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AYA KS5 MEDIA ASSESSMENT.pdf

A2 Media Coursework

AYA KS5 MEDIA ASSESSMENT.pdf

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A2 Media
Studies
Coursework
Research
and Planning
Zain
M.I.G.R.A.I.N –
Meaning/Media
Language:
• Symbolism
• Symbolic codes
• Technical Codes
• StuartHall
What is meaning?
Meaning is created by codes, conventions, formats, symbols and narrative structures which all play a
part in helping the audience understand the meaning of media messages.
Stuart halls reception theory states that media texts can be understood in 3 types ways from an
audience.
Preferred reading
Negotiatedreading Oppositional reading
This is when the audience
understands the text the way the
producer wanted them to. This is
because they agree with the message
the producer has given. This is a
positive reading as the text has been
understood by the audience correctly;
meaning the advertisement the
producer put out is successful. An
example of this would be if an
adverstisment of a new cologne came
out, the targeted audience is appealed
to go and buy it. In order to ensure
your audience has a preffered
reading, you have to make sure to:
have a clear message, correct and
relavent advertisment that suits the
audiences demographics, easy for the
audience to understand the narrative
and of-course ensuring your audience
will be intrested in your product in
the first place
This reading is between preffered and
oppositional reading. It is when an
audience understand and accepts the
views of the producer and the intention
of their text, however they will have their
own opinion/understanding. This is a
neutral reading to receive from the
audience as they have understood the
text even if they are making their own
judgements. An example of this reading
would be if the audience were to like the
product on an advert but found that it's
cost is not worth it. The reason an
audience would receive a negotiated
reading would be if they were not the
right target audience and did not fit into
the procuts audience demographics so it
might not come across as appealing.
Another reason could be that they do not
completely understand the text and
therefore are unable to have a dominant
reading.
An oppositional reading is when
the audience does not
agree/understand the text the
producer intended them to. This is
a bad response to receive as the
text is not received by the audince
the way the producer wanted them
to. This is a bad response as it
means the people who view the
product will not want to buy it. An
example of this would be if a
company were to promote their
hairloss product – and someone
may view it as the company saying
women should not be comfortable
in their body. In order to avoid
your audience having an
oppositional reading you would
need to make sure that there are
no controversial themes, the
audience agrees and understands
the content and that it is relatable
to them.
➢ There are 2 types of codes that help the audience understand meaning: symbolic and
technical.
Symbolic codes are visual codes that are easily understood by the audience and help the
audience see beneath the surface. An example of how symbolic codes help the audience
understand meaning is color. The color white will symbol innocence and purity while the
color black symbolises darkness and evil. Although the audience may not realise while they
are watching, they subconciously will accosiate the colors they are wearing to the characters.
Whereas technical codes are ways the equipment used behind the scenes can tell a story.
An example of how technical codes help the audience understand meaning is camera work
in a film. For example, if you were to film someone from low show shot angle it will make
them appear powerful and big.
Symbolic codes Technical codes
Lighting Camerashots
Setting Editing
Body language Cameraangles and
movements
Color Sound
Facialexpressions
Props and costumes
Lighting
In media, lighting is an important role to help create meaning as it is used in order to help set the mood and
create an atmosphere.
There's are two types of lighting: high-key and low-key lighting.
• High-key lighting is when the lighting is full and bright, it is often used in happier settings such as
comedy films. A bright setting can help the audience identify the mood of the film as well as help them
understand the characters. An example of this would be spider-man; he is the hero and when he is alone
the lighting is usually high-key lighting. However, when he conflicts with the villain the scene's lighting
may go darker in order to create an intense atmosphere for the audience.
• Low-key lighting is when the lighting is dim and dark, it is mostly seen in films such as horror because
horror is associated with 'darkness' and evil. Dark lighting may help the audience identify the genre
quickly as they can subconsciously make those connections.
This is a photo from the horror movie
'the nun'. The lowkey lighting creates
a mysterious and scary atmosphere .
Just by looking at the picture, the dark
tones help the audience identify the
genre.
This is a picture from the comedy sit-com
friends. The lighting in the picture is high-
key lighting which fits perfectly within the
genre and sets the correct tone for the
audience.
Setting
Setting plays a huge role in helping the
audience understand meaning. This is
because the location of your storyline
helps the audience identify the mood, by
this I mean if I were to set my movie in
Hawaii or Japan, they would be completely
different atmospheres for different
storylines. It also helps your audience
identify the genre of your film. That is the
reason setting is incredibly important to
consider when making your film.
There will be many different locations in a
film, however, the main setting will remain.
What I mean by this is you could film in
Dubai (main setting) however in the film,
you may have lots of locations to
visit (mall, house, park etc.) The settings
change in order to help your storyline flow
and it may reflect on your characters
moods or emotions too.
The setting of a movie also lets the
audience identify things such as time
period, location and the time
(morning/night)
By looking at this picture, the audience can infer that this is
an apartment, so it is mostlikely a sitcom.
