8 Gathering Views On Service Quality


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8 Gathering Views On Service Quality

  1. 1. Costs of poor quality “are huge, but the amounts are not known with precision. In most companies, the accounting system provides only a minority of the information needed to quantify this cost of poor quality Juran (1992)
  2. 2. Gathering Views on Service Quality Techniques and tools
  3. 3. Objectives
  4. 4. Learning Criteria <ul><li>Summarise methods of assessing the quality of customer service provision in a business and services context </li></ul><ul><li>Explain the purpose of evaluating the performance of a customer service policy and how this can assist future staff training and development events </li></ul><ul><li>Assess a range of sources which provide information concerning customer requirements and satisfaction levels </li></ul>
  5. 5. Performance measures
  6. 6. Relationship between satisfaction and loyalty
  7. 7. Customer intelligence: <ul><li>The process of gathering information; building a historical database; and developing an understanding of current, potential, and lapsed customers. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Sources of Information to Measure Customer Satisfaction <ul><li>Informal surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Comment cards </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal comments </li></ul><ul><li>Historical data (point of sale) </li></ul><ul><li>Sales </li></ul><ul><li>Corporate generated surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Discussions with internal customers </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul><ul><li>Toll-free phone numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Customer intelligence information </li></ul>
  9. 9. Sources of Customer Intelligence <ul><li>Method by which customers choose to conduct business </li></ul><ul><li>Time of day that customers have questions </li></ul><ul><li>Depth of their expected interactions </li></ul><ul><li>Purchasing patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>And so on </li></ul>
  10. 10. Using existing information <ul><li>General satisfaction surveys and opinion polls </li></ul><ul><li>Planning and designing useful and high quality surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Servqual </li></ul><ul><li>Customer and other panels </li></ul><ul><li>Service specific, recent contact and exit surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Mystery shopping </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1. General satisfaction surveys and opinion polls <ul><li>A survey is a systematic gathering of data that uses a questionnaire to gather the same information from each individual service user </li></ul><ul><li>Usually based on a sample drawn from a wider population representative of the target market </li></ul><ul><li>General surveys are useful to get a broad picture of the views of service users on a range of issues. </li></ul>
  12. 12. 1. General satisfaction surveys and opinion polls <ul><li>Often surveys are an attempt to assess general satisfaction, to measure change over time and to build an up- to- date profile of the client base. </li></ul>
  13. 13. 2. Planning and designing useful surveys <ul><li>A key principle of quality in research and consultation is that the research design must be led by purpose and use. </li></ul><ul><li>It is essential that the purposes of the research and how the findings will be used are clear. </li></ul>
  14. 14. 2. Planning and designing useful surveys <ul><li>Think about the purpose of the survey </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is important to be clear about the purpose of any general survey. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Undertaking a survey may raise expectations for change that can’t be met either because the information asked for is not precise or clear enough to be actionable or because resources or other factors are not in place to support change </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 2. Planning and designing useful surveys <ul><li>Planning and designing useful surveys; checklist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be clear about the purpose of a general survey and whose views it is seeking. It may be more effective to target particular service users rather than conducting a general survey. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clearly specify the target population for your survey. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ask questions that are important to customers as well as questions that concern service providors </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. 2. Planning and designing useful surveys <ul><li>Planning and designing useful surveys; checklist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be clear about what changes in services may be realistically expected as a result of the survey. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider carefully how important it is to track changes over time; do not automatically ask the same questions as earlier surveys unless there is a good reason to do so. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design use into the survey; ask for precise and actionable information and be clear about the intended use of every question in the survey. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. 2. Planning and designing useful surveys <ul><li>Planning and designing useful surveys; checklist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Consider how the data is to be analysed in advance; discard any questions that are not essential, and discard or appropriately reword questions that are likely to elicit a low response. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be clear in advance about who will use the survey results and exactly how the results are to be used to change services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always tell service users what changes have resulted from the last time they were consulted and acknowledge the value of their input. This will help to encourage future responses by demonstrating the actions that have resulted. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. 3. Servqual <ul><li>The Servqual approach is best suited to assessing existing service quality. </li></ul><ul><li>It assesses customer satisfaction with the processes supporting the service provision and not the quality of the end result, or outcome. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, it will not help to assess the quality of a completed repair, although it will assess the processes necessary to provide a repairs service </li></ul>
  19. 19. 3. Servqual <ul><li>Servqual: checklist </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to understand service user expectations; there may be a number of ways to do this and which should be considered more generally, even if a Servqual approach is not adopted. </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations will change over time and the methods used need to be able to capture these changes. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider how to assess satisfaction with both processes and outcomes of service delivery. </li></ul>
  20. 20. 3. Servqual <ul><li>Servqual: checklist </li></ul><ul><li>√ Consider whether there is the appropriate technical capacity to conduct a rigorous Servqual exercise or whether you need external support. </li></ul><ul><li>√ Think about how best to present the gap scores to different audiences and how best to encourage discussion of the findings of this approach. </li></ul><ul><li>√ There are also useful lessons for general questionnaire design in terms of identifying different determinants and dimensions of service character. This is likely to enhance the usefulness of all survey approaches. </li></ul>
  21. 21. 3. Servqual <ul><li>The task of identifying the different characteristics of service quality in this way is an important step in the design of any questionnaire or survey, whether or not it uses a Servqual methodology. </li></ul><ul><li>This will avoid questionnaires becoming an unstructured collection of loosely or unrelated questions and so will enhance the usefulness of the data collected </li></ul>
