• Cells form groups to produce specialized tissues that function
together in a specific activity
Loose Connective Tissue
Contain fibers and fibroblasts
Fibroblasts produce and secrete the fibers.
Loosely arranged in a semi fluid substance.
Acts as the framework for epithelium.
Forms a protective layer over muscle,
nerves, and blood vessels.
Adipose cells contain a large vacuole which in the live cell contains lipids.
Cell nucleus and cytoplasm are pushed out to edge of cell membrane.
Adipose tissue has enlarged fibroblasts storing fats and reduced
Adipose tissue facilitates energy storage and insulation.
Blood connective tissue
Red blood cells (erythrocytes) carry oxygen.
White blood cells (leukocytes) function in the immune system.
Plasma transports dissolved glucose, wastes, carbon dioxide and
hormones, as well as regulating the water balance for the blood cells.
Platelets are cell fragments that function in blood clotting.
Blood connective tissue
Red blood cells
White blood cells
Fibrous Connective Tissue
Many fibers of collagen occurs in
Tendons, connect muscle to bone.
Ligaments connect bone to bone at a joint.
Contains elastic fibers that allow movement at joints
• These have long cells which have single nucleus.
• The cells of this muscle is spindle in shape.
• They are also called unstrained because we can not
• It is the muscle which is present in heart.
• These muscle are also called involuntary muscle.
• These muscle have cylindrical &branched muscle.
Skeletal (striated) Muscle
These cells function in conjunction with the skeletal system for
voluntary muscle movements.
Located in muscles that attach to bones.
Long, cylindrical cells are striated.
Cells are bundled closely together in parallel arrays.
Characteristics Skeletal Smooth Cardiac
Location Attached to
Walls of internal
Walls of heart
Cross-striations Present Absent Present
Shape of fibers Cylindrical Spindle-shaped Branched
Number of nuclei Many or
Position of nuclei Peripheral Center Center
Type of control Voluntary Involuntary Involuntary
Most rapid slowest Intermediate
• Cell body
Nervous tissue consists of neurons, which are the cells that
conduct signals, and supporting neuroglia cells such as microglial
cells, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes
Irregular or round Elongated
In sheets or
Body covering or
lining organs or
brain and spinal
cord + all over the
Cilia, microvilli - - -
Varied – protein
fibers + liquid,
gelatinous, firm to
Minimal Extensive Absent Absent
No direct blood
supply, except for
Cartilage has no
• Chondrocytes (cartilage cells)
• Avascular, lacking blood vessels ---- does not possess the regenerative
• contains a gelatinous ground substance called chondroitin sulphate
• Embedded within the GS are collagen & elastic fibers
• Together (chondroitin sulphate + fibers) -- flexible, yet very durable and also
resistant to compression forces
• produced by chondroblasts through the process chondrification
a. Hyaline cartilage – most common type; in fatal skeleton,
b. Elastic cartilage
Bell, A. 1999. Anatomy 503 – Human Histology
General Zoology Laboratory Manual, Biology Dept., Univ. of San
A/P Lab: A website for Human Anatomy and Physiology
Ross, M., Romwell, L., and Kaye, G. 1995. Histology: AText and
Atlas.Williams andWilkins, USA.