Here the house is isolated, it is gray outside. This allows the
audience to assumethe genre is horror
Ad

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AYA KS5 MEDIA ASSESSMENT.pdf

  • 2. M.I.G.R.A.I.N – Meaning/Media Language: • Symbolism • Symbolic codes • Technical Codes • StuartHall
  • 3. What is meaning? Meaning is created by codes, conventions, formats, symbols and narrative structures which all play a part in helping the audience understand the meaning of media messages. Stuart halls reception theory states that media texts can be understood in 3 types ways from an audience. Preferred reading Negotiatedreading Oppositional reading This is when the audience understands the text the way the producer wanted them to. This is because they agree with the message the producer has given. This is a positive reading as the text has been understood by the audience correctly; meaning the advertisement the producer put out is successful. An example of this would be if an adverstisment of a new cologne came out, the targeted audience is appealed to go and buy it. In order to ensure your audience has a preffered reading, you have to make sure to: have a clear message, correct and relavent advertisment that suits the audiences demographics, easy for the audience to understand the narrative and of-course ensuring your audience will be intrested in your product in the first place This reading is between preffered and oppositional reading. It is when an audience understand and accepts the views of the producer and the intention of their text, however they will have their own opinion/understanding. This is a neutral reading to receive from the audience as they have understood the text even if they are making their own judgements. An example of this reading would be if the audience were to like the product on an advert but found that it's cost is not worth it. The reason an audience would receive a negotiated reading would be if they were not the right target audience and did not fit into the procuts audience demographics so it might not come across as appealing. Another reason could be that they do not completely understand the text and therefore are unable to have a dominant reading. An oppositional reading is when the audience does not agree/understand the text the producer intended them to. This is a bad response to receive as the text is not received by the audince the way the producer wanted them to. This is a bad response as it means the people who view the product will not want to buy it. An example of this would be if a company were to promote their hairloss product – and someone may view it as the company saying women should not be comfortable in their body. In order to avoid your audience having an oppositional reading you would need to make sure that there are no controversial themes, the audience agrees and understands the content and that it is relatable to them.
  • 4. ➢ There are 2 types of codes that help the audience understand meaning: symbolic and technical. Symbolic codes are visual codes that are easily understood by the audience and help the audience see beneath the surface. An example of how symbolic codes help the audience understand meaning is color. The color white will symbol innocence and purity while the color black symbolises darkness and evil. Although the audience may not realise while they are watching, they subconciously will accosiate the colors they are wearing to the characters. Whereas technical codes are ways the equipment used behind the scenes can tell a story. An example of how technical codes help the audience understand meaning is camera work in a film. For example, if you were to film someone from low show shot angle it will make them appear powerful and big. Symbolic codes Technical codes Lighting Camerashots Setting Editing Body language Cameraangles and movements Color Sound Facialexpressions Props and costumes
  • 5. Lighting In media, lighting is an important role to help create meaning as it is used in order to help set the mood and create an atmosphere. There's are two types of lighting: high-key and low-key lighting. • High-key lighting is when the lighting is full and bright, it is often used in happier settings such as comedy films. A bright setting can help the audience identify the mood of the film as well as help them understand the characters. An example of this would be spider-man; he is the hero and when he is alone the lighting is usually high-key lighting. However, when he conflicts with the villain the scene's lighting may go darker in order to create an intense atmosphere for the audience. • Low-key lighting is when the lighting is dim and dark, it is mostly seen in films such as horror because horror is associated with 'darkness' and evil. Dark lighting may help the audience identify the genre quickly as they can subconsciously make those connections. This is a photo from the horror movie 'the nun'. The lowkey lighting creates a mysterious and scary atmosphere . Just by looking at the picture, the dark tones help the audience identify the genre. This is a picture from the comedy sit-com friends. The lighting in the picture is high- key lighting which fits perfectly within the genre and sets the correct tone for the audience.
  • 6. Setting Setting plays a huge role in helping the audience understand meaning. This is because the location of your storyline helps the audience identify the mood, by this I mean if I were to set my movie in Hawaii or Japan, they would be completely different atmospheres for different storylines. It also helps your audience identify the genre of your film. That is the reason setting is incredibly important to consider when making your film. There will be many different locations in a film, however, the main setting will remain. What I mean by this is you could film in Dubai (main setting) however in the film, you may have lots of locations to visit (mall, house, park etc.) The settings change in order to help your storyline flow and it may reflect on your characters moods or emotions too. The setting of a movie also lets the audience identify things such as time period, location and the time (morning/night) By looking at this picture, the audience can infer that this is an apartment, so it is mostlikely a sitcom. Here the house is isolated, it is gray outside. This allows the audience to assumethe genre is horror
  • 7. Body language Types of body language Example Eye-movement Winking Hand movement Waving Facial expression Smiling Body contact Hugging Head movement Nodding Sound Screaming Posture Slouching Body language is a non-verbal form of communication. It helps the audience understand how a character feels without them necessarily saying it. When you are in a conversation with someone their body language can tell you a lot. Your body will send signals to the other person which helps them understand you better. These signals can be positive and negative. Types of body language Example Arms behind back​ Indicates confident and authoritive behavior Arms crossed​, This is negative body language as it indicates defensiveness or stress Hand on nose​, Touching/slightly rubbing nose, this could mean rejection, doubt or lying Finger tapping​, Shows that a person is growing impatient or tired of waiting Sitting with ankles crossed, Defensive signal that stems from insecurity Biting nails​, Can be a habit or a sign or nervousness/insecurity Covering mouth​, Used to hid an emotional reaction, e.g. smile/frow n. Also used to express surprise
  • 8. Color symbolism - Barthes theory Colors can influence emotion; they also hold meaning in religion and various cultures. Different colors can be associated with different representations. Red: excitement, energy, passion, speed, desire, strength, power, love, danger, heat, aggression, fire, blood war violence, all things intense and passionate. Yellow: Joy, happiness, optimism, imagination, hope, sunshine, summer, dishonesty, betrayal, illness, hazard. Blue: Peace, tranquility, calm, stability, harmony, unity, trust, faith, confidence, security, cleanliness, order, loyalty, sky, water, cold, technology, depression. Orange: Energy, balance, warmth, enthusiasm, vibrant, expensive, flamboyant, demanding of attention. Green: Nature, environment, healthy, good luck, renewal, money, envy, generosity, jealousy. Purple: Royalty, spirituality, nobility, mystery, wisdom, transformation, cruelty, evil, arrogance, mourning. Gray: Security, reliability, intelligence, staid, modesty, maturity, dignity, conservative, practical, old age, sadness, boring. Brown: Earth, home, outdoors, reliability, comfort, endurance, simplicity. White: purity, simplicity, innocence, youth, peace, cleanliness, birth, winter, snow, sterility, marriage, humility, precision. Black: Power, sexuality, formality, fear, evil, death, remorse, underground, grief.
