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Presentation 27 March


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การประชุมกลุ่มย่อยเพื่อร่างแผนระบบจัดการพื้นที่คุ้มครอง นำเสนอโดย Prof. Dr. Jeffrey A.McNelly ครั้งที่ 2 ณ รร.รามาการ์เด้นท์ กรุงเทพมหานคร เมื่อวันที่ 27 มีนาคม 2557

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Presentation 27 March

  2. 2. Broad priorities to improve PA management includes developing a national PA system plan and an appropriate legal framework for its management. Establish a PA System for conservation and designate measures for maintaining ecosystem protection, especially for large forest expanses and wetlands. Undertake a national protected area systems plan. Prepare a comprehensive PA law. Introduce a user pays approach to maintaining PA services and products. 2003
  3. 3. Thailand should formulate and adopt a statement of the vision for the PA system. Examine the potential of the full range of PA governance types to contribute to the conservation estate in Thailand and how these might be implemented. DNP, through a participatory process, should formulate national policies to guide PA activities. Develop a background paper and hold a national workshop on whether PA Categories should form the basis for a new typology of PAs in Thailand. 2012
  4. 4.  Puts people at the center of development  Focus on participation of local people in natural resource mgmt, including for climate change  Conserve & create security for natural resources & environment by safeguarding & restoring forests and conservation areas  Supports >19% of land for conservation, integrated watershed mgmt, research on resource mgmt, marine conservation, databases, innovative fund-raising from biodiversity
  5. 5. So why have a System Plan?  Covering over 20% of the land and significant parts of the sea, Thailand’s PAs must be managed well.  This requires making the individual sites part of the social, economic, and environment context of the country.  Demonstrate the major contributions PAs make to the culture and economy of Thailand.  Provide a framework for appropriate objectives for each PA so that the system as a whole meets national objectives.
  6. 6. More reasons for a System Plan  Suggest additional areas to ensure all biodiversity is included in the System.  Provide a clear framework for appropriate objectives for each PA so the system as a whole meets national objectives, link PAs to each other & thereby increase their effective size, identify contributions of research and monitoring, & show how PAs contribute to national climate change efforts.  Establish policy framework so Management Plan of each site meets the site requirements while also supporting national policies on tourism, financing, research, road design, etc.  Provide the basis for an enhanced communications and outreach program.
  7. 7. And most important  Capitalize on the full range of management options and models offered by the system of categories prepared by the World Commission on Protected Areas (which has 14 members in Thailand).  This will facilitate systematic conservation planning, through presenting a more nuanced picture of protected areas rather than assuming they are all under identical management.
  8. 8. So what should a System Plan for Thailand include?
  9. 9. Chapter 1. Fundamental principles so everyone understands the approach  Define the basic terms and concepts, such as “protected area”, “biological diversity”, “ecosystem”, “ecosystem services” “payments of ecosystem services”, “species”, “genetic diversity”, “biotechnology”.  Describe the current legal basis, both domestic and international (such as the Program of Work on PAs of the Convention on Biological Diversity), and the organizational structure of PAs within government.  State the guiding principles for the System Plan.
  10. 10. Chapter 2. Then build on agreed vision & objectives for the System Plan Today, we are seeking your input to a vision and strategic objectives for the system plan.
  11. 11. Chapter 3. We next need to identify the major challenges faced by PA managers
  12. 12. Water-related services:  Provision of fresh water for drinking, agriculture, electricity generating, etc.  Regulation of floods and extreme weather events  Purification of wastes  Delivery of nutrient-rich sediments to flood plains These are worth US$7 trillion per year Chapter 4. Then describe the multiple benefits PAs provide
  13. 13. Chapter 5. The System Plan then uses landscapes and seascapes to link PAs to each other and to adjacent land uses. This approach is already being taken in some parts of the system, and provides the basis for working with other land users, perhaps drawing on the Town and Country Planning Act.
  14. 14. Chapter 6. Completing the system. A critical section of the System Plan considers potential additional sites to link PAs in the landscape and consider new sites that would conserve biodiversity and deliver ecosystem services. This requires an Expert Panel to prepare detailed advice on this topic.
  15. 15. Chapter 7. Management Categories and Governance That leads to a crucial issue: Management categories, zoning, and governance.
