Bagel20 Years Ago Today 3-inch diameter 6-inch diameter140 calories 350 calories Guess the calorie difference! 210 calories! 4
Soda20 Years Ago Today 6.5 ounces 20 ounces 85 calories 250 calories Guess the calorie difference! 165 calories! 5
Pepperoni Pizza20 Years Ago Today500 calories 850 caloriesGuess the calorie difference! 350 calories! 6
Super Size MeMorgan Spurlock’s 2004 Documentary Film http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=N2diPZOtty0&NR=1
What Is Nutrition?-The study of how your body usesthe food that you eat.What is a Nutrient?- A food substance that providesenergy or is necessary for growthand repair. No single food suppliesall the nutrients the body needs tofunction.
Nutrients that have Calories: Proteins Carbohydrates Fats Definition of a Calorie: A unit of measure for energy in foodProtein 1 Gram = 4 caloriesCarbohydrates 1 Gram = 4 caloriesFat 1 Gram = 9 calories
• Surprisingly little is known about protein and health.• The Institute of Medicine recommends that adults get a minimum of 0.8 grams of protein for every kilogram of body weight per day to keep from slowly breaking down their own tissues. – Thats just about 8 grams of protein for every 20 pounds of body weight.• Around the world, millions of people dont get enough protein. – Lack of protein can cause growth failure, loss of muscle mass, decreased immunity, weakening of the heart and respiratory system, and death.
• Provide the body with the fuel it needs for physical activity and for proper organ function• Most common and abundant forms are: – Sugar: Monosaccharides and disaccharides (e.g. glucose, fructose, lactose, and sucrose) – Starch: Polysaccharide made by plants to store glucose – Fiber: Also called cellulose. Polysaccharide made by plants which gives strength and rigidity to plant cells
• The digestive system breaks down most carbohydrates into single sugar molecules that will be small enough to cross into the bloodstream• Fiber is an exception – It cannot be broken down into sugar molecules, and so it passes through the body undigested – Two types of fiber: • Soluble fiber – dissolves in water – Binds to fatty substances in the intestines and carries them out as a waste, thus lowering bad cholesterol – Regulates the body’s use of sugars, helping to keep hunger and blood sugar in check • Insoluble fiber – does not dissolve in water – Helps push food through the intestinal tract, promoting digestive health
• Almost all foods contain some fat. Thats a testament to how important fats are for life. – Fat provides a terrific source of energy as well as a great depot for storing it. – It is an important part of cell membranes, helping govern what gets into cells and what comes out. – The body uses cholesterol as the starting point to make estrogen, testosterone, vitamin D, and other vital compounds. – Fats are also biologically active molecules that can influence how muscles respond to insulins signal to absorb blood sugar. – Different types of fats can also fire up or cool down inflammation.• Fat and cholesterol cant dissolve in water or blood. The body gets around this basic chemistry problem by packaging fat and cholesterol into tiny, protein-covered particles called lipoproteins. Although lipoproteins can carry quite a bit of fat, they mix easily with blood and flow with it.
The Most Important Lipoproteins:• Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) carry cholesterol from the liver to the rest of the body. Cells latch onto these particles and extract fat and cholesterol from them. When there is too much LDL cholesterol in the blood, these particles can form deposits in the walls of the coronary arteries and other arteries throughout the body. Such deposits, called plaque, can narrow arteries and limit blood flow. When plaque breaks apart, it can cause a heart attack or stroke. Because of this, LDL cholesterol is often referred to as bad, or harmful, cholesterol.
The Most Important Lipoproteins:• High-density lipoproteins (HDL) scavenge cholesterol from the bloodstream, from LDL, and from artery walls and ferry it back to the liver for disposal. Think of HDL as the garbage trucks of the bloodstream. HDL cholesterol is often referred to as good, or protective, cholesterol.• Triglycerides make up most of the fat that you eat and that travels through the bloodstream. As the bodys main vehicle for transporting fats to cells, triglycerides are important for good health. But as is the case for so many things, an excess of triglycerides can be unhealthy. In general, the lower your LDL and the higher your HDL, the better your chances of preventing heart disease and other chronic conditions.
Good Fats: Unsaturated Fats• Unsaturated fats are called good fats because they can improve blood cholesterol levels, ease inflammation, stabilize heart rhythms, and play a number of other beneficial roles.• An unsaturated fat contains one or more double bonds within fatty acid chain(s).• Unsaturated fats are predominantly found in foods from plants, such as vegetable oils, nuts, and seeds. Liquids at room temperature.
Bad Fats: Saturated Fats• Our bodies can make all the saturated fat we need, so we dont need to eat any of it. Thats why saturated fat can be in the bad category— because we dont need to eat any of it, and it has undesirable effects in cardiovascular disease.• Saturated fats contain only single bonds within fatty acid chains (has the maximum number of hydrogen atoms bonded to the carbons).• Saturated fats come mainly from meat, seafood, poultry with skin, and whole-milk dairy products (cheese, milk, and ice cream). Solids at room temperature.• A few plant foods are also high in saturated fats, including coconut and coconut oil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil.• Saturated fats boost total cholesterol by elevating harmful LDL. Like all dietary fat, saturated fat also raises the protective HDL.• Unsaturated fat is much preferable since it lowers the bad cholesterol and raises the good.
Very Bad Fats: Trans Fats• Trans fatty acids, more commonly called trans fats, are made by heating liquid vegetable oils in the presence of hydrogen gas, a process called hydrogenation (adding hydrogen).• Partially hydrogenating vegetable oils makes them more stable and less likely to spoil.• It also converts the oil into a solid, which makes transportation easier.• Partially hydrogenated oils can also withstand repeated heating without breaking down, making them ideal for frying fast foods.• Fully hydrogenating a vegetable oil creates a fat that acts like a saturated fat.
Trans Fat in your Food:• Commercial baked goods — such as crackers, cookies and cakes — and many fried foods, such as doughnuts and French fries — may contain trans fats. Shortenings and some margarines can be high in trans fat.• Trans fat (or ―partially hydrogenated‖ vegetable oil) used to be more common, but in recent years food manufacturers have used it less because of concerns over the health effects of trans fat. Food manufacturers in the United States and many other countries list the trans fat content on nutrition labels.• However, you should be aware of what nutritional labels really mean when it comes to trans fat. – For example, in the United States if a food has less than 0.5 grams of trans fat per serving, the food label can read 0 grams trans fat. Though thats a small amount of trans fat, if you eat multiple servings of foods with less than 0.5 grams of trans fat, you could exceed recommended limits.