  • 9. Facial expressions Facial expressions allows us to determine peoples moods and feelings. This is because their feelings can reflect onto their face which helps the audience understand them. Facial expressions can decide the tone and meaning of a scene. Her mouth corners are elevated, her cheeks are up, and her mouth is slightly open, all of which indicate that she is happy. His jaw is slightly lowered, his eyebrows are elevated, nostrils are flared, and his eyes are wide open, indicating that he is shocked. You can tell she's unhappy because the corners of her lips are down, and her inner brow is lifted. Her nose is furrowed, her cheeks are raised, her upper lip is elevated, her eyes are squinted, and her eyebrow is dropped, so she appears disgusted. A study found that: • 7% of meaning is in the words that are spoken. • 38% is the way that the words are said, tone of voice, and • 55% is in facial expression
  • 10. Props and costumes A prop isan object used on stage or on screen, by actors duringaperformanceor screen production. In practical terms, a prop isanything movableor portable on a stage or on set, distinct from the actors, scenery, costumesand electrical equipment. Costumeshelp the audience identify the characters personality and status, whereaspropsgivethe audiencea time period of when the film wasset. Costumesare what the actors wear while they are in character. The costumeis chosen by the wardrobeand costumestylists, and they will choose something that best reflects the characters persona. For example, if they weretryingto makesomeoneseem 'nerdy' they might givethem glasses, tucked in shirts, suspendersetc. This is because if he wereto wear something like athletic attire, it would notmatch his character and be misleadingto the audience. Propsareused in order to help the audienceidentify the the time peripd of the film. For example, a film madein 20 yearsago might havea fliphonerather than iphone. These minor yetimpactfuldiffrenceslet the audience know the time setting indirectly and subtly. Propsalso differ from genreto genre, for examplea science fiction such as star warsmay uselightsabers whereas in a horror such as you may seean ouji board. Here is Jackie Burkhart from that 70's show. Her personality is girly, and her outfits reflect this as she is mostly seen wearing dresses, skirts and preppy attire. The wardrobe stylists dress her in old fashion attire because the show is set in the 70's. These outfits alone tell the audience the time period the show is set, as well as a bit about the characters personality as it represents her.
  • 13. Editing Shot-reverse shot: A continuity editing technique used in conversations or characters looking at each other or objects. Shot/reverse shot is a trait common among every film or TV show and yet the audience can still learn a lot about tone, themes, story, and character just by observing the composition of these shots (if done well). Continuity: When the audience should not notice when the cuts have been made. A sequence of shots that appear together and link with each other. 180-degree rule: The 180-degree rule is a cinematography guideline that states that two characters in a scene should maintain the same left/right relationship to one another. When the camera passes over the invisible axis connecting the two subjects, it is called crossing the line and the shot becomes what is called a reverse angle. Reversing the angle is commonly thought to be disorienting and can distract the audience from the intent of the scene. Match on action: An editing technique for continuity editing in which one shot cuts to another shot portraying the action of the subject in the first shot. common example is a man walking up to a door and reaching for the knob. Just as his hand touches the knob, the scene cuts to a shot of the door opening from the other side. Although the two shots may have been shot at different times, cutting on action gives the impression of continuous time when watching the edited film. By having a subject begin an action in one shot and carry it through to completion in the next, the editor creates a visual bridge, which distracts the viewer from noticing the cut or noticing any slight continuity error between the two shots. A variant of cutting on action is a cut in which the subject exits the frame in the first shot and then enters the frame in the subsequent shot. The entrance in the second shot must match the screen direction and motive rhythm of the exit in the first shot.
  • 14. • Jump cut: An elliptical cut that appears to be an interruption of a single shot. It occurs within a scene rather than between scenes, to condense the shot. • Match cut: A cut in film editing between either two different objects, two different spaces, or two different compositions in which an objects in the two shots graphically match. • Cross cutting: Alternate shots of two or more lines of action occurring in different places, usually simultaneous. • Invisible editing: Editing that is so smooth that the viewers become engrossed in the movie and don’t notice the individual cuts. • 180-degree rule: The 180-degree rule is a cinematography guideline that states that two characters in a scene should maintain the same left/right relationship to one another. When the camera passes over the invisible axis connecting the two subjects, it is called crossing the line and the shot becomes what is called a reverse angle. Reversing the angle is commonly thought to be disorienting and can distract the audience from the intent of the scene.
  • 15. Camera angles and movements
  • 16. Sound Sounds can help create meaning by: ➢ Enhancing audiences emotional experience/providing emotional focus. (E.g. imagine the movie Jaws without music.) ➢ Identifying characters/character types. (E.g. good vs bad in Star Wars) ➢ Tells the audience the unspoken thoughts of a character or unseen implications of a situation (through voice overs) ➢ Setting the location. ➢ Setting the time period. ➢ Helps build up a scene before rounding it off to create suspense. There's two types of sounds that can be identified in media texts; diagtic sound is sound that has an onscreen source and belongs to the world of film, and non diagetic sound which is sound that does not have an onscreen source and character's cannot hear it. Diagetic sounds: • Dialouge Speech • Ambient sounds Buzz/surrounding sounds. • Sound affects Sounds other than dialogue or music that are made artificially. • Direct adress When the character speaks directly to the camera (the audience) Non diagetic sounds: • Voiceover Narration of a film – not accompanied by a synchronized image of a speaker saying the words. • Background music A recurrent melody in a film. • Theme music Music that is specifally written for the show/film to catch the viewers attention. • Soundtrack The recorded sound element of a film.
