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  1. 1. Isaiah<br />
  2. 2. Biographical Details<br />Isaiah = God has Saved<br />Born ca.760, son of Amoz<br />Inhabitant of Jerusalem, where he practices his ministry<br />Ministry during the reign of four kings – Uzziah, Jotham, Ahaz, and Hezekiah<br />No mention of his name after 1:1<br />
  3. 3. Difficulties With the Text<br />Ch. 1-39 – 8th reflect the situation of 8th century B.C.<br />Ch. 40-66 – appear to address people after the fall of Jerusalem in exile (6th Century)<br />56-66 seems to address a community returned from exile (after 538)<br />The material in the text seems to cover a period of 207 years or more. The United States is 233 years old.<br />
  4. 4. Historical Context<br />Syro-Ephraimite War<br />Assyrian Invasion<br />Conquest of Jerusalem and Exile<br />Return from Exile<br />Isaiah of Jerusalem is alive for the first two of these periods<br />
  5. 5. Syro-Ephraimite War<br />Israel (Northern Kingdom) is often called Ephraim in reference to its largest tribe<br />745 BC – Tilgath-pileser III begins conquering lands west of Assyria, including Israel, Judah, and Syria.<br />Ahaz becomes king Ca. 740 – pressure from Pekah, King of Israel, and Rezin, King of Syria, to join alliance against Assyria – Ahaz refuses.<br />Syria and Judah attempt to depose Ahaz<br />Ahaz turns to Assyria for help – Syria and Israel are defeated – Judah becomes a vassal to Assyria<br />
  6. 6. The Assyrian Invasion<br />Assyria expands in influence in the area taking control of Syria and Israel, which fell in 722<br />705 – Hezekiah (Judah) revolts, and seeks help of Egypt, which fails to materialize<br />701 - Sennacherib of Assyria retaliates, destroying much of the Southern Kingdom, and is convinced to spare Jerusalem only because he is promised even higher tribute<br />
  7. 7. Conquest and Exile<br />Over the next century, Assyria influence begins to wane<br />612 – Babylon conquers Assyrian capital of Nineveh – International power struggle is now between Egypt and Babylon<br />605 – Egypt defeated by Babylon and Judah falls under Babylon’s control<br />Zedekiah, the last King of Judah revolts<br />Babylon invades and eventually lays siege to Jerusalem<br />586 the city is sacked, the temple destroyed, and the majority of the people were sent into exile<br />
  8. 8. Restoration<br />6th Century, Babylon faces pressure from Persia<br />539 – Cyrus of Persia defeats Babylon<br />Jews are given leave to return to their homes – Many do so<br />
  9. 9. Themes of Isaiah<br />God’s providence – He is behind all historical events (10:5; 41:25)<br />Sufficiency of God alone to protect his people <br />Importance and Centrality of Jerusalem – Right Worship<br />
  10. 10. Messianic Expectation<br />Arrival of God’s anointed (9:1-6)<br />Associated with Right worship (2:1-4)<br />Restoration of the Temple <br />Peace – Eutopia (11:6-9)<br />Inclusion of people previously excluded (56:2-5)<br />
  11. 11. Items of Theological Consequence for the New Testament<br />7:1-16 – The Virgin shall bear a child<br />Virgin = Young woman?<br />Curds and Honey – Hard to get during a siege<br />Before weaning – w/in three years, the siege will end and the Northern Oppressor will be defeated<br />
  12. 12. The Suffering Servant<br />Chap 42<br />Chap. 53<br />
  13. 13. A Word on Biblical Authorship<br />Scripture is first and foremost about God<br />It has two authors, one human and one divine<br />The human author may not have known the divine intention of God<br />Simply to know the intention of the human author is not to know the intention of the Scripture.<br />
  14. 14. Isaiah Summarized<br />The Lord will fulfill his ideal for Israel by purifying his people through judgment and then restoring them to a renewed relationship in the covenant. He will establish Jerusalem as the center of his worldwide kingdom and reconcile once hostile nations to himself.<br />