  16. 16. IUCN’s System of Protected Area Categories
  17. 17. Advantages of a Categories System  Facilitates systematic conservation planning by showing that different kinds of sites have different management objectives.  Facilitates determination of priorities, application of innovative financing, and communications and outreach.  Provides a way to address the call for greater involvement of local communities.  Brings Thailand into conformity with the CBD call for “a single international classification system for PAs” and “to assign PA management categories.. For “providing information consistent with the refined IUCN categories for reporting purposes.”
  18. 18. Number of National Parks by Size of Country Country Canada USA Brazil India Peru South Africa Tanzania New Zealand Thailand Area (sq km) 9,984,670 9,629,091 8,511,965 3,287,590 1,316,074 1,221,040 945,203 268,680 513,120 # of NPs 44 59 67 104 12 22 16 14 148
  19. 19. The System of Categories can be implemented along with a System of Zones
  20. 20. What is “Governance”?  Governance is “the interactions among structures, processes, and traditions that determine how power and responsibilities are exercised, how decisions are taken and how citizens or other stakeholders have their say.”  The PA management categories are applied with a typology of governance types: a description of who holds authority and responsibility for the protected area.
  21. 21. 4 broad types of governance: 1. Government 2. Shared governance or co-management 3. Private governance 4. Governance by local communities
  22. 22. Type 1. Governance by Government  In most countries, central government is responsible for nationally important protected areas, with protected areas of regional or local interest managed by provincial or local authorities.  In Thailand, DNP is organized with regional offices, decentralization of management has been discussed and considered. Some provinces are providing budgetary support to protected areas within the province.  Managing PAs at the provincial level could build local support and provide budgetary support.  Protected areas clusters may spread across two or more provinces, requiring at least support and coordination from the government of each province in the cluster.
  23. 23. But perhaps a “national park” such as Nam Tok Sam Lan in Saraburi could be managed more effectively at the provincial level, as Category III.
  24. 24. Type 2: Shared Governance  The National Parks Act and the Wildlife Preservation Act provide for representatives of civil society on national-level committees, and site- level Protected Areas Committees have been established. These committees are advisory and have only a modest influence on governance.  DNP’s Pilot Protected Areas Project tested joint management in six national parks (Thaleban, Laem Son, Chalerm Rattanakosin, Phu Phaman, Ob Luang and Doi Phu Ka) about a decade ago.  PA categories IV, V, and VI lend themselves to greater co- management, with local communities gaining greater involvement in governance in collaboration with DNP.  Co-management should proceed in a step-by-step manner, beginning with a few demonstration sites or learning from sites where co- management is already effective.
  25. 25. ”Joint Management of Protected Areas” project (2005-) in Huay Kha Khaeng developed new relations with the surrounding communities, NGOs, and various government agencies and is now being applied more widely.
  26. 26. Type 3. Private Governance  Thailand has few large private land holdings that would qualify as a protected area, though private ownership of some sites that might qualify as Category III Natural Monuments could be possible.  Perhaps some universities, non-governmental conservation organizations, or socially-responsible corporations could obtain control over relatively large areas of land and water that are important for conservation and could qualify as protected areas as defined in the System Plan.  It probably is sufficient to wait until the possibility is closer to reality before developing a response, but it is worth at least starting to consider the implications for conservation of such governance.
  27. 27. Khao Kitchakut National Park contains an important cultural site, privately owned
  28. 28. Virtually all PAs contain temples or shrines.
  29. 29. Type 4: Governance by Local Communities  In some parts of the world, such as India, “community conserved areas” have been established, and some community forests and buffer zones in Thailand are managed by local communities.  This type of governance is foreseen in the 2007 Constitution and the 2012-2016 NESDP.  It may be possible, on a trial basis, for local communities to be given governance responsibility for some portions or zones of Category IV, V, or VI protected areas.
  30. 30.  Each community (n=10) has demarcated conservation forest, utilization forest, and agricultural lands, with accompanying rules and regulations  Have formed community watershed network to coordinate natural resource management throughout the watershed.  Research showed on a per household basis, net benefits from PA conservation increased significantly with community participation in PA mgmt (more than Ob Luang NP &DI NP) Mae Khong Kha, a community- managed watershed
  31. 31. Conflict with illegal settlers in protected areasis an eternal problem in Thailand, with as many as 600,000 people living within the protected areas. Type 4 governance, combined with a new approach to categories IV, V, or VI and innovative application of zoning, may offer some innovative ways to deal with this challenge.