  • 17. How meaning is created in Suits In this clip, the roles challenge gender stereotypes as Rachel seems to be the 'boss' which is interesting as Stereotypically men are in charge so already from the beginning of the clip the audience understands that this isn't a cliché and in fact it might come as a surprise to some people seeing such independent female roles. She appears confident and asserts herself and states her name to Mike, who immediately calls her pretty, but she shuts it down as she is strictly business oriented again not falling into the gender stereotypes acting flattered. There are back and forth over the shoulder shots of their conversation as they are both being quite passive aggressive, so they did this deliberately, so the audience can see their reactions. In the next scene, the setting is established with a long shot, and it appears to be that they are in an office. there is some diegetic sound from the sounds of telephones ringing and people talking. You can tell they are at work due to the setting and the clothes, Mike is wearing a suit which is formal attire that you'd see at a workplace, while Racheal is also wearing formal clothing for a workplace it is quite tight, this supports Laura Mulvey's male gaze theory which states that women are presented to provide visual pleasure to men and denies women's human identity relegating them into the status of objects to be admire for physical appearance, further more suggests that woman can only watch films from a secondary perspective and only view themselves as how men view them. This scene proves her theory as Rachel is clearly independent and strong minded however her presence seems to have no importance on Mike and the audience due to the way she is dressed, and the way Mike keeps flirting with her even though she made it clear she was not interested. This also links to alvarados theory as she may be dressed like this in order to look exotic'. Another thing you'd notice from the long shot is the camera is moving in dolly while the characters are walking this is to help the audience feel like they are there walking with them which helps them focus on the scene more. Mike makes a comment as they are walking and Rachel stops, Mike immediately gets nervous and lets her walk-in front of him, this shows how she is the dominant one although she is a female which further proves my previous point with the gender stereotypes being challenged as normally it is the woman who is submissive to the man. The camera does not pan while Rachel goes in a different direction and is no longer walking straight to show Mikes reaction when she dismisses his question, the scene instead smoothly cuts into the next room where you see Rachel coming in to with Mike following her. Then there is a wide mid shot of them both when they stop walking and Rachel questions Mike about why he didn't use the notepad she gave him, the scene becomes tense so there is more over the shoulder shots until Rachel accuses him of 'oogaling' over her, which he then sarcastically laughs with a close up shot to show the audience his reaction. Mike proceeds to correct Rachel in effort to embarrass her and shut her up Rachel does not seem fazed by it and she makes fun of him and walks away in the middle of him talking.
  • 18. How meaning is created in Handmaids tale At the beginning of this extract, it is clear to see that there is a somber presence as the camera pans round a woman clearly distressed. The medium close up shows that she is unhappy as we can see the tears in her eyes. The snuffles and the shaking of her head implies she is trying very hard not to let her emotions get the better of her. As the camera pans round some more, we can see there is a shallow focus of a figure in the background wearing blue, which contrasts the red and white of the first lady. But there is a lot of space between them, maybe signifying distance and isolation. The score is slow as well, with string instruments emphasizing the sad mood of the scene. When the shot chances to a long shot we can recognize that this is the Lincoln Memorial, but it has been broken, implying that this might be a dystopian world in America. As Lincoln symbolizes freedom, perhaps this could be to show that everything he stood for has been demolished. The way the woman puts her head down could show she is devastated by an event that has just taken part. She seems like she has lost hope and that could be why there is such as somber atmosphere. Once the woman has regained her composure, she puts a mask over her face, which could be linked to the idea of loss of freedom, as she is covering her mouth. Perhaps she is showing her lack of freedom of speech. The shallow focus continues to show that she is the main focus at the moment, so clearly a main character. When the camera tracks her as she walks out of the memorial, you assume that she is isolated and alone, however when it cuts to an over the shoulder shot, you see there are many stood in front of her all dressed the same. With the colour red being predominant it could symbolize a warning, or danger. The slight lines show clear discipline and control. As these are the only women with their mouths covered, it could imply a hierarchy system, in which these women are the subordinate characters. This is further enhanced by the men in black standing at the end of each line – again reinforcing the idea of control and danger. Black often symbolizes power and danger. The woman dressed in blue is in complete contrast with the women in red. Her mouth is not covered, and she is holding the hand of her male counterpart. These two seem to be dominant members of society as they are positioned above the women in red and looking down on them. The blue the woman is wearing could signify her importance and her position in society. This is further emphasized by the low angle shot looking up at her creating a platform to show her power over the others. The man is also wearing what seems to be a military uniform which again shows his power.. As the camera cuts to show the medium shots of the women in their rows, you can see they all have their eyes faced down and the score begins to have a high-pitched choir sound, perhaps suggesting their angelic nature. Many of them have their heads down and hands together in what seems like a prayer position. As the camera cuts to behind the man and the woman in blue, you can see they are looking over hundreds of women all with their heads bent down – again showing the sense of power and authority. Interestingly when the camera cuts to the original woman in red, a low angle shot is still used on her – perhaps to emphasize that she is an important character that has a lot more power than we might have originally thought. It is clear that this is a very religious place as the women are all covered, the Needle has been turned into a crucifix and the man dialogue is connected to what sounds like scriptures. However there seems to be tension between the man and the woman in red, as he glances at her through the corner of his eye. The score becomes drawn out, building up the tension as the audience waits to see what is going to happen next. This is further enhanced as the camera cuts to one of the women in front and zooms closer to her, to show her anxious expression. After what feels like a long wait, the woman in red eventually drops to her knees showing her being subordinate to the man and woman in blue. The camera cuts to an extreme close up of the woman in reds eye showing her focusing on the crucifix in front of her, giving the impression she is seeing past the authoritarian world, but looking straight to the symbol of hope. While nothing big happens in this scene, it definitely implies a lot of tension and sadness throughout.
