Miss Catherine Wilson Vimy


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Vimy, the question of nationalism as a social construct

Sorry class, you will notice some typing errors (not spelling) lol. As well the key words in my title are missing a few capitals, but u get the idea. Don't try telling be the same thing on your work though. :)

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Miss Catherine Wilson Vimy

  1. 1. The construction of a Canadian identity. Grade 10 History <ul><li>Key Terms </li></ul><ul><li>Propaganda: an organized spreading of certain ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalist: a member of a group promoting national independence </li></ul><ul><li>Ideologues: (from the word “ideology) ideas characteristic of a person, group, or political party </li></ul><ul><li>Fragmented: a part that is broken off or incomplete </li></ul><ul><li>Representation: one (as a picture or symbol) that represents something else </li></ul><ul><li>Symbol: something that stands for something else; especially : something real that stands for or suggests another thing that cannot in itself be pictured or shown <the lion is a symbol of courage> </li></ul><ul><li>Construction: the process, art, or manner of constructing </li></ul><ul><li>Process: a natural continuing action or series of actions or changes <the process of growth> </li></ul><ul><li>Memorial: serving to preserve the memory of a person or an event </li></ul><ul><li>By: Ms. Wilson in the hopes that our class will question how history is written or represented in such things as the Vimy memorial. </li></ul>
  2. 2. The Question of Representation Reading a memorial like text <ul><li>Purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Who is the author? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the text trying to do? </li></ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul><ul><li>What is the setting of the story? </li></ul><ul><li>What goes on in the story? </li></ul><ul><li>Technique </li></ul><ul><li>Who is telling the story? </li></ul><ul><li>Whose voice do you here in the story? </li></ul><ul><li>What technique is the author using to tell the story? </li></ul><ul><li>Meaning </li></ul><ul><li>Have you seen this story before? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the message from the story? </li></ul><ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><li>When you put all this together what does it mean to you? </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Canada enters War as a colony and leaves a nation </li></ul><ul><li>OR DID IT? </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-War = division </li></ul><ul><li>World War 1 = Sudden unification “says who!” </li></ul><ul><li>Post War= Increasing division </li></ul><ul><li>Question </li></ul><ul><li>Is the Vimy Memorial an attempt by Nationalist Ideologues to give the appearance of a united Canada? </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Is the memorial a true representation of a united Canada? </li></ul><ul><li>OR </li></ul><ul><li>Was our National Identity created through symbolic processes. </li></ul><ul><li>Irony </li></ul><ul><li>Something to ask ourselves: How can a nation that is unequivocally divided suddenly unify through War? </li></ul>
  4. 4. “ I am Canadian” “ Je’ sui Canadien” “ No way eh, we’re Canadians” “ Yeh Yeh you’re all Canadians. Now go and fight for the Mother Land so you have something in common!”
  5. 5. <ul><li>The Canadian Identity Pre-War </li></ul><ul><li>“ FRAGMENTED”= Problem with Creating a National Identity </li></ul><ul><li>A colonial creation </li></ul><ul><li>A neighbour to the United States </li></ul><ul><li>Influx of immigration </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural, language and religious tensions </li></ul><ul><li>-Metis </li></ul><ul><li>-Native </li></ul><ul><li>-French </li></ul><ul><li>-British </li></ul><ul><li>-Women’s movement </li></ul><ul><li>Question: In your opinion do you feel the memorial reflects a fragmented, or unified nation. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The Vimy Memorial As A National Representation <ul><li>A Memorial to commemorate the Canadian victory of Vimy Ridge in the First World War </li></ul>
  7. 7. could not hold <ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women served in World War One, mainly as nurses, but were unable to vote. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>1916 - Alberta and Saskatchewan 1917 - British Columbia 1917 - Ontario (women could not hold office until 1919) 1918 - New Brunswick (women could not hold office until 1934) 1922 - Prince Edward Island 1925 - Newfoundland 1940 - Quebec
  8. 8. <ul><li>A approximately, 7,500 Aboriginal soldiers served in the Ca nadian military during the </li></ul><ul><li>First World War. </li></ul><ul><li>A famous statement in 1920 by Duncan Campbell Scott, poet, essayist and Deputy </li></ul><ul><li>Superintendent General of Indian Affairs, encapsulates the prevailing attitude of his day: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Our object is to continue until there is not a single Indian in Canada that has not been absorbed </li></ul><ul><li>into the body politic, and there is no Indian question, and no Indian department. ” </li></ul>What was really going on? Canada’s Minister of Justice, Ernest Lapoint at the unveiling of the Vimy Memorial “The grandest tribute we could offer to Canadian soldiers is to affirm that their sacrifices have contributed to our introduction into the civilization of its highest modern conception-that of universal Peace founded on recognition of the basic right of people to Life and Justice” IRONY
