Opportunities for Young International Scholars in  the United States Daniel Denecke, Ph.D. Council of Graduate Schools Was...
Council of Graduate Schools <ul><li>Membership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500 members from US and Canada (and 14 international ...
Characteristics of  a “Global University” <ul><li>International Research Collaborations </li></ul><ul><li>International Pr...
I. Shifting Terrain: The Context for Opportunity
International scholars comprise an important part of the U.S. research enterprise <ul><li>48% of students in engineering g...
Positive Trends for International Researchers <ul><ul><li>Increased Student Mobility  at undergraduate and graduate levels...
Some Countervailing Trends <ul><li>The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a much faster-than-average 27% increase in...
More Countervailing Trends <ul><li>Concerns about reduced interest in PhD pathway among domestic students  (--) </li></ul>...
Doctoral S&E Degrees by World Region USA Germany & UK Asia* U.S. Citizens Source: National Science Board, Science and Engi...
International Students and the US Graduate Enterprise <ul><li>CGS International Student Admissions Surveys (since 2004), 3...
II. Academic Opportunities: Faculty
Growth in Full-Time Faculty Positions for International Scholars, 1992-2003, all fields source: Science and Engineering In...
Faculty Rank <ul><li>Postdoctorate  - - - Adjunct Professor or “Lecturer”  </li></ul><ul><li>Lecturer/Instructor  - Non-te...
US Faculty Salary Ranges by Rank source: American Association of University Professors April 2008 $93-159,000 $69-103,000 ...
Tenure & Promotion <ul><li>Publication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality: peer review, selective peer review </li></ul></ul><u...
Starting Point Finish Line
III. Academic Opportunities:  Postdoctoral
Postdoctoral Fellowships and Appointments <ul><li>Federal agencies: National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science ...
Visa Class Characteristics <ul><li>J-1  (“the Exchange Visitor Visa”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common for Post-docs  </li></u...
Inside U.S. Higher Education <ul><li>Chronicle of Higher Education   ( http://chronicle.com )  and  </li></ul><ul><li>Insi...
IV. Non-academic Opportunities
“ The importance of foreign-born scientists and engineers to S&E enterprise in US continues to grow” <ul><li>25% of all co...
Global diffusion of R&D employment is reshaping non-academic career paths <ul><li>From 1994 to 2004, R&D employment outsid...
V. The Role of the University in Enhancing Opportunities for Young International Scholars
The Banff Principles <ul><li>Respect and learn from the differences in programs and their modes of delivery directed towar...
In 2007, about 29% of U.S. Graduate Schools Had Established Collaborative Degree Programs With International Universities ...
Collaborative Degree Programs Have Been Established in a Variety of Fields, With Business Being the Most Common Source: 20...
About One-Fifth of U.S. Graduate Schools Plan to Establish  New  Collaborative Degree Programs With International Universi...
Best Practices in the Preparation of Scholars for Faculty Careers <ul><ul><li>Preparing Future Faculty (PFF)   </li></ul><...
Best Practices in the Preparation of Scholars for Non-academic Careers <ul><li>Professional Master’s Degrees </li></ul><ul...
Best Practices in Global Context <ul><li>Building on CGS/EUA co-sponsored Strategic Leaders Global Summits in Salzburg (20...