  • 19. Institutions: • Institutional research – Production Labels • BBFC
  • 20. Media institutions are large companies that tend to run the undustry through media ownership. Media ownership is when an institution gains control and dominance within an industry. This is usually caused when conglomerates own several institutions and synergises across different media platforms creating 360- degree status. This can cause gate keepers to potentially enforce hegemonies onto passive audiences. There 5 major companies in the media industry such as comcast, Disney and Time Warner. With these strong institutions in the media industry creating an oligopoly, small independent institutions will struggle to compete. As one of the five major institutions in the media industry, Disney holds a gatekeeping position owning different subsidiaries maintaining a 360-degree status. The CEO of Disney is currently Bob Chapek who oversees insuring that Disney maintains a strong position within all the media sectors. Disney owns Marvel and Pixar in the film institution as well as Disney plus online and Hollywood records in the audio institution, helping Disney grow and increase their $65.39 billion revenue through their horizontal integration. What is an institution?
  • 21. Example – Disney/Before I fall Disney can use this money in order to grow their empire creating a 360 degree status which means that they own companies in all media sectors. This allows them to use horizontal integration, keeping all profits within their company. In 2017 they had a production budget of 254 million in order to create the live action movie Beauty and the beast. In the production stages they spent some of this budget on travelling to France to film, as well as having high quality equipment such as Arri Alexa Plus, costumes, editing tools, CGI for the beasts costume and salaries for the A-list actors such as Emma Watson who starred in the well known Harry Potter series and earned 15 million dollars from Beauty and the Beast and Josh Gad who starred in Frozen. This makes it difficult for smaller independent movies to compete. In 2017 the movie Before I fall was created and produced by Awesomeness films & Open Road films by Maria Maggenti. They had a production budget of 5 million dollars. They kept their cost down by renting cameras rather than buying it, they rented a university rather than making their own set, they have unknown actors and only gave themselves one month to film when Disney had two years. They spent their budget on camera equipment, studio costs, salaries, and smaller independent movies tend to struggle to compete as they can not afford the big celebrity names as large conglomerates can. For example Disney had Emma Watson whereas Before I fall had an unknown actor named Zoey Deutch.
  • 22. • One of the advantages of the movie industry is the proliferation of technology, meaning smaller independent movies are able to afford decent equipment. In the past technology was expensive because colored cameras were rare and new. However, technology advances quickly now so what was top standard a year ago is now much cheaper - meaning smaller independent movies can produce high quality movies. In the production of Beauty and the beast the company was able to use a range of impressive digital technology such as Aria Alexa xt plus, leitz SUMMILUX-C lenses. Likewise in Before I fall, they could also use impressive cameras such as the Arri Alexa Plus. • As well as having a production budget, movies will have a separate marketing budget. Disney's marketing budget was 140 million dollars. Due to their name they are able to synergize with other well known products to do joint advertising. This is called cross media convergence. An example of when disney were able to do this during marketing of Beauty and the Beast was when they advertised on gelish nail polish. Due to their 360 degree status, they are also able to advertise on Good Morning America. With the proliferation of technology, advertising has become a lot easier and quicker as well. An example of how Disney utilized social media to advertise Beauty and the Beast was making an Instagram account with a countdown to get fans excited and having Emma Watson who has millions of followers advertise it. Smaller independent movies struggle with marketing because they do not have the same power and influence as larger conglomerates. They have to rely on vertical integration. This tends to cost them more money. For Before I Fall their marketing budget was 20 million. However, due to the expanse of technology, social media has made it easier for smaller independentmovies to advertise theirproduct for free.
  • 23. M.I.G.R.A.I.N – Genre: Genre Theorists (who, what, examples): :
  • 24. What is genre? Genre is decided depending on category, style, narratives, storylines, themes and characters. In order to define what genre is, it would mean there is only one meaning, however, there are lots of theories and opinions towards genre making it difficult to define as there are many perspectives. This is due to the fact the meaning of it changes over time, and new genres are being established over-time. Genre is important as it helps the audience make sense of conventions and narrative structures. Genres Drama- My sisters keeper Comedy – Bridesmaids Animation – Monstersink Romance – The notebook Horror - Saw Sci-fi - Alien Thriller – Paranormalactivity Crime– The godfather Document- Catfish Adventure -Jumanji
  • 25. Film genres are identifiable types, categories, classifications or groups of films that have similar techniques/conventions such as: • Content • Subject matter • Structures • Themes • Moods • Periods • Time • Setting • Reoccurring icons • Characters • Narrative events • Situations • Motifs • Style • Props • Stars Primary film genres include the following: • Action • Adventure • Comedy • Crime • Drama • Epic • Horror • Musicals • Science fiction • War films • Western
  • 26. Within genres, there are also sub genres (genre within a genre) They combine multiple elements/chararestics of 2 or multiple genres. Examples of different sub-genres include: Genre Sub-genre Example Comedy Romance, comedy, British British jones Horror Comedy, horror, zombie Shawn of the dead Family Family, sci-fi, romance, thriller Avatar Action Thriller, kung-fu, western, action Kill bill Drama Action, drama, natural disaster Rocky horror
  • 27. Genre theorists: positives​ negatives​ Audience already knows what to expect.​ Lazy​ Structure.​ Boring, nothing you havn't seen before​ Everybody understands it​ It could restrict the audience from watching it if they don’t like a genre​ Industry knows how to develop and Too many sterotypes Rick Altman 1999: 'there is no such thing as 'pure' genre anymore. Genre is progressive and will always change' Rick Altman in his book 'film/genre' has proposed whathe likes to call a semantic/syntacticapproach. Semantic: this concerns the conventions of a genre that communicates to an audience such as characters, location, props, music, shooting style and other signifiers. E.g in western films we would expect to see horses, guns, hats, wilderness, Native Americans etc. Syntactic: This concerns the relations between these elements and the structure of narratives in genres. E.g in romantic comedies we expect the potential lovers to begin by not liking each other, then there are a series of problems/enigmas which causes them to end up having a successfulrelationship Daniel Chandler: Conventional definitions of genres tend to be based on the notion that they constitute are part of a specific type of content (such as themes and settings) and/or from (including structures/style) which are shared by the texts which are regarded as belonging to them. "Itis difficult to make clear-cut distinctions between one genre and another: genres overlap, and there are 'mixed genres' such as comedy thrillers." (Chandler, 2000) Buckingham1993: 'genre isnotsimply givenbythe culture:ratheritisina constantprocess of negotiation andchange' Tom Ryall 1978: Ryall argues that genres are recognizable through the repeated use of generic codes and conventions – as how the audience would know if a horror filmisa horror film.