  9. 10. Propaganda
  10. 11. The Average age of the Soldier was 22 Myth - They enlisted as a call of duty Fact - Most enlisted for A)money B) everyone else was C) they thought they would return before Christmas D) an adventure
  11. 12. Fact Many Canadians opposed the War 628,736 Canadians enlisted. 66,573 dead and 138,166 wounded 3,600 at Vimy Ridge 2,818 were POW (prisoners of war) Canadians at home are at further divided The taking of Vimy Ridge, April 1917, with troops advancing behind a tank in a major Canadian military success.
  12. 13. <ul><li>Canada in Khaki&quot; magazine was primarily a propaganda tool. Proceeds went to the funding of future war memorials. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Does the Vimy Memorial represent a united nation or an ideology? Vimy memorial = Peace-Justice-Liberty Many historians and writers consider the Canadian victory at Vimy a defining moment for Canada, when the country emerged from under the shadow of Britain and felt capable of greatness. CANADA A “NATION” The victory at Vimy was a significant landmark for Allied forces in the First World War and back home in Canada, it united Canadians and brought honour and pride to the young nation. (Veterans Affairs Canada , Canadian Government) Now you take a close look at the following images and you tell me if we were united. Pre WW1 WW1 Post WW1 WHATS CHANGED!
  14. 20. Wilfrid Laurier encouraging a Quebec crowd to enlist, 1916
  15. 21. Troops of the 22nd Battalion leave St. Jean, Quebec, 1915 This French-speaking unit became the Royal 22nd Regiment, the famous Vingt-deuxième or &quot;Van Doos&quot;, and served with distinction in both world wars.
  16. 22. Front de Liberation du Quebec, the FLQ. 1970 Police mug shot of Paul Rose, a member of the  Chenier cell of the FLQ responsible for the kidnap and murder of Pierre Laporte, Vice-Premier and Quebec Minister of Labour.
  17. 24. &quot; Justice Cannon Defense for the helpless
  18. 25. Aboriginal children in Residential school, 1894 . Photographer: Unknown , National Archives of Canada, Neg no.C26448.
  19. 26. The OKA Crises 1990 The Mohawk Defense Of Kanasetake (aka Oka, Quebec, Canada), Gayaneshakgowa And The Wampum Belt Of The Iroquois Confederacy
  20. 28. A Romantic construction of a fragmented Nation      Statue of Peace Female Mourner Male mourner Weeping “mother Canada”
  21. 29.                                                                                                                                            
  22. 30. Stood with the Dead by Lt. Siegfried Sassoon I STOOD with the Dead, so forsaken and still: When dawn was grey I stood with the Dead. And my slow heart said, ‘You must kill, you must kill:   ‘Soldier, soldier, morning is red’.    On the shapes of the slain in their crumpled disgrace I stared for a while through the thin cold rain... ‘O lad that I loved, there is rain on your face', ‘And your eyes are blurred and sick like the plain.’ I stood with the Dead ... They were dead; they were dead; My heart and my head beat a march of dismay: And gusts of the wind came dulled by the guns. ‘Fall in!’ I shouted; ‘Fall in for your pay!’
  23. 32. It's a consecration of love, says King Edward VIII of the Vimy Ridge Memorial. Before a crowd of Canadians and dignitaries, the memorial is unveiled and dedicated to Canada's fallen sons. For many, the ceremony is bittersweet – it is both a memorial to those who died in the First World War and a commemoration of Canada's growing sense of nationhood.
  24. 35. Front de libération du Québec (FLQ), a revolutionary movement that used propaganda and TERRORISM to promote the emergence of an independent, socialist Québec. 1970 Riots
  25. 36. While Quebec was looking into the idea of holding a new referendum on sovereignty other nations, such as the Canadian First Nations, were attempting to gain their own recognition as an independent people within Canada. While Natives had been making claims for centuries, the ones put forth at Oka took a turn that left its mark on Canadian history. July 1990 http://www.histori.ca/peace/page.do?pageID=343
  26. 39. R evisiting Representation and Identity One way in which identity is attached to a particular place is by feeling you belong to that place. It’s a place in which you feel comfortable or at home, because part of how you define yourself is symbolized by certain qualities of that place (Rose 1995:87-118) Things to think about PLACE Vimy Ridge World War One The memorial represents what every human aspires for; justice, peace and liberty. It was these romantic elements embodied in Allward’s monument that redirected our attention from the atrocities of War and the cultural/political tensions that still divide Canadians today. The Vimy monument, in my opinion memorializes the men and women who died in the battle. However the monument as a representation of a country which upholds liberty and justice is a constructed attempt to try and unify Canadians. The monument does not discriminate. It memorializes a “united” war effort, but NOT a “united” nation. . CONCLUSION: National Identity is created through symbolic processes that may or may not reflect the ideologies of a collective society.