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Opportunities for Young International Scholars in the United States (Daniel Deneke)

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Presentación de la conferencia de Daniel Denecke, Director of Best Practices of Council of Graduate Schools, en el Seminario: "La movilidad de investigadores entre EEUU y Europa", organizado por la Cátedra UNESCO de Gestión y Política Universitaria

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Opportunities for Young International Scholars in the United States (Daniel Deneke)

  1. 1. Opportunities for Young International Scholars in the United States Daniel Denecke, Ph.D. Council of Graduate Schools Washington, DC, USA [email_address]
  2. 2. Council of Graduate Schools <ul><li>Membership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>500 members from US and Canada (and 14 international affiliates); 94% of doctoral degrees and approx. 80% of master’s degrees awarded in the US represented </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mission “to improve and advance graduate education” through: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Advocacy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Best Practices , e.g. Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>+ International Dimension </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics of a “Global University” <ul><li>International Research Collaborations </li></ul><ul><li>International Programs </li></ul><ul><li>International Students </li></ul><ul><li>International Experience for Domestic Students </li></ul><ul><li>International Postdocs & Faculty </li></ul>
  4. 4. I. Shifting Terrain: The Context for Opportunity
  5. 5. International scholars comprise an important part of the U.S. research enterprise <ul><li>48% of students in engineering graduate programs </li></ul><ul><li>40% of students in physical sciences </li></ul><ul><li>1/3 of U.S. Nobel prizes won by foreign-born scientists </li></ul>Source: CGS, Graduate Enrollment and Degrees, 1996-2006 , 2007
  6. 6. Positive Trends for International Researchers <ul><ul><li>Increased Student Mobility at undergraduate and graduate levels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CGS International Surveys ( www.cgsnet.org ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Open Doors Report ( http://opendoors.iienetwork.org ), “first significant increase since 2001” 3% overall, 10% new. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joint and Dual Degree programs on the rise, creating opportunities for student and faculty exchanges. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CGS International Survey, 2007 ( www.cgsnet.org ) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bologna Process improving US admissions infrastructure for evaluating international credentials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global Citizenship a growing concern </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Some Countervailing Trends <ul><li>The U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics projects a much faster-than-average 27% increase in postsecondary teaching jobs through 2014. ( http://stats.bls.gov/oco/ocos066.htm ) (++) </li></ul><ul><li>Much of the increase will be in Part-Time. (--) </li></ul><ul><li>In 1990s, national share of Part Time (PT) faculty grew to 50+% (--) </li></ul><ul><li>The “Postdoc” is emerging as a growing trend in these fields (++) </li></ul><ul><li>As PT faculty increases, undergraduate completion rates fall (--) </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasis on completion rates and “accountability” is rising at both undergraduate and graduate levels. (++) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Ehrenberg [http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/cheri/wp/cheri_wp46.pdf], </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NYT [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/20/education/20adjunct.html?ex=1196398800&en=618fc4e8c3304e02&ei=5070&emc=eta1]) </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. More Countervailing Trends <ul><li>Concerns about reduced interest in PhD pathway among domestic students (--) </li></ul><ul><li>International students filling the gap in increased percentages . (++) </li></ul><ul><li>Alongside Global University trends are public undercurrents of protectionism and provincialism (--) </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity Building (++) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Ehrenberg [http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/cheri/wp/cheri_wp46.pdf], </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NYT [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/20/education/20adjunct.html?ex=1196398800&en=618fc4e8c3304e02&ei=5070&emc=eta1]) </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Doctoral S&E Degrees by World Region USA Germany & UK Asia* U.S. Citizens Source: National Science Board, Science and Engineering Indicators 2008, Appendix Tables 2-31 & 2-42. Updated January 2008. Analysis by the Council of Graduate Schools. *Asia includes China, India, Japan, South Korea, and Taiwan **Includes Permanent Residents. %U.S. Citizens** S&E Ph.D.s Conferred
  10. 10. International Students and the US Graduate Enterprise <ul><li>CGS International Student Admissions Surveys (since 2004), 3 phases of the survey each year: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I – Applications, II – Admissions, III – Enrollment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plus Issues Questionnaire (e.g. three-year bachelor’s policies, international outreach activities, joint and dual degrees) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highlights (most recent CGS applications, 2008): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Total grew 3% in 2008 (smallest growth since 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Total grew 4% at Top 10 and Top 50; 1% outside </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>65% of continuous respondents experienced decreases, averaging 31% lower than 2003 </li></ul></ul>Source: CGS, International Survey , 2008
