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  1. 1. Bully Prevention In Positive Behavior Intervention and Support
  2. 2. Assumptions Schools that are interested in implementing Bully Prevention fall under the following criteria:  Universals implementation has begun.  Data indicates bullying should be addressed.
  3. 3. Today’s Goals  Define why bullying is worth addressing.  Provide a comprehensive model for bully prevention.  Describe core elements of UNIVERSAL level bully prevention.  Demonstrate reduction in bullying and improved perception of school safety through data.
  4. 4. Rationale for BullyPrevention  The National School Safety Center (NSSC) called bullying the most enduring and underrated problem in U.S. schools(Beale, 2001).  Nearly 30 percent of students have reported being involved in bullying as either a perpetrator or a victim (Nansel, et al., 2001; Swearer & Espelage, 2004).  Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to skip and/or drop out of school (Berthold & Hoover, 2000; Neary & Joseph, 1994).  Victims and perpetrators of bullying are more likely to suffer from underachievement and sub-potential performance in employment settings (Carney & Merrell, 2001; NSSC, 1995).
  5. 5. Typical Bully Prevention Most Bully Prevention programs focus on the bully and the victim. Which leads to several problems:  Bullying is inadvertently taught.  Bullies are blamed.  The role of bystanders are ignored.  Program results are ineffective over time.
  6. 6. Bully Prevention in PBIS School-wide Bully Prevention aligns with universal implementation:  All students learn behavior expectations.  All staff reinforce students demonstrating expectations.  All staff address students not demonstrating expectations.
  7. 7. Foundations of Bully Prevention  Bullying behavior occurs in many forms, and locations, but typically involves student-student interactions.  Bullying behavior is often reinforced by:  Attention from bystanders  Reaction from victim  Access to resources  Self-reinforcement
  8. 8. Foundations of BullyPreventionTwo key changes lead to prevention of bullying behaviors: Reinforcements that follow bullying are removed. Staff and students effectively respond to bullying behavior.
  9. 9. CONTINUUM OFBullying Bully & POSITIVE Victim Individual BEHAVIORPrevention Support INTERVENTIONModel AND Additional and more frequent role play & SUPPORT practice Teach School-Wide Expectations Teach & Reinforce Stop, Talk, & Walk
  10. 10. Teach All Students Teach school-wide expectations  Students should be able to recognize respectful verses non- respectful behavior.  Link concept of respect and responsibility to the most appropriate expectation. Teach how bullying is reinforced  Bullies gain attention.  Bullies gain materials/activities. Teach how to respond to non-respectful behavior  Say, “Stop.”  Walk away.
  11. 11. Teaching “Stop” If someone is not being respectful toward you, or someone else, tell them to “Stop!” Because talking is hard in emotional situations… always include a physical signal to stop. Review how the stop signal should look and sound.  Firm hand signal  Clear voice
  12. 12. Responding to “Stop” Eventually, every student will be told to stop. When this happens, he or she should follow these three steps:  Stop what you are doing.  Take a deep breath.  Go about your day (no big deal). This three-step procedure should be followed even when the student doesn’t agree with the “stop.”
  13. 13. Teaching “Walk”  Sometimes, even when students tell others to “Stop,” problem behavior will continue. When this happens, students are to "walk away" from the problem behavior.  Remember that walking away removes the reinforcement for bullying.  Teach students to encourage one another when they use the appropriate
  14. 14. Teaching “Talk” Even when students use “stop” and they “walk away” from the problem, sometimes students will continue to behave inappropriately toward them. When that happens, students should "talk" to an adult. Report problems to adults.
  15. 15. Teaching “Talk”There is a difference between tattling and talking.  Talking is when you have tried to solve the problem yourself, and have used the "stop" and "walk" steps first.  Tattling is when you do not use the "stop" and "walk away" steps before talking to an adult.  Tattling is when your goal is to get the other person in trouble.
  16. 16. Responding to “Talk”When any problem behavior is reported, adults follow a specific response sequence:  Reinforce the student for reporting the problem behavior (i.e. "Im glad you told me.").  Ask who, what, when and where.  Ensure the student’s safety.  Is the bullying still happening?
