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The Periodic   Table Classification  And Trends
The s-, p-, d-, and – f block Elements
s-Block Elements
s-Block Elements    Group-1 Alkali Metals• Includes_________________ but not ____.          Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr         ...
s-Block Elements    Group 2 – Alkaline Earth Metals•                 Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra  Includes:____________________...
d-Block ElementsTransition Metals
d-Block Elements    Transition Metals• Includes Groups ___ - ___                        3      12• Ex.____________________...
p-Block Elements
p-Block Elements• 3 categories:  – ________    metals  – non-metals    ____________  – metalloids    _________• End with _...
Halogens (Group 17 (7A))• Includes: _______________________                      F, Cl, Br, I, (At)• most ________ non-met...
Metalloids             X
Metalloids• along __________________ (not Al)         zig-zag line / staircase             B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, (At)...
f-Block ElementsLanthanides Actinides
f-Block Elements• Period 6: Lanthanides     shiny  – _______ metals like alkaline earth metals  – ex. Cerium• Period 7: Ac...
Valence ElectronsTrends in the Periodic Table
Valence Electrons• These are the _________electrons, and the                 outer most  electrons available to be _______...
IONS       • An atom or group of bonded                          positive         atoms with a _____________         or __...
Positive Ions      • Are called ___________                     CATIONS      • They form when an atom            LOSES    ...
Negative Ions      • Are called _________.                     ANIONS      • They form when an atom         GAINS        _...
How are ions formed?
Electron Dot Structure      • Consists of the element’s        ________ and ____          symbol        dots        repres...
Valence electron periodic trends                                           Electron           Valence       Ion Group     ...
Questions???•  What is the electron dot structure forb) Sulfur?b) Magnesium?
Questions???•  How many valence electrons do the   following elements have?b) Silicon?                4e) Oxygen?         ...
Questions???•  Predict the ion forb) Aluminum?                    Al3+e) Strontium?                  Sr2+
Questions???•  Do the following elements typically   gain or lose electrons?b) Fluorine?               It’s a non-metal   ...
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The periodic table classification

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The periodic table classification

  1. 1. The Periodic Table Classification And Trends
  2. 2. The s-, p-, d-, and – f block Elements
  3. 3. s-Block Elements
  4. 4. s-Block Elements Group-1 Alkali Metals• Includes_________________ but not ____. Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr H X• end with _____ s1• Li: 1s22s1 Na: 1s22s22p63s1 Example:______________________________• soft These are all ______ metals (can be cut with a knife)• They are SO REACTIVE they are not found in free elements nature as _____ _________ but always in NaCl compounds ex. ______ air• So Reactive they often react with _____ and water ________ !!!! halogens• React strongly with ____________ (chlorine)
  5. 5. s-Block Elements Group 2 – Alkaline Earth Metals• Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra Includes:_________________________• Ends with ____ s2• Mg 1s22s22p63s2 Ca 4s2 Ex:______________________________• stronger denser harder __________, __________, __________, than Alkali Metals• Still ____ _________ to be found as free too reactive elements compounds• Always in ___________ ex. CaCo3 (Calcium Carbonate – “Limestone”)
  6. 6. d-Block ElementsTransition Metals
  7. 7. d-Block Elements Transition Metals• Includes Groups ___ - ___ 3 12• Ex.______________________________ gold, iron, silver, nickel, copper• ________ metals, ______ reactive typical less• gold platinum Some not reactive at all: ______, ________, and ____________ - have never been found palladium in compound colorful• Compounds are __________!! (ex. CuSO4 – Copper Sulfate – blue) s• Outer sublevel are __ and __ d [Ar] 4s23d8• Ex. Nickel __________________
  8. 8. p-Block Elements
  9. 9. p-Block Elements• 3 categories: – ________ metals – non-metals ____________ – metalloids _________• End with ___ and ___ sublevels s p 1s22s22p63s23p5• Ex. Chlorine____________
  10. 10. Halogens (Group 17 (7A))• Includes: _______________________ F, Cl, Br, I, (At)• most ________ non-metals active• react with metals to form _______ salt NaCl ex. _________• 1 electron _________ of stable noble short gas notation, so usually gain 1 electron 1- ion to make _________ (ex. Cl-)
  11. 11. Metalloids X
  12. 12. Metalloids• along __________________ (not Al) zig-zag line / staircase B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, (At)• includes: ________________________• both metal and non-metal properties
  13. 13. f-Block ElementsLanthanides Actinides
  14. 14. f-Block Elements• Period 6: Lanthanides shiny – _______ metals like alkaline earth metals – ex. Cerium• Period 7: Actinides radioactive – ALL are ____________ - no known stable isotopes!!!! Uranium plutonium – ex. __________, ___________
  15. 15. Valence ElectronsTrends in the Periodic Table
  16. 16. Valence Electrons• These are the _________electrons, and the outer most electrons available to be _______ or ______ gained lost in chemical compounds• The presence of ______ valence electrons is 8 chemically ______ stable• Elements tend to react to acquire the stable electron structure of a ___________. noble gas
  17. 17. IONS • An atom or group of bonded positive atoms with a _____________ or ___________ charge. negative
  18. 18. Positive Ions • Are called ___________ CATIONS • They form when an atom LOSES ____________ electrons. • Example: Sodium Protons: 11+ Electrons: 10- Na 1+ ion
  19. 19. Negative Ions • Are called _________. ANIONS • They form when an atom GAINS _______ electrons. • Example: Chlorine Protons: 17+ Electrons: 18- Na 1- ion
  20. 20. How are ions formed?
  21. 21. Electron Dot Structure • Consists of the element’s ________ and ____ symbol dots representing the atom’s VALENCE electrons. • Ex. Na Cl
  22. 22. Valence electron periodic trends Electron Valence Ion Group Example Dot Electrons Tendency Structure1 (1A) 1 1+ Na+ Na2 (2A) 2 2+ Ca2+ Ca13 (3A) 3 3+ Al3+ Al14 (4A) 4 C P15 (5A) 5 3- P3-16 (6A) 6 2- O2- O17 (7A) 7 1- Cl- Cl18 (8A) 8 stable Ne
  23. 23. Questions???• What is the electron dot structure forb) Sulfur?b) Magnesium?
  24. 24. Questions???• How many valence electrons do the following elements have?b) Silicon? 4e) Oxygen? 6
  25. 25. Questions???• Predict the ion forb) Aluminum? Al3+e) Strontium? Sr2+
  26. 26. Questions???• Do the following elements typically gain or lose electrons?b) Fluorine? It’s a non-metal So…. GAINS 1e) Cesium? It’s a metal so…. LOSES 1

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