Carolyn Hudson
TESL 6476 Advanced Pedagogy
Introduction
Definition
English Language
Learners are defined
as students with
limited English
proficiency who
speak a lan...
The number
of English
Language
Learners in
United States
public
schools has
been
consistently
rising since
1989.
U.S. born ELL’s do
not conform to the
Three-Generation
Expectation

The ThreeGeneration
Expectation
basically states
that ...
A Preference for
English

Studies show that
although second
generation heritage
speakers seek to
maintain their
heritage l...
The Role of ESL
Teachers in
Supporting Heritage
Language Speakers

ESL teachers can
play a role in
supporting heritage
lan...
Fishman, J. (1966). Language loyalty in the United States. The Hague:
Mouton.
Grant, R., & Wong, S. (2003). Barriers to li...
Second and Third Generation Heritage Speakers
Second and Third Generation Heritage Speakers
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Second and Third Generation Heritage Speakers

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Second and Third Generation Heritage Speakers

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Second and Third Generation Heritage Speakers

  1. 1. Carolyn Hudson TESL 6476 Advanced Pedagogy
  2. 2. Introduction Definition English Language Learners are defined as students with limited English proficiency who speak a language other than English at home. (NCELA, 2006) This report looks at the phenomenon of English Language Learners who were born in the United States, but for various reasons have not mastered the English Language.
  3. 3. The number of English Language Learners in United States public schools has been consistently rising since 1989.
  4. 4. U.S. born ELL’s do not conform to the Three-Generation Expectation The ThreeGeneration Expectation basically states that a family’s native language is lost by the third generation . (Fishman, 1966; Veltman, 1983)  Current demographics show that the native language is not lost and replaced with English by the third generation.
  5. 5. A Preference for English Studies show that although second generation heritage speakers seek to maintain their heritage language, there is a strong preference for English. https://www.google.com
  6. 6. The Role of ESL Teachers in Supporting Heritage Language Speakers ESL teachers can play a role in supporting heritage language maintenance by becoming strong advocates for biliteracy. (Grant & Wong, 2003)
  7. 7. Fishman, J. (1966). Language loyalty in the United States. The Hague: Mouton. Grant, R., & Wong, S. (2003). Barriers to literacy for language minority learners: An argument for change in the literacy education profession. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 46(5), 386-394. National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition and Language Instruction Educational Programs (NCELA). (2006). Frequently asked questions. Washington, DC: George Washington University. Retrieved May 4, 2007, from http://www.ncela.gwu.edu/expert/faq/ Veltman, C. (1983). Language shift in the United States. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

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