  11. 11. II. Academic Opportunities: Faculty
  12. 12. Growth in Full-Time Faculty Positions for International Scholars, 1992-2003, all fields source: Science and Engineering Indicators 2008 , Appendix Table 5-21 82.6 76 9.2 13.3 8.3 10.7
  13. 13. Faculty Rank <ul><li>Postdoctorate - - - Adjunct Professor or “Lecturer” </li></ul><ul><li>Lecturer/Instructor - Non-tenure Track Research and Teaching Positions </li></ul><ul><li>Assistant Professor , Tenure Track (or not) </li></ul><ul><li>Associate Professor , Tenure </li></ul><ul><li>Full Professor , Tenure </li></ul>
  14. 14. US Faculty Salary Ranges by Rank source: American Association of University Professors April 2008 $93-159,000 $69-103,000 $60-87,000 $42-69,000 Doctoral Institutions $72-111,000 $59-85,000 $50-69,000 $40-59,000 Master’s Focused $59-113,000 (Full) Professor <ul><ul><li>$51-83,000 </li></ul></ul>Associate Professor $44-67,000 Assistant Professor $37-56,000 Instructor/ Lecturer Bachelor’s
  15. 15. Tenure & Promotion <ul><li>Publication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quality: peer review, selective peer review </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantity: # of Articles (3-6); # Books (1-2) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Citations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Letters of support (networking outsider the department) </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching portfolio & service requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding stated requirements (and unstated expectations) </li></ul><ul><li>Understanding institutional decision-making and recent history </li></ul><ul><li>Balancing Research, Teaching, and Service </li></ul>
  16. 16. Starting Point Finish Line
  17. 17. III. Academic Opportunities: Postdoctoral
  18. 18. Postdoctoral Fellowships and Appointments <ul><li>Federal agencies: National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Science Foundation (NSF) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizenship requirements vary, NIH’s NRSA (restricted) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>University, private foundations, libraries, research organizations, etc. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Citizenship requirements tend to be more open; Residency requirements vary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Innumerable online resources, e.g. in biosciences: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.spo.berkeley.edu/Fund/biopostdoc.html </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee/worker vs. trainee/student tension </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Visa Class Characteristics <ul><li>J-1 (“the Exchange Visitor Visa”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common for Post-docs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: exchange opportunities for a cultural/educational purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family/Finance: Spouse may apply for employment authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 3 years (with 6-month extension) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>H1-B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common for Faculty (some postdocs) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: temporary employment in “specialty occupations” and/or with intent to apply for permanent residency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Family/Finance: Non-U.S. spouse ineligible to apply for employment authorization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Up to 6 years </li></ul></ul>Resources: National Postdoc Association ( http://www.nationalpostdoc.org ); US Department of State website ( http://travel.state.gov/visa )
  20. 20. Inside U.S. Higher Education <ul><li>Chronicle of Higher Education ( http://chronicle.com ) and </li></ul><ul><li>Inside Higher Education ( www.insidehighered.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>National Postdoc Association ( http://www.nationalpostdoc.org ) </li></ul><ul><li>National Academies of Sciences reports ( www.nationalacademies.org ) </li></ul><ul><li>American Association of University Professors ( www.aaup.org ) </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Education Research & Reform Initiatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ronald Ehrenberg & CHERI (Cornell Higher Education Research Institute), Chris Golde & Tim Dore, Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate, Re-envisioning the PhD, NORC (Survey of Earned Doctorates), NRC Doctoral Assessment; Maresi Nerad (CIRGE), Science and Engineering Indicators, Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Your Destination Institution: international services; postdoc office. </li></ul><ul><li>Council of Graduate Schools ( www.cgsnet.org ) </li></ul>
  21. 21. IV. Non-academic Opportunities
  22. 22. “ The importance of foreign-born scientists and engineers to S&E enterprise in US continues to grow” <ul><li>25% of all college educated workers, and 40% of doctorate holders, in S&E occupations in 2003 were foreign-born </li></ul><ul><li>At least 41% of foreign-born university-educated in the US in 2003 had highest degree from foreign educational institution </li></ul><ul><li>About half of S&E doctorate holders in US postdoc positions may have earned doctorates outside US </li></ul>Source: NSF, Science and Engineering Indicators 2008