  • 29. Media representations are the ways in which the media portrays specific groups, communities, experiences, ideas or topics from an ideological value or perspective. They aren’t always completely accurate, and that’s why they are said to be "re- presentation" which may sometimes go so far and create a new reality. A clear example of media representation can be found in beer advertisements, where they generally make out like drinking beer is a key component in a party for it to be fun – by doing this they are creating the connotation that it is their product that makes the party fun which further helps them promote their product. Another example is Disney, one of the most famous industries and film producers of film and television who represent stories and fairytales for children primarily in terms of white, western, middle-class values. Disney land and Disney world go as far as creating a new 'land' through representation. Representations in media are a key part of society, as they shape, to a certain degree, the way we think and what we believe. This is particularly true for teenagers who are heavily influenced by the media.
  • 30. Racial and ethnic representation in media ➢ Ethnicity is an affiliationresultingfromracial/cultural tiese.g.African,Caribbean, Latino, Arab,Asian. ➢ A positive portrayal of people of color is crucial, especially in multicultural countries such as Britain and America as people need to be aware of diversity andbe able tolearnhowtocelebrate andappreciate the differences. Ways ethnicminorities are representedinthe media: • Underrepresented • Stereotypically • Criminals • Threats • Culturally abnormal • Unimportant • Dependent Stereotypes and misinterpretations can be dangerous as the representation that is constructed by the media might be the only experiences the audience has. For example, in American Tv shows and films, Latinos will play gardeners and maids rather than lawyers and doctors. Furthermore, Hispanic men and women have been sexualized a lot by Hollywood in the media. Latino men have been stereotyped as 'Latin lovers' and Latina womenhave beencharacterizedasbeingexotic, sensual vamps. In classic cinema, Arabs are often depicted as belly dancers and terrorists. When native Americans aren't depicted as being silent, they're depicted as bloodthirsty warriors – and if a black person isn't a maid or nanny, they will typically be there to be the white person's black best friend. While Asians have beenlivinginthe USforgenerations, theyare showntohave brokenEnglish, if not, they are incrediblysmart. Thisall linkstoAlvarado'sracial sterotypestheory.
  • 31. Alvarado's racial sterotypestheory Dangerous: This when a group is portrayed to be dangerous and violent rap has made the stereotype on black males worse and has made as a stereotype that they are violent. As well as Yusef Khan in EastEnders is shown to be violent and extremely dangerous. Humorous: A good example of this is in the Simpsons, the character groundskeeper Willie who is conveyed as heavily Irish through his thick accent and bright red hair. He has many humorous lines and accidents that conveys him and his ethnicity as people who are humorous and should be stereotyped this way.
  • 32. Exotic:This is when a group is 'exotic' and 'sexy' for example there is a stereotype on Latina women to be a sex symbol, this is because they are shown to be this way through controversial behaviors and the costumes that they are wearing in the media are very revealing. Pitied: When adverts or documentaries are displayed for African children and families dying of poverty, the impression this gives off to the audience creates a feeling of pity and makes the audience feel as if they should help them.
  • 33. Gender representations in media Representations of men across all media tend to focus on the following: • Strength – physical and intellectual power • Sexual attractiveness (which may be based on the point above) • Physique • Independence (of thought, action and finances) Male characters are often represented as isolated, not needing to rely on others (the lone hero) If they submit to being a part of a family, it is often part of the resolution of a narrative, rather than integral factors in the initial balance. Male physique is also becoming a more important part of representations of masculinity. Representations of women across all media tend to focus on the following: • Beauty (within narrow conventions) • Size/physique (again, with narrow conventions) • Sexuality (as made in the points above) • Emotional (as opposed to intellectual) dealings • Relationships (as opposed to independence/freedom) Women are stereotypically represented as being part of context (family, friends, colleuges) and working in a part of a team. In drama films they tend to make the part of the 'princess'/damsel or the helper. Often their passitivity leads to victimhood.
  • 34. The media has also dominated white actors. For example, the TV show friends, is set in New York, one of the most racially diverse cities in the US, yet all the main characters are white. In fact, even most secondary and minor characters were also white. However, in recent years, there have defiantly been some developments where ethnic groups have landed roles based on their individuality rather than stereotype. Such as the show Jane The Virgin.
  • 35. Laura Mulvey's male gaze theory: ➢ In film the male gaze occurs when the audience is put into the perspective of a heterosexual male POV and the audience are viewing footage from his POV. The scene may focus on the curves of a womans body. However it is only the male gaze theory if these curves are highlighted with specific conventions such as slow motion, deliberate camera movements, cut- aways etc. ➢ The theory suggests that the male gaze denies women's human identity, relegating them to the status of objects to be admired for physical appearance. Furthermore, it also suggests woman can often only watch a film from a secondary perspective and only view themselves from a mans perspective. ➢ However the presence of a woman in a mainstream film is vital. Often, a female character has no real importance to herself, it is how she makes the male feel or act this is the importance. The female only exists in relation to the male. ➢ Mulvey argues, for the result of media being presented from the perspective of men and through male gaze, women find themselves at times, taking of the male gaze. Women will gaze at other women the same way a man would and end up objectifying other women. Mulvey states the role of a female character in a narrative has two functions: • As an erotic object for other characters within the narrative to view. • As an erotic object for the audience within the cinema to few.
