Hazards From Space


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A summary of hazards to earth from things in space.

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Hazards From Space

  1. 1. Hazards from Space <ul><li>NEO (near earth object) collisions and other potential problems. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Hazards in Space <ul><li>Hostile Alien Invaders </li></ul><ul><li>Asteroid/Meteor/Comet Collision </li></ul><ul><li>Radiation Wavefront from Exploding Stars at Galactic Core </li></ul><ul><li>Micro and Monster Black Holes </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Flares </li></ul><ul><li>Who knows what else... </li></ul>
  3. 3. Aliens: Been there, done that. <ul><li>I’m sure most of us have seen or read some depiction of the alien invasion scenario. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Meteor strike: Been there, done that. <ul><li>I’m sure most of us have seen or read some depiction of the large space rock hitting earth scenario. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Exploding Stars at Galactic Core <ul><li>Writer Larry Niven’s work. </li></ul><ul><li>What are Pierson’s Puppeteer running from? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Micro Black Holes <ul><li>One theory for the 1908 Tungusta Explosion </li></ul>
  7. 7. Solar Flares - CME (coronal mass ejection) <ul><li>You realize the Sun is pretty close to Earth, and solar flares happen pretty regularly. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Impact of a CME <ul><li>When the ejection reaches the Earth as an ICME (Interplanetary CME), it may disrupt the Earth's magnetosphere , compressing it on the day side and extending the night-side magnetic tail . When the magnetosphere reconnects on the nightside, it creates trillions of watts of power which is directed back toward the Earth's upper atmosphere . This process can cause particularly strong aurora also known as the Northern Lights, or aurora borealis (in the Northern Hemisphere), and the Southern Lights, or aurora australis (in the Southern Hemisphere). CME events, along with solar flares , can disrupt radio transmissions, cause power outages (blackouts), and cause damage to satellites and electrical transmission lines . </li></ul>
  9. 9. Impact of a CME in 1859 <ul><li>From August 28, 1859 until September 2, 1859 numerous sunspots and solar flares were observed on the sun. Just before noon on September 1, the British astronomer Richard Carrington observed the largest flare , [3] which caused a massive coronal mass ejection (CME), to travel directly toward Earth, a journey of 18 hours. This is remarkable because such a journey normally takes three to four days. It moved so quickly because an earlier CME had cleared its way. [4] </li></ul><ul><li>Magnetic storm </li></ul><ul><li>On September 1–2, 1859 the largest recorded geomagnetic storm occurred, causing the failure of telegraph systems all over Europe and North America. [5] Auroras were seen around the world, most notably over the Caribbean ; also noteworthy were those over the Rocky Mountains that were so bright, the glow awoke gold miners, who began preparing breakfast because they thought it was morning. [3] </li></ul>
  10. 10. Impact of a CME in 1989 <ul><li>The geomagnetic storm causing this event was itself the result of a Coronal Mass Ejection on March 9, 1989. [1] 3.5 Days later, at 2:44 am on March 13, 1989, a severe geomagnetic storm struck Earth . [2] [3] The storm began on Earth with extremely intense auroras at the poles, able to be seen as far south as Texas . [4] As this occurred during the cold war , many worried that a nuclear first-strike might be in progress. [4] Others considered the intense auroras to be associated with the Space Shuttle mission STS-29 , which had been launched on March 13 at 9:57:00 AM. [ citation needed ] The burst caused short-wave radio interference, including the jamming of radio signals from Radio Free Europe into Russia. It was thought that the signals had been jammed by the Kremlin. </li></ul><ul><li>As midnight came and went, invisible electromagnetic forces were staging their own pitched battle in a vast arena bounded by the sky above and the rocky subterranean reaches of the Earth. A river of charged particles and electrons in the ionosphere flowed from west to east, inducing powerful electrical currents in the ground that surged into many natural nooks and crannies. [4] </li></ul><ul><li>Some satellites in polar orbits lost control for several hours. GOES weather satellite communications were interrupted causing weather images to be lost. NASA's TDRS-1 communication satellite recorded over 250 anomalies caused by the increased particles flowing into its sensitive electronics. [4] The Space Shuttle Discovery was having its own mysterious problems. A sensor on one of the tanks supplying hydrogen to a fuel cell was showing unusually high pressure readings on March 13. The problem went away just as mysteriously after the solar storm subsided.å </li></ul>
  11. 11. Something like this <ul><li>Did anyone mention there’s one or two headed our way due to arrive 3/17/2010? </li></ul>