in meeting  Capable of creating custom reports and graphs as team digs deeper in the data
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  25. 25. Meeting Foundations: Minutes26 Documentation Review  Meeting minutes  Logistics  date  An effective process check  time  Baseline for current meeting  location  roles  Visual tracking of focus topics during and after meetings  Agenda  Prevents side conversations  today’s items  Prevents repetition  next week’s items  Encourages completion of  Discussion items, decisions tasks made, tasks and timelines assigned  Problem statements, solutions/decisions/tasks, responsible people, timelines assigned, and an evaluation plan
  26. 26. Meeting Foundations:27 Environment Problem A key to collective problem solving is to provide a visual context that allows everyone to follow and contribute. Use Data Consider using one form to guide the activities of the meeting and using a projector so that all team members view the content and participate. Out of Solution Time
  27. 27. Langley Elementary PBIS Team Meeting Minutes and Problem-Solving Action Plan Form Today’s Meeting: Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker: Data Analyst:Next Meeting: Date, time, location: Facilitator: Minute Taker: Data Analyst: Team Members (bold are present today) Where on this form would Today’s Agenda Items Next Meeting Agenda Items you place: 01. 1. 02. 2. 03. 1. Planning for PTA Administrative/General Information and Issues meeting Information for Team, or Issue for Team to Discussion/Decision/Task (if applicable) Who? By When? Address 2. Too many students in the “intensive support” for literacy 3. Schedule for hallway Problem-Solving Action Plan monitoring for next Implementation and Evaluation Precise Problem Statement, based on review of Solution Actions (e.g., Prevent, Teach, month Goal, Timeline, data Prompt, Reward, Correction, Extinction, Who? By When? Decision Rule, & Updates (What, When, Where, Who, Why) Safety) 4. There have been five fights on playground in last month 5. Next meeting report on Our Rating Evaluation of Team Meeting (Mark your ratings with an lunch-roomNo Yes So-So status “X”) 1. Was today’s meeting a good use of our time? 2. In general, did we do a good job of tracking whether we’re completing the tasks we agreed on at previous meetings?28 3. In general, have we done a good job of actually completing the tasks we agreed on at previous meetings? 4. In general, are the completed tasks having the desired effects on student behavior?
  28. 28. Meeting Foundations: Recording Relevance29  Minors-what would we like to do about communicating the minors with families? There is inconsistency among staff, not all teachersIssue:the minors as a teaching returning minor use families are not signing and tool in the same way. Is incident reports this a problem? What should be do? Information for Team, or Issue for Team Discussion/Decision/Task (if applicable) Who? By When? Possible hypotheses: multiple students in household to Address Discussion: Minor incident reports bringingRe-examineincidentbeing used to home?and minor the process reports document parent gets communicate about minor incidents team 2-15-10 team upset with student & students not giving form to meeting  Perhaps we create a little blurb that goes out to families that Take proposal to staff Team 2-15-10 staff parents to sign? teachers will use when sending them home. Sending them home meeting creates a Decision: re-examine the process being usedwith problematic situation, can be an issue to communication with families. Perhaps we need to just say to document and communicate about minor incidents staff a general reminder about what is going on with the minors for families of multiple students or friends, etc. We will wait until next year to re-train staff and discuss how to use WHOAS and how to communicate them with parents.
