Chapter 3 - Section 1 - Carbon Compounds

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Chapter 3 - Section 1 - Carbon Compounds

  1. 1. Chapter 3
  2. 2.  Mostof the molecules from which living organisms are made are based on the element carbon Carbon’s ability to form large and complex molecules has contributed to the great diversity of life
  3. 3.  Organic compounds – compounds made primarily of carbon atoms Whyis there such a variety of carbon compounds? • Four valence electrons • Carbon readily bonds with other carbon atoms, forming straight chains, branched chains, or rings
  4. 4.  Single bond – one pair of electrons shared Double bond – two pairs of electrons shared Triple bond – three pairs of electrons shared
  5. 5.  Functional Groups – clusters of atoms in organic compounds that influence the characteristics of the molecules they compose and the chemical reactions the molecules undergo
  6. 6.  Monomers – small, simple molecules Polymers – molecules that consist of repeated, linked units Large polymers are called macromolecules
  7. 7.  Monomers link to form polymers through a chemical reaction called a condensation reaction • Each time a monomer is added to a polymer, a water molecule is released
  8. 8.  Living things also must break down polymers In a hydrolysis reaction, water is used to break down a polymer
  9. 9.  Life’s processes require a constant supply of energy Energy is available in certain compounds that store energy in their structure • Common compound is ATP (adenosine triphosphate)
  10. 10.  Covalent bonds between phosphate groups are easy to break Every time a bond is broken, energy is released The cell uses this energy to drive chemical reactions that allow organisms to function

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