Short story notes


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Short story notes

  1. 1. Elements of Fiction Short Stories
  2. 2. 6 Basic Elements <ul><li>Characters </li></ul><ul><li>Setting </li></ul><ul><li>Plot </li></ul><ul><li>Conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Point of View </li></ul><ul><li>Theme </li></ul>
  3. 3. Characterization <ul><li>A writer reveals what a character is like and how the character changes throughout the story . </li></ul><ul><li>Two primary methods of characterization: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct- writer tells what the character is like. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indirect - writer shows what a character is like by describing what the character looks like, by telling what the character says and does, and by what other characters say about and do in response to the character . </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. CHARACTERS <ul><li>Actors in the story’s plot </li></ul><ul><li>May be human, animal, object, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protagonist – main character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Antagonist – person in conflict with the main character </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>*Not all stories have an antagonist. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Character Types <ul><li>Major or Minor </li></ul><ul><li>Protagonist or Antagonist </li></ul><ul><li>Round or Flat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Round – more description, fully developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flat – two-dimensional; uncomplicated </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dynamic or Static </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic – undergoes change through complication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Static – stays basically the same throughout </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*Stereotypes=Stock Characters* </li></ul>
  6. 6. SETTING - Time and location where the story take place <ul><li>Place - geographical location </li></ul><ul><li>Time - historical period, time of day, year, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Weather conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Social conditions - customs, status </li></ul><ul><li>Mood or atmosphere - the feeling created in the reader </li></ul>
  7. 7. Elements of Setting
  8. 8. Plot – what happens and how it happens in the story <ul><li>Stages of Plot: </li></ul><ul><li>Exposition – introduce characters, setting, conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Rising Action – events that intensify conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Climax – emotional highpoint </li></ul><ul><li>Falling Action – subsequent events caused by climax </li></ul><ul><li>Resolution (or Denouement) – ending, outcome </li></ul>
  9. 9. Special Techniques of Plot <ul><li>Suspense - excitement or tension </li></ul><ul><li>Foreshadowing - hint or clue about what will happen in story </li></ul><ul><li>Flashback - interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Surprise Ending - conclusion that reader does not expect </li></ul>
  10. 10. CONFLICT - Internal or External <ul><li>Conflict is a struggle between opposing forces </li></ul><ul><li>Every plot must contain some kind of conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Stories can have more than one conflict </li></ul><ul><li>Conflicts can be external or internal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>External conflict - outside force may be person, group, animal, nature, or a nonhuman obstacle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internal conflict - takes place in a character’s mind </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. POINT OF VIEW - Who is telling the story? <ul><li>First Person – narrator is a character IN the story (“I” is used) </li></ul><ul><li>Third Person - narrator is NOT a character is the story (“he or she”) </li></ul><ul><li>Third Person Limited – narrator reveals thoughts of only one character </li></ul><ul><li>Third Person Omniscient – narrator reveals thoughts of all characters </li></ul>
  12. 12. Theme <ul><li>A central message, concern, or insight into life expressed through a literary work </li></ul><ul><li>Can be expressed by one or two sentence statement about human beings or about life </li></ul><ul><li>May be stated directly in the story (“and the moral of this story is . . .”) OR implied (reader needs to infer the theme). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Do you remember these literary elements? Metaphor, personification, simile, alliteration, oxymoron <ul><li>self-contradictory phrase, i.e., “same difference” </li></ul><ul><li>giving human qualities to something nonhuman </li></ul><ul><li>repetition of the same consonant sound at the beginning of words in the same sentence </li></ul><ul><li>comparison or two unlike things using “like” or “as” </li></ul><ul><li>same as above NOT using “like” or “as” </li></ul>