  29. 29. Problem-Solving Action Plan Implementation and Evaluation Precise Problem Statement, based on review of data Solution Actions (e.g., Prevent, Teach, Goal, Timeline, (What, When, Where, Who, Why) Prompt, Reward, Correction, Extinction, Who? By When? Decision Rule, & Updates Safety) October : We have way too many ODRs and we Last month’s example: We are above the national 3BB talked about the 3CICO system are students are starting students who Cico team Cico team 11/16/2009 11/16/2009 CICO Team check-in every average of ODR’swith aggression/fighting with have a problem and we have a problem and Older students teach primary students about starting CICO system. AT is skeptical LL analyze January PBS two weeks to see if students aggression/fightingplayground during the playground disrespect on the and disrespect on K,1,2 morning basketball game rules TP saw the program parent involvement. – contingent on D.C. LL analyze referral data meeting are meeting 80% of their duringlunch recess and lunch recess with 4 and K,1,2 morning coming to school on time involvement at the work fine without parent NN/MMdata referral 11/16/09 goal. students. Reteach playground expectations and asked if previous school. AA walked in Decrease of playground another student could be on CICO. JJ asked if referrals by 25% by January the supervisors were moving around, he had PBS meeting. CICO team seen them talking together in the middle of will report the playground once last week. Decrease of playground We should plan to reteach playground referrals by K-2 students and expectations .Older students could teach D.C. defiance/disruption primary students basketball game rules – referrals contingent on D.C. coming to school on time This month’s precise problem statement: We have -Reteaching game and playground rules -MM will ask MA three high fliers, K-2 and a 6th grader on the -Reinforce proper lining up if she can playground, at 10:00 and 11:45/12:00 -Reinforce exiting and entering building reinforce/teach 46/69 number of total major and minor referrals on playground rules the playground30
  30. 30. Meeting Foundations:31 Structure/Flow 1. Attendance, roles for meeting 2. Next meeting date 3. Review agenda for meeting 4. Review/status update of previous meeting minutes 5. Review data and use problem solving model to prompt the development of a comprehension action plan 6. Reports needed for next meeting 7. Team assessment of meeting
  31. 31. Identify Problem Evaluate and Develop revise Hypothesi action s plan Develop Discuss and and implemen select t action solutions plan33
  32. 32. Any tasks assigned get copied to the meeting minutes of the next meeting as a follow up item Meeting Agenda Item: Meeting Foundations Tasks: What, by whom, by when34 7/13/2012 Newton, J.S., Todd, A. W., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, B., & Algozzine K., 2010
  33. 33. 35
  34. 34. Completed example36
  35. 35. MeetingFoundations:Coaches’Checklist
  37. 37. Problem Solving Process: Using39 Data  In the previous section, you looked at data that gave an overall view of patterns in a school, but didn’t provide enough data to move forward.  Collecting data is pointless if it is not used by all staff members to solve both school-wide and classroom problems.  The ultimate goal is to improve the school experience for students, staff and families.  Data should help us clearly identify problems and lead us to specific possible solutions.  We need to move past “admiring the problem.”
  38. 38. Problem Solving Process: Using40 Data  In order to solve problems successfully, schools need to use a specific process to define precise problems and design solutions.  The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) model was created for PBIS teams.  PBIS teams should use the TIPS model for school-wide data, grade level, and for individual students.  All staff members need to have access to the data and be taught how to use the information to solve everyday challenges. *The TIPS model can easily be used for academic or corporate problems as well.
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  40. 40. Problem Solving Process:42 Definitions  Problem: Difference exists between expected/desired student behavior and current student behavior.  Problem identification: Difference is discovered and significance is determined.  Problem solving: A plan is created to reduce or eliminate difference.
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  43. 43. Identify Problems: Broad Problem45 Statements  Typically, schools use behavioral data to define broad problems.  Broad problem statements do not give enough information to design effective solutions.  The purpose of broad problems statements is to elicit questions that can be answered with data to better define the problem.
  45. 45. Develop Hypothesis: Determine Cause of Problem49  Determining the cause, or uncovering why a behavior is occurring, is essential to developing interventions.  The goal is to help students learn to appropriately meet their needs.  When collecting data, it is important for staff to make their best, most informed guesses about why students are engaging in problem behaviors.
  46. 46. 50
  47. 47. Develop a Hypothesis: Things to51 Consider  A hypothesis is an explanation for what the data and your experience tell you.  Data can only give part of the picture.  Staff with the most direct experience with the problem need to add their insight to accurately define cause.  An accurate hypothesis is crucial to designing solutions that will be effective.