  17. 17. Responding to “Talk”  Is there fear of revenge?  What does the student need to feel safe?  What is the severity of the situation?  "Did you tell the student to stop?" If yes, praise the student for using an appropriate response. If no, practice.  "Did you walk away from the problem behavior?" If yes, praise student for using appropriate response. If no, practice.
  18. 18. Reinforcing “Stop/Walk/Talk” Effective generalization requires the prompt reinforcement of appropriate behavior the FIRST time it is attempted. Staff should look for students that use the 3- step response appropriately and reward. Students that struggle with problem behavior (either as victim or perpetrator) are less likely to attempt new approaches. These students need reinforcement for attempting to implement the strategies.
  19. 19. Practice “Stop/Walk/Talk” Break into groups of four and designate roles.  Roles are: Perpetrator, Victim, Bystander, & Teacher.  Role-play a typical scenario utilizing the strategies.  Brainstorm potential pitfalls and solutions.
  20. 20. Implementing BullyPrevention  Universals must be in place.  Download Bully Prevention in PBIS Manual.  Elementary School Version  Middle School Version  Plan to train all staff and students prior to implementing strategies.
  21. 21. PBIS Team Roles Takes the lead with implementation. Determines a school-wide “stop” signal. Develops schedule for student Bully Prevention training (initial and follow-up). Plans ongoing support of supervisors and teachers. Evaluates student outcome data (ODRs). Uses an implementation checklist. Follows up with faculty. Works with the district to maintain efforts.
  22. 22. Teacher Role  Read manual.  Deliver initial lessons and follow up lessons.  Practice with students.  Report incidents.  Respond to “Talk” as trained.  Reinforce appropriate behavior.  Give feedback to PBIS team.
  23. 23. Administrator Role  Provide leadership for Bully Prevention Model.  Read manual.  Practice with students.  Check in with students and staff.  Report incidences.  Reinforce staff and student behavior!
  24. 24. Planning Guide
  25. 25. Implementation Checklist
  26. 26. Research Support Scott Ross of University of Oregon has studied Bully Prevention at the elementary level.  Three elementary schools  Two students at each school with physical/social aggression at high rates  All staff taught with the Bully Prevention in PBIS manual  All students taught by staff  All playground personnel received implementation support
  27. 27. Baseline 3.14 Acquisition 1.88 Full BP-PBS Implementation .88 72% Reduction Rob School 1 Bruce Number of Incidents of Bullying Behavior Cindy School 2 Scott Anne School 3 Ken20 School Days
  28. 28. 28% increase 19% decrease21 BP-PBS, Scott Ross
  29. 29. 22% decrease 21% increase22 BP-PBS, Scott Ross
  30. 30. Summary  Manual available on wiki.  Establish school-wide expectations.  Teach students how to respond to behavior that is NOT respectful.  Provide extra review and pre-correction for students with more extensive need.  Provide support for staff implementation fidelity.  Collect and use data to improve implementation and impact.  Work with your team to determine next steps.
  31. 31. Work Cited  Beale, A. V., & Scott, P. C. (2001, April). Bullybusters: Using drama to empower students to take a stand against bullying behavior. Professional School Counseling, 4, 300-305.  Berthold, K. A., & Hoover, J. H. (2000, January). Correlates of bullying and victimization among intermediate students in the Midwestern USA . School Psychology International, 21, 65-78.  Carney, A. G., & Merrell, K. W. (2001, August). Bullying in schools: Perspectives on understanding and preventing an international problem. School Psychology International, 22, 364-382.  Espelage, D. L., & Swearer, S. M. (2003). Bullying in American Schools A Social-Ecological Perspective on Prevention and Intervention. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.  Nansel, T. R., Overpeck, M., & Ramani, P. S. (2001, April 16). Bullying behaviors among US youth: Prevalence and association with psychosocial adjustment . JAMA, 285, 2094-2100.  Neary, A., & Joseph, S. (1994, January). Peer victimization and its relationship to self- concept and depression among schoolgirls . Personality and Individual Differences, 16, 183-