  23. 23. Global diffusion of R&D employment is reshaping non-academic career paths <ul><li>From 1994 to 2004, R&D employment outside the US by US firms increased by 76%, compared with a 31% increase in R&D employment by the same firms in the United States, and an 18% increase in US R&D employment at the US subsidiaries of foreign firms </li></ul>Source: NSF, Science and Engineering Indicators 2008
  24. 24. V. The Role of the University in Enhancing Opportunities for Young International Scholars
  25. 25. The Banff Principles <ul><li>Respect and learn from the differences in programs and their modes of delivery directed towards our common goal </li></ul><ul><li>Promote the quality of graduate programs </li></ul><ul><li>Develop global career competencies and awareness in graduates </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage innovation in programs and graduates </li></ul><ul><li>Clarify and strengthen the role of the masters degree </li></ul><ul><li>Promote high-quality inter-university collaborative programs across national boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Review and understand the global flow of graduate students and postdoctoral fellows (early stage researchers) </li></ul><ul><li>Engage stakeholders, e.g. employers, policy makers and universities, to improve and advance graduate education in a global context </li></ul><ul><li>Establish an inclusive global platform for discussion of best practices in graduate education </li></ul>CGS, Global Perspectives on Graduate Education , 2008 forthcoming
  26. 26. In 2007, about 29% of U.S. Graduate Schools Had Established Collaborative Degree Programs With International Universities Source: Council of Graduate Schools, 2007 International Graduate Admissions Survey II: Final Applications and Initial Offers of Admissions. August 2007. *Enrollment size based on the number of international graduate students Enrolled at U.S. graduate schools in the fall of 2004. Due to rounding, details may not equal totals. Table 1. Percentage of American Graduate Schools That Have Established Collaborative Graduate Degree Programs With One or More International Universities, by Size of International Graduate Student Enrollment* 29% 22% 56% 48% 56% Total With One or More Collaborative Programs 11% 9% 21% 10% 11% All Other Types of Degree Programs 7% 8% 3% 5% 0% Joint Degree Program 11% 5% 32% 33% 44% Dual/Double Degree All Institutions All Others Largest 50 Largest 25 Largest 10
  27. 27. Collaborative Degree Programs Have Been Established in a Variety of Fields, With Business Being the Most Common Source: 2007 Council of Graduate Schools Graduate Admissions Survey II: Final Applications and Initial Offers of Admission.
  28. 28. About One-Fifth of U.S. Graduate Schools Plan to Establish New Collaborative Degree Programs With International Universities Source: Council of Graduate Schools, 2007 International Graduate Admissions Survey II: Final Applications and Initial Offers of Admissions. August 2007. *Enrollment size based on the number of international graduate students Enrolled at U.S. graduate schools in the fall of 2004. Due to rounding, details may not equal totals. Table 1. Percentage of American Graduate Schools That Have Plan to Establish New Collaborative Graduate Degree Programs With One or More International Universities Within the Next Two Years, by Size of International Graduate Student Enrollment* 24% 22% 39% 33% 33% Total With One or More Collaborative Programs 12% 8% 27% 19% 22% All Other Types of Degree Programs 8% 8% 9% 9% 0% Joint Degree Program 4% 5% 3% 5% 11% Dual/Double Degree All Institutions All Others Largest 50 Largest 25 Largest 10
  29. 29. Best Practices in the Preparation of Scholars for Faculty Careers <ul><ul><li>Preparing Future Faculty (PFF) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>( www.preparing-faculty.org ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Correct the mismatch between doctoral degree experience and faculty careers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Address the roles and responsibilities in teaching, research, and service </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing students for success in a variety of institutional contexts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… including international contexts and components </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other reform initiatives addressing preparation for the professoriate include: Carnegie Initiative on the Doctorate, the Responsive Ph.D. (Woodrow Wilson National Fellowship Foundation), and Re-envisioning the Ph.D. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Best Practices in the Preparation of Scholars for Non-academic Careers <ul><li>Professional Master’s Degrees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional Master of Arts (PMA)/Professional Science Masters (PSM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Address perception of master’s as “en route” degree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Core research coursework of traditional master’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plus components such as internship in non-academic environment as alternative to thesis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preparing Future Professionals </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurship </li></ul>
  31. 31. Best Practices in Global Context <ul><li>Building on CGS/EUA co-sponsored Strategic Leaders Global Summits in Salzburg (2007) and Banff, Canada (2008), with support from Ministry of Alberta: </li></ul><ul><li>First two focused meetings will look at: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Ethics in a Global Context, 2008 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Graduate Education and Workforce Partnerships, 2009 </li></ul></ul>

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