Chapter 2 Jeopardy Review 2013

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Chapter 2 Jeopardy Review 2013

  1. 1. Atomic Chem General Chem Water Chem Energy Misc. 5 pt 5 pt 5 pt 5 pt 5 pt 10 pt 10 pt 10 pt 10 pt 10 pt 15 pt 15 pt 15 pt 15 pt 15 pt 20 pt 20 pt 20 pt 20 pt 20 pt 25 pt 25 pt 25 pt 25 pt 25 1 pt
  2. 2. What 2 subatomic particles are contained in an atom’s nucleus? 2
  3. 3. Protons and Neutrons 3
  4. 4. What two subatomic particles must differ in number in order to have an ion? 4
  5. 5. Protons and Electrons 5
  6. 6. The atomic number of an element is always the same as the number of this subatomic particle. 6
  7. 7. Protons = Atomic Number This is why you look for the number of protons when you are identifying an atom on a drawing 7
  8. 8. What do you call atoms of an element that contain different numbers of neutrons? Example: carbon-12 and carbon-14 8
  9. 9. Isotopes 9
  10. 10. Strontium (Sr) has a mass number of 88. Give the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in an atom of Strontium. 10
  11. 11. Protons = 38 Electrons = 38 Neutrons = 50 11
  12. 12. How many valence electrons does an atom of phosphorus (P) have? 12
  13. 13. 5 valence electrons (Remember: Phosphorus is found in Group or Column VA) 13
  14. 14. _______________ are made up of atoms of two or more elements in fixed proportions. 14
  15. 15. Compounds 15
  16. 16. Why are the noble gases stable? 16
  17. 17. A noble gas is stable because its outer electron energy level is full (has maximum number of valence electrons). 17
  18. 18. Na2CO3 is the chemical formula for sodium carbonate. How many atoms of each element are present in sodium carbonate? 18
  19. 19. Na = 2 C=1 O=3 19
  20. 20. Differentiate between covalent and ionic bonds. Hint: What is going on with the electrons in each type of bond? 20
  21. 21. •In covalent bonds, electrons are shared. •In ionic bonds, one atom donates its electrons, becoming a positive ion. The other atom accepts the electrons, becoming a negative ion. The ions of opposite charges are then attracted to one another. 21
  22. 22. Water is referred to as a __________ molecule because it has an unequal distribution of electrical charge. 22
  23. 23. polar 23
  24. 24. What is the term for water molecules being attracted to any other substance? Hint: This is what happened when we dropped water on the glass slide. 24
  25. 25. Adhesion 25
  26. 26. Do lipids dissolve in water? 26
  27. 27. No! Lipids do not dissolve in water because they are nonpolar. Ionic compounds and polar molecules dissolve best in water. 27
  28. 28. Did the paperclip float? Explain what water properties contributed to the results we saw in the lab. 28
  29. 29. It did not float. It sat on top of the water due to water’s surface tension. Surface tension is the result of cohesion between water molecules. Cohesion or sticking together of water molecules is caused by hydrogen bonding. 29
  30. 30. Differentiate between acids and bases. Hint: What ions are released in water and what are their pH values. 30
  31. 31. •Acids form H+ when dissolved in water which combine with H2O to + + form H3O . Acids have more H3O than OH . They have pH values below 7. •Bases form OH- ions when dissolved in water. Bases have more OH- than H3O+. They have pH values above 7. 31
  32. 32. Define energy 32
  33. 33. The ability to do work. 33
  34. 34. What is the name for the starting materials in chemical reactions? What is the name of the newly formed substances in chemical reactions? 34
  35. 35. Reactants = starting materials Products = newly formed substances 35
  36. 36. What name is given to the energy needed to start a chemical reaction? 36
  37. 37. Activation energy 37
  38. 38. Define an enzyme (what does it do?) 38
  39. 39. Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the speed of chemical reactions. Catalysts reduce the activation energy of a chemical reaction. 39
  40. 40. Name the 4 types of Energy in Biological Systems 40
  41. 41. Chemical Energy Thermal Energy Electrical Energy Mechanical Energy 41
  42. 42. What is defined as, “anything that occupies space and has mass”? 42
  43. 43. Matter 43
  44. 44. What are the weak interactions that allow water to cohere and adhere? 44
  45. 45. Hydrogen Bonds 45
  46. 46. What is a strong bond in which valence electrons are shared? Name the 3 types of these bonds 46
  47. 47. Covalent Bond Single covalent bond (2 electrons shared) Double covalent bond (4 electrons shared) Triple covalent bond (6 electrons shared) 47
  48. 48. Describe the difference between the 3 isotopes of Carbon Carbon-12 Carbon-13 Carbon-14 48
  49. 49. All 3 isotopes of carbon have 6 protons, but they differ in their number of neutrons. Carbon-12 (6 neutrons) Carbon-13 (7 neutrons) Carbon-14 (8 neutrons) 49
  50. 50. Study the pH scale below. Which drink is more acidic, apple juice (pH of 3) or black coffee (pH of 5) and how many more times acidic is it? 50
  51. 51. Apple Juice is 100x more acidic than Black Coffee Remember: The pH scale is a Logarithmic scale (tenfold change per number) Difference of 2 pH levels 10 x 10 = 100 times more acidic 51

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