March, 2010, Beijing<br />Cathy Walker<br />Former Director, Health and Safety Department<br />Canadian Auto Workers Union...
Early motor vehicles north america evolved from bicycle, Henry Ford’s quadricycle, 1896<br />
Whole vehicles made by one or a small group of  highly skilled mechanics, 1901 henry ford<br />
Mass production led to production efficiencyford assembly line 1913<br />
Interchangeable parts rather than having to make new parts for each vehicle<br />Model A, 1903, skilled fitter took 8.5 ho...
Fordism, mass production mean that jobs are divided into small parts so hundreds of unskilled workers, together, build hun...
Of course there are still skilled workers to maintain the production machines, but the production itself is done by unskil...
Workers are alienated from the means of production, karlmarx<br />Capitalist owns the factory<br />And the workers are sim...
fordism<br />A term coined by Italian Communist, Antonio Gramsci to describe a form of production characterized by an asse...
Ford standardized production and consumer choice<br />You can have any colour as long as it’s black<br />Henry Ford, Model...
Many myths and half truths about ford<br />$5 a day, high wages<br />Workers should be able to own the vehicles they produ...
Ford used his own private police force and company goons<br />The company threatened firing and did fire people for ‘talki...
Workers fought to get the unionFord rouge workers in Detroit, usa 1941<br />
5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of pickets blockaded plants<br />
5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of pickets  fought police<br />
5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of cars blockaded plants<br />
5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of cars blockaded plants<br />
Finally, union is recognized and collective agreement achieved<br />
Taylorismfrederickwinslowtaylor, american, 1856-1915<br />
Taylor: task of factory management<br />determine the best way for the worker to do the job, <br />provide the proper tool...
Taylor broke down each job<br />into its individual motions<br />analyzed these to determine which were essential, and tim...
taylor<br />eliminated unnecessary motion<br />thus workers followed a machine like routine, becoming far more productive<...
Jobs became simple, repetitiveEasy to learn and incredibly boring<br />
Lenin thought taylorism made sense<br />he, too, sought industrial efficiency<br />but did not understand the shortcomings...
In mass production,Workers became cogs in machines<br />
Today, time and motion studies of workers’ jobs measure tiny fractions of a second<br />The effect is that workers no long...
Lean production, term began in 1988<br />John Krafcik, quality engineer in the Toyota-GM NUMMI joint venture in California...
Toyotism: toyota production system<br />Focus on improving flow of production<br />Production levelling<br />Eg. Kanban, p...
toyota<br />
Andon lightwarns of production problems, but what about worker problems?<br />
Advantages and disadvantages of working in teams<br />Advantages:<br />Get to work with other workers<br />Variation in jo...
Current issues for workers in canada:job loss<br />Contracting out, ie jobs go elsewhere to other plants in Canada or to o...
Crisis of overproduction:endemic to capitalism and a market economy, exactly as marx described<br />Late 2008, GM and Chry...
Workers resist, led by the unionOccupATION OF gm FACTORY, 1996Issue, contracting out, 5 week strike<br />
June 2008, company lies about closure during bargaining, workers and union occupy GM canadian headquarters<br />
Alternatives to assembly line?Labour shortage in sweden 1974strong union demands: workers allowed to take breaks when want...
Jobs became skilled again requiring years of training;but, when labour shortage over, so was the volvo experiment, plant f...
Labour productivity<br />When news stories mention “productivity,” they almost always mean labourproductivity, which measu...
Productivity at auto assembly plant<br />A physical measure — the total number of cars produced in a given period of time ...
North america<br />
Mexico auto assembly automates;productivity catches up<br />
Improving Productivity in auto assembly<br />If an auto assembly company can reduce the number of its direct employees by ...
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Automotive Industry Introduction Cathy Walker 2010 3 15

  1. 1. March, 2010, Beijing<br />Cathy Walker<br />Former Director, Health and Safety Department<br />Canadian Auto Workers Union<br />Automotive industryIntroduction<br />
  2. 2. Early motor vehicles north america evolved from bicycle, Henry Ford’s quadricycle, 1896<br />
  3. 3. Whole vehicles made by one or a small group of highly skilled mechanics, 1901 henry ford<br />
  4. 4. Mass production led to production efficiencyford assembly line 1913<br />
  5. 5. Interchangeable parts rather than having to make new parts for each vehicle<br />Model A, 1903, skilled fitter took 8.5 hours to build a major part of a car<br />Model T, 1908, completely redesigned assembly line so that each job took 2.5 minutes<br />1913 introduced moving assembly line so workers didn’t have to walk between stations, reducing each job to under 2 minutes<br />Cars were painted by hand<br />
  6. 6. Fordism, mass production mean that jobs are divided into small parts so hundreds of unskilled workers, together, build hundreds of vehicles<br />
  7. 7. Of course there are still skilled workers to maintain the production machines, but the production itself is done by unskilled workers<br />
  8. 8. Workers are alienated from the means of production, karlmarx<br />Capitalist owns the factory<br />And the workers are simply factors of production<br />
  9. 9. fordism<br />A term coined by Italian Communist, Antonio Gramsci to describe a form of production characterized by an assembly line (conveyor belt factory system) and standardized outputs linked with the stimulation of demand brought about by low prices, advertising, and credit. <br />