  22. 22. 3. Servqual <ul><li>A further issue is one of presentation of findings. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically the scores produced are negative; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>that is that an organisation will usually fail to meet expectations. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Whilst service managers may find this useful information of help to direct their efforts towards service improvement, there may be issues about direct reporting of these scores to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Staff, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Board members </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Negative scores may automatically be seen as service failure </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. 4. Customer and other panels <ul><li>A Panel is essentially a group of customers or service users who have consented to be part of a pool of people which will be used to select samples to take part in periodic research and consultation exercises. </li></ul><ul><li>They are sometimes referred to as user groups. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 4. Customer and other panels <ul><li>Both the design and maintenance of the Panel and the individual methods used with the Panel influence the quality of the data collected in this way and need to be considered. </li></ul>
  25. 25. 4. Customer and other panels <ul><li>When might a Panel be useful? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Establishing a Panel is a convenient and visible way to recruit people willing to provide feedback on their experience of services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As with any sample, a key issue is to decide how important strict statistical representativeness is given the purposes for which the Panel will be used. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To be statistically representative, Panels should be selected in the same way as samples for general surveys. </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. 4. Customer and other panels <ul><li>Potential Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of Panel members over time means that the Panel needs to be continually refreshed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It may be difficult to recruit members from lower socio-economic groups, ethnic minorities and young people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Downward trends in response rates over time may highlight research saturation or disillusionment amongst Panel members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Panels require active management; the composition of the Panel should be reviewed regularly and new members recruited. </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. 5. Service specific, recent contact or exit surveys <ul><li>These are surveys based on people who have recently used a service </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are appropriate when it is more important to have informed feedback based on experience, rather than the views of a wider sample of the general population or all service users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They can be used in a more regular and routine way than general satisfaction surveys which only happen every few years </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. 5. Service specific, recent contact or exit surveys <ul><li>Such surveys can be used for different purposes and this will affect they way they should be conducted. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data on experience of services may be used to support long term monitoring of services, assess the performance of contractors and to identify and follow up individual dissatisfied service users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>These approaches are good for getting short and simple, more ‘everyday’ feedback </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. 5. Service specific, recent contact or exit surveys <ul><li>It is important to define the target population very clearly; </li></ul><ul><li>It is particularly important to ensure that questions are asked of people with recent experience of the use of the service which is being investigated </li></ul>
  30. 30. 5. Service specific, recent contact or exit surveys <ul><li>Service specific surveys: checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear about the purpose of the survey and the use to which the data will be put. </li></ul><ul><li>Check that the survey is of recent service users, rather than a general sample. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep it short and simple and use local terminology. </li></ul>
  31. 31. 5. Service specific, recent contact or exit surveys <ul><li>Service specific surveys: checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Be clear about what service changes may realistically be expected as a result of the survey. </li></ul><ul><li>Design use in: each survey should have a tightly defined focus and ask for views and information on clear specific issues that can be easily analysed and acted upon. </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups or other consultative input from residents and staff can assist in both the design of surveys and the further analysis of the findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Check that the sample was selected in an appropriate way and based on reliable, up to date information. </li></ul>
  32. 32. 5. Service specific, recent contact or exit surveys <ul><li>Service specific surveys: checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Check that the sample was selected in an appropriate way and based on reliable, up to date information. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose an appropriate type of survey and consider how to maximise response rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Distribution and collection of questionnaires by local staff or contractors may encourage better response rates. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider whether anonymity is necessary; it may not be an advantage for survey responses to be anonymous. </li></ul><ul><li>There should at least be some provision for more in-depth follow up of responses on an individual basis at the discretion of the individual resident. </li></ul>
  33. 33. 5. Service specific, recent contact or exit surveys <ul><li>Service specific surveys: checklist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Be aware that small sample sizes are likely; this will mean that it is usually not possible to analyse the data on a sub-group basis, such as by different age groups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that all the data is analysed promptly and fully. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure that appropriate follow up in individual cases is undertaken. </li></ul></ul>
  34. 34. 5. Service specific, recent contact or exit surveys <ul><li>Service specific surveys: checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Analyse and report the findings in an appropriate and accessible way to all relevant parties including service users themselves, ensuring that the implications for service delivery been identified and invite feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Identify any further research and consultation needs. </li></ul>
  35. 35. 7. Mystery shopping <ul><li>Mystery shopping is the use of individuals trained to observe, experience and measure any customer service process, by acting as service users or customers and reporting back on their experiences in a detailed and objective way. </li></ul><ul><li>This procedure can be used over the telephone, in face to face situations or by e-mail </li></ul>
  36. 36. 7. Mystery shopping <ul><li>Mystery shopping: checklist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The scenarios used should be relevant, credible, practical and safe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The sample size and selection should be appropriate for the kind of analysis required and should reflect the usual pattern of inquiries across the service. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The objectivity of the exercise should be safeguarded by careful selection of mystery shoppers and thorough training. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. 7. Mystery shopping <ul><li>Mystery shopping: checklist </li></ul><ul><li>Data should be reported only at an aggregate level and the anonymity of staff protected. </li></ul><ul><li>Staff and trade unions should be told that mystery shopping is planned and that they may be involved in the decision-making process. </li></ul><ul><li>The findings should be written up in an appropriate and accessible way and reported to all key audiences, including staff. </li></ul><ul><li>The implications of the research for service delivery should be identified. </li></ul><ul><li>Any further research needs should be identified. </li></ul>
  38. 38. Seminar <ul><li>Design a questionnaire – context restaurant / fast food </li></ul>
  39. 39. Next Week <ul><li>Dealing with customers complaints article – role play next week </li></ul><ul><li>Restaurant </li></ul><ul><li>Check in </li></ul><ul><li>Hair in Food </li></ul>