  32. 32. Chapter 8. Based on the material covered, the System Plan then considers how to generate additional funding. • This needs appropriate legislation, regulations, oversight, and incentives. • Payment for the ecosystem services related to water provided by PAs. • Payment for carbon storage and climate change adaption. • Support from the private sector and the general public.
  33. 33. Chapter 9. Building a Broader Base of Support for Protected Areas • PAs already draw over 10 million visitors per year, but how to convert these into active supporters? • A Communications Strategy is proposed, drawing especially on social media such as Facebook (18 million users in Thailand and improving relevant websites). • Building a broader base of supporters is also proposed, with details on how to accomplish.
  34. 34. The success of the System Plan depends on clear policy guidance: Chapter 10.  Builds on the high-level policy directions provided by the Constitution, the NESDP, and relevant legislation.  A systematic compilation of existing policies.  Revisions of policies where required.  New policies, prepared through consultation with affected stakeholders, on topics like research, tourism, cultural values, and sustainable use.
  35. 35. Chapter 11. Building the capacity to implement the System Plan  Building capacity needs incentives, reinforcement, and application.  Innovative approaches to PA management require the staff trained to implement modern ways PAs are being managed.  PA management needs to be a career, with regular training courses and clear ways of advancing within DNP.  Build on the traditional knowledge of forest- dwelling people and fishing communities.
  36. 36. The proposed System plan will help ensure that waters continue to flow, wildlife flourishes, and the Kingdom’s natural heritage is conserved.
  37. 37. Now let’s get to work
  38. 38. Q. 1. Is the content and structure appropriate? Is the content appropriate? Is anything important being left out?
  39. 39. Q. 2. What about vision and strategic objectives?  How can the Vision be agreed at the highest level?  Is the following list of Strategic Objectives complete and appropriate? Should some be added (or deleted)?  How can the vision and strategic objectives be agreed at the highest appropriate level?
  40. 40. Here are some options for Strategic Objectives  Design PAs to deliver benefits to local communities, and to other sectors beyond the PA;  Enhance the range of funding options for PAs;  Design PA system as part of national climate change objectives;  Allocate PAs to categories based on objectives of mgmt;  Use PAs to support research for conservation and economic development.  Ensure that all biodiversity is included within the PA system  Provide an information and outreach program that will enhance PAs as part of national identity (along with tourism benefits)
  41. 41. Q. 3. What benefits of protected areas deserve the greatest attention? Biodiversity Water Tourism Benefits to local people Natural Resources) Others?
  42. 42. Carbon sequestration and storage Soil formation and fertility Plant pollination Watershed protection and regulation Air quality Pest & disease control Decomposition of wastes Landscape beauty How protected areas help support the “natural infrastructure” Conservation of biodiversity
  43. 43. Q. 4. How can protected areas best be linked to other land uses?  Agriculture  Army camps/Navy bases  Dams  Forest/Fishery  Urban  Others?
  44. 44. Nakai Reservoir is protected by the PA
  45. 45. Q. 5. How to use the Categories, zoning, and governance to work with local communities? Replace this… …with this
  46. 46. Joint management involved local villagers, DNP, and local non-governmental organizations.
  47. 47. Lessons learned from Ob Luang National Park : • villagers have long experience in natural resource management, including conflict management & conservation; • meeting the needs of communities, such as joint designation of boundaries & zones, is essential; • building trust through open communication & joint learning is an important part of the process; & • the willingness of the National Park officers to support the project was a key success factor.
  48. 48. Q. 6. How can any gaps in the system be filled?  Agricultural systems  Army camps/Navy bases  Category 1 Watersheds  Biosphere Reserves  Important Bird Areas  Others?  And what is the most effective process for filling the gaps?
  49. 49. Inland wetlands provide monetary values of $981-44,597 per hectare per year. More need to be added to the PA system.
  50. 50. Q. 7. What are the barriers that are preventing better fund-raising?  Lack of incentives  Lack of policy/legal support  Insufficient capacity  Lack of site business plans  Lack of public confidence  Others?
  51. 51. Q. 8. Building Broader Support: Who cares about protected areas?  Visitors  Students  Researchers  Health Department  Private Sector  Farmers  Others?  And how can they best be reached?
  52. 52. Q. 9. Finally, what are the key policy issues? Research Tourism Relations with local people Management planning Roads Others?