  • 36. Example of male gaze theory: Beyoncé's “Partition” is an examplewhere the artist has chosen herself to be represented in a way that supports the male gaze theory. Beyoncé performs throughout the video in a sexual way outliningher body through the use of lightingtechniques. This is seen as part of her artist image and has become a recognizablelink to her music videos.
  • 38. Audiences are made up of individuals who read or consume media texts. All media industries must be aware of their audience in order to form strategies which attract their target audience. There are a range of different theories that help explain the different ways in which audiences respond to texts and the reason for this. For example, Clay Shirky proposed a theory which states that the internet and digital forms of technology influence the relationship between the media and people. Meaning that we are more likely to use forms of technology to reply to texts. There are two different types of audience: primary (target) audience and secondary audience. • The primary audience is the group of people which the product is specifically aimed at. In order to reach this audience; the product of the owner/industry which is responsible for the product would need to consider their needs, characteristics, preferences etc. • The secondary audience is the second most important group of 'consumers' that an industry targets. The secondary audience is right below the primary audience. The only difference is the secondary audience won't have as many demands and will not be as interested as the primary audience. • Audience demographics include factors about your audience such as age, race, gender, economic status, income level and employment. Demographics are used in the media industry in order to learn about the audience and be able to have sufficient market research.
  • 39. ➢Quantitative audience research is when companies gather information in large amounts. They do this by collecting information from surveys of large groups. The techniques used are mail surveys, telephone surveys, internet surveys, and face to face public surveys. Quantitative research uses closed questions within a questionnaire such as yes or no questions. This is because they want to compare with numbers such as how many people said yes for example. ➢Qualitative audience research engages with a relatively small group of people in order to gain a complex, detailed and in depth understanding of their opinions and experiences. Qualitative research uses open questions within a questionnaire as they want to find out the reasons and opinions for the answers given, instead of asking "do you like horror" the questionnaire would say " do you like/dislike horror and why?"
  • 40. Audience theories: Hypodermic needle theory: ➢ A passive audience is the opposite of an active audience. This audience consists of people who do not engage much with a media product and simply just accept whatever the deeper message of the other media product is. ➢ Katz and Lazarsfeld (1995) proposed a hypodermic needle which states that the message conveyed in a product represents a bullet, which is fired from the media (representing a gun) before it goes into the viewer's head. This theory suggests that messages are 'injected' into a passive audience before the message is completely received and accepted. ➢ The audience is powerless to resist. The bobo doll experiment is a controversial piece of research that proved children copy violent behavior. It was conducted in 1961 by Albert Bandura. In the experiment: o Children watched a video where an adult violently attacked a clown toy called the bobo doll. o The children were then taken into a room with attractive toys that they weren’t allowed to touch. o The children were then led into another room bobo dolls. o 88% of the children imitated the violent behavior that they had earlier viewed. 8 months later 40% of the children reproduced the same violent behavior. The conclusion was made that children will repeat violent behavior that they see in the media.
  • 41. The cultivation theory: ➢By professor George Gerbner and later expanded by Gross and Gerbner. The two began research in the 1960's attempting to study media effects, and if watching television influences the audiences perception of everyday life. ➢The theory suggests that media and television hold a small but significant influence on societies attitudes and beliefs. Meaning people who absorb the media are more likely to be influenced. ➢The separation between light viewers and heavy viewers is called the cultivation difference. This describes the extent in which to which a view and attitude on a particular topic is shaped by the exposure of media.
  • 42. Moral Panic: ➢The concepts of moral panic was first popularized in 1972 when Stanley Cohen wrote 'Folk devils and Moral panics'. According to Cohen "moral panic has occurred when a condition, episode, person or group emerges to become defined as a threat to societal values and interest, its nature is presented in a stylized and stereotypical fashion by Mass media and the moral barricades are manned by editors" ➢The connection of moral panic to the media is not new. This idea has been around for some time. In 1964 the media fueled fear over the British youth culture known as Mods and Rockers. This group was portrayed as being a new threat to public safety with exaggerated claims of danger posed by unconventional youth after violence between two groups of young people had occurred one day at the beach. ➢The media uses certain terminology to portray moral panic to the public. Words such as "gangs, looting, villains" etc. As well as phrases such as "drive by shooting" "a new menace threatening society" "crime is on the rise" - all this terminology can result in people feeling fearful and anxious.