  10. 10. Ford standardized production and consumer choice<br />You can have any colour as long as it’s black<br />Henry Ford, Model T Ford, 1921<br />
  11. 11. Many myths and half truths about ford<br />$5 a day, high wages<br />Workers should be able to own the vehicles they produce<br />But, the reality is that Ford did much to keep unions out of his factories<br />
  12. 12. Ford used his own private police force and company goons<br />The company threatened firing and did fire people for ‘talking union’<br />Workplaces were full of favouritism and bribery, eg. Workers needed to give the supervisors a bottle of alcohol for better jobs<br />Company spied on workers’ personal lives<br />Shortage of labour during World War II meant workers had more power<br />
  13. 13. Workers fought to get the unionFord rouge workers in Detroit, usa 1941<br />
  14. 14. 5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of pickets blockaded plants<br />
  15. 15. 5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of pickets fought police<br />
  16. 16. 5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of cars blockaded plants<br />
  17. 17. 5 week strike in windsor, canada in 1945thousands of cars blockaded plants<br />
  18. 18. Finally, union is recognized and collective agreement achieved<br />
  19. 19. Taylorismfrederickwinslowtaylor, american, 1856-1915<br />
  20. 20. Taylor: task of factory management<br />determine the best way for the worker to do the job, <br />provide the proper tools and training<br />provide incentives for good performance<br />
  21. 21. Taylor broke down each job<br />into its individual motions<br />analyzed these to determine which were essential, and timed the workers with a stopwatch<br />scientific management<br />1910<br />
  22. 22. taylor<br />eliminated unnecessary motion<br />thus workers followed a machine like routine, becoming far more productive<br />
  23. 23. Jobs became simple, repetitiveEasy to learn and incredibly boring<br />
  24. 24. Lenin thought taylorism made sense<br />he, too, sought industrial efficiency<br />but did not understand the shortcomings of a system that de-skilled labour<br />removing the thinking part of labour made jobs very boring<br />
  25. 25. In mass production,Workers became cogs in machines<br />
  26. 26. Today, time and motion studies of workers’ jobs measure tiny fractions of a second<br />The effect is that workers no longer can work ahead on an assembly line to get small breaks<br />They have no time to rest within their jobs but must follow the steps laid out by management precisely or they cannot keep up<br />
  27. 27.
  28. 28. Lean production, term began in 1988<br />John Krafcik, quality engineer in the Toyota-GM NUMMI joint venture in California <br />Identify and steadily eliminate waste<br />Continuous improvement<br />
  29. 29. Toyotism: toyota production system<br />Focus on improving flow of production<br />Production levelling<br />Eg. Kanban, pull system, parts are ready and brought to the assembly line when production requires it, just-in-time (JIT) production<br />JIT is basically a system of inventory control and shifts responsibility for stocking inventory to parts suppliers<br />
  30. 30. toyota<br />
  31. 31. Andon lightwarns of production problems, but what about worker problems?<br />
  32. 32. Advantages and disadvantages of working in teams<br />Advantages:<br />Get to work with other workers<br />Variation in jobs if there are, eg. 12 jobs shared among 12 workers<br />Can help to reduce repetitive strain injuries<br />Disadvantages:<br />Jobs are still boring<br />If a worker is absent, other workers may be forced to do his job too<br />If a worker is injured on a particular job and is unable to do it for a time, the other workers in the team are forced to do it, increasing their discomfort and risk of injury<br />
  33. 33. Current issues for workers in canada:job loss<br />Contracting out, ie jobs go elsewhere to other plants in Canada or to other countries<br />Free trade agreements and de-regulation have hurt workers, allowing companies to go where they want, when they want<br />
  34. 34. Crisis of overproduction:endemic to capitalism and a market economy, exactly as marx described<br />Late 2008, GM and Chrysler faced bankruptcy in US and were bailed out by US and Canadian governments<br />
  35. 35. Workers resist, led by the unionOccupATION OF gm FACTORY, 1996Issue, contracting out, 5 week strike<br />
  36. 36. June 2008, company lies about closure during bargaining, workers and union occupy GM canadian headquarters<br />
  37. 37. Alternatives to assembly line?Labour shortage in sweden 1974strong union demands: workers allowed to take breaks when wantedfinally, assembly line eliminated<br />
  38. 38. Jobs became skilled again requiring years of training;but, when labour shortage over, so was the volvo experiment, plant finally closed<br />
  39. 39. Labour productivity<br />When news stories mention “productivity,” they almost always mean labourproductivity, which measures the output that an hour of labourproduces. Often expressed as “output per hour” or “output per worker-hour”.<br />
  40. 40. Productivity at auto assembly plant<br />A physical measure — the total number of cars produced in a given period of time (a week, a month, a year) divided by the number of worker-hours needed to produce them, or<br />A monetary measure — the total dollar value of cars produced in a given period of time divided by the total number of worker-hours needed to produce them. <br />
  41. 41. North america<br />
  42. 42. Mexico auto assembly automates;productivity catches up<br />
  43. 43. Improving Productivity in auto assembly<br />If an auto assembly company can reduce the number of its direct employees by sub-contracting out or in (using dispatch workers), its reported productivity goes up<br />And since it is seen as a productive company, the price of its shares goes up<br />Today, a plant producing 250,000 or more cars per year is considered efficient and productive<br />

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