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Chapter 3 - Section 2 - Molecules of Life

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Chapter 3 - Section 2 - Molecules of Life

  1. 1. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Objectives• Distinguish between monosaccharides, disaccharides,and polysaccharides.• Explain the relationship between amino acids and protein structure.• Describe the induced fit model of enzyme action.• Compare the structure and function of each of the different types of lipids.• Compare the nucleic acids DNA and RNA.
  2. 2. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Carbohydrates• Carbohydrates are organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of about one carbon to two hydrogen atoms to one oxygen atom (1C:2H:1O)• Carbohydrates are a source of energy and are used as structural materials in organisms.
  3. 3. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Carbohydrates Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept
  4. 4. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Carbohydrates, continued• Monosaccharides – Carbohydrates are made up of monomers called monosaccharides (or simple sugars). – Contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of 1:2:1 – General formula is (CH20)n
  5. 5. Monosaccharides• The most common monosaccharides: – Glucose – the main source of energy for cells – Fructose – found in fruits and is the sweetest monosaccharide – Galactose – found in milk
  6. 6. Monosaccharides• Glucose, fructose, and galactose have the same molecular formula (C6H1206), but differing structures• The different structures determine the slightly different properties of the three compounds• Isomers are compounds with the same chemical formula but different structural forms
  7. 7. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Carbohydrates, continued• Disaccharides and Polysaccharides – Two monosaccharides join in a condensation reaction to form a double sugar called a disaccharide. – A complex sugar, or polysaccharide, is made of three or more monosaccharides.
  8. 8. Polysaccharides• Animals store • Plants store glucose glucose as the as the polysaccharide polysaccharide glycogen starch • Plants also make the polysaccharide cellulose (gives strength and rigidity to plant cells)
  9. 9. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Disaccharides Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept
  10. 10. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Proteins• Proteins are organic compounds composed mainly of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen.• Proteins have many functions including structural, defensive, and catalytic roles.
  11. 11. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Proteins, continued• Amino Acids – Proteins are made up of monomers called amino acids. The sequence of amino acids determines a protein’s shape and function.
  12. 12. Amino Acids• There are 20 amino acids that all share a basic structure• Each amino acid contains a central carbon atom covalently bonded to four other atoms or functional groups – A single hydrogen atom – A carboxyl group – An amino group – R group
  13. 13. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Amino Acids Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept
  14. 14. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Proteins, continued• Dipeptides and Polypeptides – Two amino acids are joined by peptide bonds through a condensation reaction to form a dipeptide. – A long chain of amino acids is called a polypeptide.
  15. 15. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Structure of Proteins
  16. 16. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Proteins, continued• Enzymes – Enzymes speed up chemical reactions and bind to specific substrates. – The binding of a substrate with an enzyme causes a change in the enzyme’s shape and reduces the activation energy of the reaction.
  17. 17. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Enzyme Activity
  18. 18. Enzymes• To learn more about the function of enzymes, you are going to do a virtual experiment• PHSchool.com• cbp-1024
  19. 19. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Lipids• Lipids are nonpolar molecules that store energy and are an important part of cell membranes.
  20. 20. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Lipids, continued• Fatty Acids – Most lipids contain fatty acids, unbranched carbon molecules that have a hydrophilic end and a hydrophobic end.
  21. 21. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Fatty Acids Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept
  22. 22. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Lipids, continued• Triglycerides – Triglycerides consist of three fatty acids and one molecule of glycerol.
  23. 23. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Lipids, continued• Phospholipids – Phospholipids, which make up cell membranes, consist of two fatty acids and one glycerol molecule.
  24. 24. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Lipids, continued• Waxes – A wax is made of one long fatty acid chain joined to one long alcohol.• Steroids – A steroid is composed of four fused carbon rings.
  25. 25. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Nucleic Acids• A nucleic acid is a large and complex organic molecule that stores and transports information.
  26. 26. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Structure of Nucleic Acids
  27. 27. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Nucleic Acids Click below to watch the Visual Concept. Visual Concept
  28. 28. Section 2 Molecules of Life Chapter 3Nucleic Acids, continued• The nucleic acid deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) contains genetic information for cell activities.• Ribonucleic acid (RNA) molecules play many key roles in building of proteins and can act as enzymes.

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