TIER 3Remember…This step involves other staff and personnel asneeded (parents, teachers, counselors, socialworkers, administrators, and/or nurse) 2
Data Decision Rules• Need them to address:• Teachers initiating the behavioral support process• Student data initiating the process• Progress and goal completion rules• Tertiary intervention effectiveness guidelines
Who is appropriate for Tertiary/Tier 3 Interventions?• Specific chronic social, emotional, and behavioral challenges needing tertiary supports can be defined as: – More than 5 absences in a 30 day period – 3 or more counseling referrals in a 30 day period – 3 or more tardies per subject/ per 9 weeks – 6 or more office discipline referrals• Discuss with your team possible data decision rules for your school.
Suggestions for the Process… Initial Meeting (15 minutes)PSM Team Take and review referral Form Behavior Team Provide support to BT as neededBehavior Assessment Team Conduct simple FBA (30 minutes) Conduct full FBA if needed (90 min.) Prepare to report findings Behavior Second Meeting (60 minutes) Team Discuss assessment findings Design BIP Implement BIP Behavior Third Meeting (30-60 minutes) Evaluate effectiveness of BIP Team Modify BIP as necessary Support and Follow through Follow progress on identified studentPSM Team Provide support as needed
Possible Strategies/InterventionsKeep in mind, student should have gone through secondary/tier 2 interventions prior to tertiary/tier 3 interventions are determined.• Behavior contracts• Functional Behavior Assessments – Behavior Intervention Plan 6
Implementation Inventory• Evaluates all three levels of implementation• Considers Systems, Data, and Practices• Goal is 80% in each area• Use this evaluation to continue to develop and strengthen all three levels of your problem solving model.• Implementation Inventory Link 7
Behavioral Contracts• Clarify behavioral expectations for students and staff to carry out the intervention plan• Include the student in designing the contract to increase motivation• Include parents in planning and reinforcement
Steps for Designing Behavior Contracts1. List student behavior(s) preferably one – Can be reduced or increased – behavioral goals should usually be stated in positive, goal-oriented terms. – Clearly defined , observable – Collection of behavior data2. Reinforcement – a statement or section that explains the minimum conditions under which the student will earn a point, sticker, or other token for showing appropriate behaviors. – Amount of behavior – Amount of reinforcement (Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)
Steps for Designing Behavior Contracts3. Collection of reinforcers and data – Describe when the student will be able to redeem points earned for reward/recognition – How will this be documented4. Bonus and penalty clauses (optional) – can provide extra incentives for the student to follow the contract – offers the student some type of additional pay-off for consistently reaching behavioral targets – a penalty clause may prescribe a penalty for serious problem behavior (Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)
Steps for Designing Behavior Contracts5. Negotiate and Document Terms – Discuss the plan and responsibilities of the student and staff – Date to review contract progress6. Areas for signature. – both teacher and student signatures – Other staff, parents, administrators (Wright, 2011; Jenson, Rhode, Reavis, 1994)
Behavior Contract• Individualized class or school behavior plan – Adjust goals – Prerequisite skills – Shorter time periods – More frequent reinforcement• Contract to address performance deficit 12
Workbook Sample Contracts My Contract: Race to 20! 13
FB(A) – What is it? Functional Behavior AssessmentThe process of determining the cause (function) ofbehaviors that interfere with learning.The FBA uses data that could include: interviews(student, teacher, parent), direct observations, and areview of student records to develop a BehaviorIntervention Plan (BIP).
Who ??? Participates in the FBA/BIP process?• Any individual with knowledge of and an interest in the student’s success can participate in the FBA/BIP process.• This includes, but is not limited to, Teachers Administration Counselors Parents Student Psychologist Community members Other agency personnel
How?? FBA -Planning Meeting• PSM team will hold a planning meeting.• Team members should come prepared to discuss 3 main topics: 1. Student Strengths 2. Target behavior 3. Situational events
Target BehaviorMust answer 3 fundamental ?s1. What is the child doing?2. When/under what conditions is the child demonstrating the behavior?3. How often is the child demonstrating this behavior? (frequency)(ex. Johnny yells and curses when given an assignment that requires him to read independently on 2 out of 4 assignments.)