  48. 48. Develop a Hypothesis: Identify a PreciseProblem52  Creating strategies without knowing the precise problem leads to inefficient solutions and wasted time.  In order to ensure precise problem statements, go back to the data to answer the following:  What is the problem?  How often is it happening?  Where is it happening?  Who is engaged in the behavior?  When is the problem most likely to occur?
  49. 49. Activity: Identifying Precise53 Problem Statement Which partial statement is more precise? Which statement is a complete Precise Problem Statement? Too many ODRs 15 instances of disrespect 24 ODRs between 1:00 and 1:30 Too many ODRs in the afternoon Too many ODRs outside the classroom 6 ODRs on the playground 25% of students have at least 2 ODRs Many students have ODRs Total of 12 ODRs for aggression on the Too many ODRs on the playground in the last month; this playground number is more than last year and shows an increasing trend for this year; these incidents are occurring during the first recess, and there are different students involved each time.
  50. 50. 54USING DISCIPLINEDATA TO SOLVEPROBLEMSDiscuss and Select Solutions
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  52. 52. Discuss and Select a Solution: Creating a Goal56  Prior to designing solution strategies, a clear goal needs to be set that can be evaluated using data.  Goals can be measured in the following ways:  Percent reduction  Absolute reduction  Satisfaction level  The best practice is to use more than one measure of evaluation.
  53. 53. Discuss and Select Solutions:57 Design Prevent: • How can we modify the context in which the behavior occurs? • Can we remove or alter the triggers for problem behavior? Teach: • Do we need to define the expected behaviors more clearly? • Can we teach a replacement behavior that meets the same need? • Do we need to provide additional demonstration and/or practice of the desired behaviors? Respond: • In what ways can we immediately prompt the correct behavior? • Does our system frequently reward the desired behavior ? • Can we extinguish problems by withholding reinforcement of the problem behavior? • Can we develop meaningful consequences to correct the problem behavior that provide a learning or practice component of the desired behavior? • How will we effectively respond to behaviors that compromise safety while ensuring the student’s dignity is maintained?
  54. 54. Discuss and Select Solutions: TIPS Worksheet58
  56. 56. 60
  57. 57. Develop and Implement Action Plan:61 Design  The most effective plans utilize multiple strategies that affect all causes of the problem- prevent/teach/respond (prompt, reward, correction, extinction, safety).  To ensure fidelity of implementation, specific tasks need to be assigned to individuals with a timeline for checking back.  Change takes time, so implement the plan for at least one month before evaluating.
  58. 58. Develop and Implement Action Plan: AfterCreation62  Once strategies are selected, specific tasks need to be delegated and tracked using an action plan.  Action plans should drive the creation of future meeting agendas as well as generate clear action steps at the end of each meeting.  Effective action plans are:  Used regularly  Frequently reviewed and updated  Accessible to all staff  Made of specific, manageable action steps with clear timelines  Developed using data from staff and teams
  59. 59. Develop and Implement Action Plan: Ensuring Fidelity63 Use weekly 1-5 survey from teachers to assess implementation of plan. Are we doing the plan? 1 ….. 2 …..3 ….. 4 ….. 5 No Yes Fidelity Newton, J.S., Todd, A. W., Horner, R.H., Algozzine, B., & Algozzine 7/13/2012 K., 2010
  60. 60. 64USING DISCIPLINEDATA TO SOLVEPROBLEMSEvaluate and Revise Action Plan
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  62. 62. Evaluate and Revise Action66 Plan Use data to answer the following: Has the goal been met?  If yes, choose one of the following options: 1. Increase goal for the same problem. 2. Choose another problem to address. 3. End use of the plan.  If no, choose one of the following options: 1. Evaluate fidelity of implementation. 2. Consider the accuracy of the hypothesis. 3. Alter the timeline. 4. Find ways to adjust the solutions.