Activity…For the following examples,come up with some questions that may help to refine the target behavior…• Trish is so aggressive.• Stella doesn’t pay attention.• Chance is always bothering others.• Maggie’s lab projects are a mess.• Carlos is so disruptive.• Timmy is lazy.
Teacher concern Target BehaviorTrish is aggressive. Trish hits other students during recess when she does not get her Way, 3 out of 5 days.Carlos is disruptive. Carlos makes irrelevant and inappropriate comments during class discussion 75% of the time.Jan is hyperactive. Jan blurts out answers without raising her hand during whole group instruction, 3-5 times during a 60 minute class period. the behavior -> when/under what conditions -> how often The Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, 1998
Situational EventsThese are immediate and time bound events, such as recent divorce, new student in class, changes in the family dynamics, or student relocation to a new school.In some cases these events can be identified and discussed so that interventions can be put in place immediately. If effective, there may be no need to move forward with the FBA/BIP process.
FBA/BIP Process Step 1: Step 3: Step 4: Step 2: Data Create a Review the FBA AnalysisCollection Behavior Plan Intervention Plan (BIP)
How?? FBA Getting StartedIf the team feels that it is necessaryto complete the FBA/BIP processproceed with the following:• Initial meeting held to assign roles and responsibilities in conducting the FBA.• FBA notification letter
How?? - Assessment DATA COLLECTION Environmental Inventory Observations (frequency, intensity, duration) Student, Parent, Teacher Interview (setting and function) Record Review (academic performance, discipline referrals, evaluation information)
How?? - FBA AnalysisMust identify the following: Strengths (ex. works well with peers, has great vocabulary skills, is a good classroom helper) Description of any Situational Events These are immediate and time bound events, such as recent divorce, new student in class, changes in the family dynamics, or student relocation to a new school.
FBA Analysis Continued… Description of Target Behavior (Must be measurable, observable, and repeatable) What is the child doing? When/under what conditions is the child doing it? How often is the child doing it? (frequency)(ex. Johnny yells and curses when given an assignment that requires him to read independently on 2 out of 4 assignments.)
FBA Analysis Continued… Frequency, Intensity, and Duration (Frequency – 3x a day, 12 x in a 45 minute period, Intensity – On a scale of 1 -5 (1 = low, 5 = high) Duration – Approximately 5 minutes, the entire block) Previous Interventions (What has been tried in the past? Seating or schedule changes, peer buddies, support during transitions)
FBA Analysis Continued… Setting Events/Precipitating FactorsSlow Triggers – (pervasive antecedents) such as medication issues, home issues, lack of social skills, academic issues Fast Triggers – (immediate triggers) what preceded the behavior such as peer interactions, new assignments/tasks, unstructured activities, noises, lights
FBA Analysis Continued… Consequences Typical responses by the school – do they reinforce the function of the behavior? How does the student respond to the consequence(s)?
What is the function /cause of acting out behavior?1. GAIN or OBTAIN – could tangible, social, sensory, or attention from adults or peers2. ESCAPE or AVOID SOMETHING – could be a task, person, situation, sensory stimulation, social interaction, attention, etc.
Completing an FBA provides a hypothesis…• When Perry is getting little attention in a large group in the classroom, he is likely to shout profanities and throw things to get peer attention. The less attention Perry has received during the day, the more likely this pattern is to occur.
Determining the function of the behavior • In your small group, read over the example analysis (Michael) and determine the function of the behavior. – 1. GAIN or OBTAIN – could tangible, social, sensory, or attention from adults or peers – 2. ESCAPE or AVOID SOMETHING – could be a task, person, situation, sensory stimulation, social interaction, attention, etc.Workbookpg,. 47
MichaelWhat is the function of Michael’s behavior? – Avoid or escape task
You may reveal interesting info…Behavior only occurs: • During a certain time of day • When with a certain group of peers • When in a certain classroom • When round a certain teacher/staff member • When asked to do a certain task • Others?
Link the BIP to the FBA…• You have identified the function of the behavior (gain or avoid)• Create a behavior plan that will address the function and teach the replacement behavior. This will continue to meet the student’s need to gain or avoid.
Step 3Behavior Intervention Plan ABSS (BIP) form
Behavior Intervention Plan Must Include:Setting Event Replacement Adult/student Strategies Behavior Responsibilities Data Collection Continuum ofReinforcement & System to Consequences Review 41
Components of a Behavioral Objective/ Replacement Behavior1. Identify the learner (John will…)2. Identify the target behavior (state what the student will do)3. Identify the conditions of the intervention4. Identify criteria for acceptable performanceJohnny will ask to work with a peer or use the audio book when given an assignment that involves independent reading, 80% of the time.
Is the behavior specific and Objective (IBSO)?1. Can you count the number of times the behavior occurs in a 15 min. period, 1-hour, or 1 day? Or, can you count the number of minutes it takes for the child to perform the behavior? That is, can you tell someone the behavior occurred X number of times or X number of minutes in a day?• Your answer should be yes…
Is the behavior specific and Objective (IBSO)?2. Will a stranger know exactly what to look for when you tell him the target behavior you are planning to modify? That is, can you actually see the child performing the behavior when it occurs?• The answer should be yes…
Is the behavior specific and Objective (IBSO)?3. Can you break down the target behavior into smaller components, each of which is more specific and observable than the original target behavior?• Your answer should be no…
Your turn… Write 1-3 replacement behaviors for your student example (Michael)1. Identify the learner (Michael will…)2. Identify the target behavior (state what the student will do)3. Identify the conditions of the intervention4. Identify criteria for acceptable performance
Michael• Replacement behaviors? – Follow directions without being yelling at the teacher, 80% of the time. – Complete assignments75% of the time. – Participate in class by volunteering to answer questions 3/5 days – Ask for assistance, a break or a different activity when frustrated, 85% of the time.
BIP or no BIP… that is the question…• Review the sample BIP• Discuss the usefulness of this plan• What is missing???
Would youconsider this anindividualizedplan for astudent?
Examples of Environmental Interventions• Have consist expectations and rules• Teach classroom routines and procedures• Move away from distraction• Create area to reduce distraction (lights, air conditioning)• Seating arrangement• Chill Out area/space• Provided a peer during transitions or difficult times• Alter schedule• Adjust teacher proximity• Use a timer or buzzer to signal end of activity• Eliminate Attention for inappropriate behavior• Consider other environments (resource vs. inclusion)• Speak to privately or in written form• Allow for movement
Modifications, Instruction, and Interventions• These are changes that are made by teacher, staff and/or administration to the environment and instructional presentation to promote demonstration of replacement behaviors.• Replacement behaviors include what students will do. These modifications, instruction and interventions involve what teachers & staff will do.
Teaching Replacement BehaviorsAdult/staff Responsibilities: What skill(s) will be taught? Who will teach the skill(s)?Student Responsibilities: How will the student demonstrate understanding and generalization of replacement behavior? How will the student self-monitor?
Reinforcements/Rewards (Types) Tangible Privilege Sensory Social•Stickers •Homework pass •Brushing •Praise•Tokens •Access to •Listening to •Proximity•Pencils media music •Physical•Armbands •Preferred •Tactile exposure contact•“Bucks” activities •Swinging •Written or •Teacher helper •Ball pit verbal•Food •Free time - (make •Velcro feedback•Drink is structured) •Seating•Candy
Examples of Continuum of Consequences Always begin with least severe.• Warning• Does not earn point/token• Does not earn 2nd point/token & loss of reward/privilege• Time-out in classroom• Parent contact• Time-out outside of classroom (ISS or Choices)• For those students whose behavior is danger to self and others include a crisis plan or statement.
What’s Next??? IMPLEMENTATION Teaching Roles & ResponsibilitiesStrategies/Interventions Of Staff Educational & Roles & ResponsibilitiesEnvironmental Changes/ Of Student(s) Interventions
Teaching Strategies/Interventions • Classroom Management • Instructional Strategies • Social Skills Instruction • Utilize Reinforcement and fade once behavior is learned • Continuum of Consequences
Ideas to keep things lively when teaching social skills/ replacement behaviors…• Include games• Videotape what you are doing• Ask children to share stories about prosocial behavior they see• Celebrate accomplishments• Connect activities to the children’s goals – more friends, a better academic performance, a safer school (Thornton et al., 2000)
Now what??? EVALUATION Collect Data Monitor the Student (point systems, frequency charts,(All faculty should do this) discipline referrals) (STEP 3) INITIAL REVIEW (Minimum 30 days) (STEP 4) Other Reasons to Revisit/Review (no change in behavior, change in placement/school, annual review of the IEP, if student reaches behavioral goals)
Behavior Intervention Plan NOT WORKING: Possible Causes Short term vs. long term focus (there is no “quick fix”) Poor FBA Focus on stopping behavior rather than teaching new behavior Inconsistency in responding to behavior Using too much Verbal Input and not enough Visual Input Lack of DATA based decision making Not all relevant staff informed Not defining success Lack of available reinforcers and consequences Information provided by Kelly Rogers, S. Psy.S. Behavior Consultant, Delta-School Craft ISD.
Team Time• Discuss and document your plan for Tertiary levels of support.• Use the back of the BIP review to document: – BIP team – BIP training needed – Suggestions for strategies 62
Problem Solving (PSM) Process Step 1 1 2 Define the Problem Develop a behavioral Step 2 7 Step 7 (observable) definition Develop an Analysis of the of problem Assessment Plan Intervention Plan Generate a hypothesis and assessment questions make a team decision on the effectiveness of the related to the problem intervention 6Step 6 Step 3 3Implement the Analysis of the AssessmentIntervention Plan PlanProvide strategies, materials, andresources: include Create a functional and multidimensional assessment toprogress monitoring test the hypothesis 5 4 Step 5 Step 4 Develop an Intervention Generate a Goal Plan Statement Base interventions on best practices Specific Description of the changes and research-proven strategies expected in student behavior 64
Using the Referrals by Student BH Use the data to identify individual students in need of secondary & tertiary supports.Newton, J.S., Todd, A.W., Algozzine, K, Horner, R.H. & Algozzine, B. (2009). The Team Initiated Problem Solving (TIPS) Training Manual. Educational and Community Supports, University of Oregon unpublished training manual.
Refer to Tier II paperwork exampleREVIEW PAPERWORK EXAMPLE 71
Problem Solving Practice• Use your disciplinary data to practice the problem solving process or use the example data in your workbook.• Use the RtI Paperwork to assist you with the process. Workbook Pg. 55-59
Resources for Planning• Review your data from each section of the Implementation Inventory.• Develop your Tier 2 and 3 Action Plan – Include short and long term goals – Remember to continue to address Universal Systems Workbook Pg. 60-61 74
FBA/BIP Websites: Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice: www.air-dc.org/cecp/cecp.html Council for Exceptional Children: www.cec.sped.org Wrights Law www.wrightslaw.com Colorado Department of Education: www.cde.state.co.us Conner’s Rating Scales www.parinc.com/achieve Devereux Behavior Rating Scales www.devereux.org/scale.htm Behavior: You can handle them all ww.disciplinehelp.com School Behavior www.schoolbehavior.com Positive Behavior Support www.pbis.org Intervention Central www.interventioncentral.org
Texts and ReproduciblesJenson, W., Rhode, G. & Reavis, K. (1994). The Tough Kid Tool Box . Sopris West Publishers.Mahler, D. E. (2005). 204 Fold and Say Social Skills. Superduper Publishing Company.Olson, J. (2005). Go-To Guide for Social Skills. Thinking Publications.
References•Alberto, P.A. & Troutman, A.C. (2006). Applied Behavior Analysis for Teachers. Upper Saddle River,New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.•Bateman & Bateman (2006). A Principal’s Guide to Special Education.•The Center for Effective Collaboration and Practice, 1998•Chandler, L. & Dahlquist, C. (2006). Functional Assessment: Strategies to Prevent and RemediateChallenging Behavior in School Settings.•Colorado Department of Education (2001). Functional Behavioral Assessments and BehaviorIntervention Plans: Questions and Answers.•Holahan, T. & and Hussey, B. Training for Alternative Learning Environments, Instructors Guide.•Lewis, T. Ph.D. Functional Behavioral Assessments: Moving Beyond Compliance to CreateComprehensive Positive Behavior Support Plans. University of Missouri - Columbia.•Rogers, K. & S. Psy. S., Behavior Consultants, Delta-School Craft, ISD. (Information provided forBehavior Deficits & Excesses and Functions of Behavior handouts)•Starin, S. Ph.D. Functional Behavioral Assessments: What, Why, When, Where, and Who? Wrightslaw.
Questions?• Please complete your evaluation.• Thank you! 78