  • 44. Capitalism Capitalism is an economic system and a mode of production in which trade, industries, and the means of production are largely or entirely privately owned and operated for profit. Capitalism it is an economic system based on 3 things: • Wage labor • Private ownership • Production for exchange and profit Pros Cons Health Waste Economicgrowth Starvation Equality Danger Consumersregulatethe market Propaganda Provideschoice Pollution Effects capitalism has on the media: - Doesn't provide all the pros and cons of the firm - Only shows how capitalism makes money and not how effects things like the environment, pollution, harmful to standard of living - Promotes a culture of work and desire - The common perception of the communist culture is "participate in activities that appear beneficial to you
  • 45. Liberalism Liberalism defined is political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality. The concept of Liberalism began in 1699-1800 by John Locke who saw great progress who saw great potential for human progress in modern civil society and capitalist economy both of which could flourish in states which guaranteed individual liberty. Pros Cons a positiveview of human nature Peoplemight take advantageof freedom , such as pedophiles trying to join the LGBTQ community a conviction that internationalrelations can be cooperativerather than conflictual Marketinconsistency a belief in progress Over-dependance supportsgender equality, racial equality, human rights Governmentcriticism wantsculturaldiversity Culturalissues Preserveshuman rights Providesindividual freedom (freedom of speech/association) Over the years, liberalism has evolved into a political stance in the media, primarily affecting one of the world's largest sectors, news/journalism in digital and printed media, where they can have the most power and influence to spread their beliefs to reflect all over the world, for the drive of individual speech and stance. Media such as Social media, broadcasting, Tv, News etc. Is a popular way to promot liberlism, for example when the black lives matter movement with the death of george floyd – massive liberal celebrities such as Jennifer Aniston would promote it encouraging her audience to research into this ideology
  • 46. Marxism Marxism began in the 19th century as a pragmatic view of history that offered the working classes of society an opportunity to change their world. It offered humanity a social, political, economic, and cultural understanding of the nature of reality, society and the individual. There are no social classes, and the reason for this is because they believe that this will eliminate the social gap between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, and this will eventually lead to communism. It began with Karl Max and Friedrich Engels, they began writing The Communist Manifesto (1848), based on the Engels' Principles of Communism. Six weeks later, they published the 12,000- word pamphletin February 1848. Pros Cons Equal gender roles, equal education access and health care. Abolishes religion. Protects the rights of the union. Negatively affects the educationalsystem Reducesthe tendency of debt, as communitieschoose to work together to achieve success. Limits opportunitiesfor entrepreneurs Can lead to communism which is believed to lead society without anyonebeing motivated, loweringthe economy
  • 47. Socialism Socialism was created to progress the living situation of working class so that everyone was more equal for example a historical examples of socialist countries include the former Soviet Union and Nazi Germany. It is a political and economic theory which believes that the means of making, moving and trading wealth should be owned or controlled by workers. This means the money made belongs to the people who make the things, instead of a group of private owners, so every person in the community has an equal share of the various elements of production. Pros Cons Creates a society that focuseson economicequality. reducesinnovation opportunities Reduction in poverty when socialism has a chance to work. Creation of a welfarestate can lead to industrialdisincentives Equality Forces the governmentto do all of the spending Environmentalprotections Create dividesbetween workers and owners Promotesthe common good
  • 48. M.I.G.R.A.I.N – Narrative: • Narrative Theorists (who, what, examples): • Todrovs theory : 5 stages – split beginning middle end
  • 49. Propps character types Propps charactertypes suggested that characters took the role of narrative“spheres of action” or a function. Stating 7 main charactertypes: • The hero (seeks something) • The villain(opposes the hero) • The donor (provides an object to the hero) • The helper (aids hero in his quest) • The princess (reward for hero and requires protectionfrom the villain) • The false hero (A characteryou first trust but turns out they are bad)
  • 50. • Equilibrium - The first part of the story will have a happy start, where most characters are content, and everything is as it should be. • Disruption - The second part of the story will contain a problem, or something will disruptthe happiness. • Realization - This is the part in the plot when everyone realizes the problem and it sparkschaos. • Restored order - This is the part in the plot when the characters attempt to repair the damage and restore the problem. • Equilibrium again - This is the final part of the plot when the problem is resolved, and normality can resume. Todorov's narrative theory states that most story/plot lines follow the same pattern/path. There are 5 steps in the pattern. The main protagonist - Teenage girl Katniss has gone beyond her district to hunt in the forest. Her hunting in the woods represents her practice for the Hunger Games if she was ever to be chosen. Then we have the disruption caused by the event when Katniss’ sister gets chosen to be tribute. Katniss then volunteers as tribute. This is a sign of self- sacrifice. Katniss then recognises what she has gotten herself into. Katniss knows that she probably might not be able to see her family again. The tragic part of this is that she doesn’t have much time to say goodbye. Katniss attempts to live throughout the film.She is surrounded by difficulties Katniss and her companion Peeta win the game together. Katniss thenreturns back home to her family and friends. Todrovs theory
  • 51. Barthes theory Barthes’ said that a text had no beginning, that it is reversible, we can gain access to it by many entrances and that there is no 'main' one. He believes that: • Text needs to be unravelled • Unravelling can lead to several potential meanings • We can look at text from one perspective and create one meaning • You can continue by unravellingthe narrative from a range of angles and create new meanings Barthes then narrowed down this to Five Codes which can be present in any narrative: • The Action Code – resolution is produced through action • The Enigma Code – where tension is built up and audience left questioning • The Symbolic Code – new meaning comes from conflicts/ opposing ideas • The Cultural Code – looks at the audience’s wider cultural knowledge/morality/and ideology • The Semantic Code – story has an additional meaning/underlying connotation
  • 52. Trailer Research: • What is a trailer/teaser trailer? Why are they used? • How have trailers evolved over the years? • How have movie trailers become more contemporary? • What makes a good trailer? • Are independent films up to the same standard as Conglomerates? • Why do films include movie posters? • Why is it important to include branding across movie promotional packs?
  • 53. • A trailer is a collection of different shots from a movie that are put together to show viewers what the movie is about and get them interested in watching it. It is a quick snippet edited to make the movie seem exciting and is a way producers advertise their movie. A trailer doesn't contain any spoilers of any kind, it showcases thrilling moments from the movie that would be sure to grab the audiences' attention. Producers try to achieve this by making the duration of the trailer last around two minutes, any longer and they could lose the audiences' attention. • Over the years, the way in which trailers were made has changed. Back in the early 2000's, trailers contained many spoilers that the audience would know how the movie was going to end. The movie 'cast away' showed Tom Hanks getting off the island which practically spoiled it for the audience. Nowadays, they use spoiler free marketingwherethey avoid any spoilers to the film but keep it exciting to attract audiences. • Trailers have become more contemporary throughout the years due to developing technology such as smartphones. Social media is used to inform fans about releases, updates and anything else related. This allows the trailers to get more noticed as the more people who interact with your posts the more people are awareof your film.
  • 54. Trailer – 3 Act Structure: The three-act structure is a model used when writing and evaluating modern storytellingwhich divides a screenplay into three parts called the setup (beginning), the confrontation (middle)and the resolution (end). The first act is used to establish the main characters, their relationships and the world around them. The protagonist is usually presented as content in their situation so that when it is interrupted, the protagonist wants to fight to regain their world. Earlier in the first act, a dynamic, on-screen incident occurs that confronts the main character, whose attempts to deal with this incident leads to a second and more dramatic situation, known as the first turning point, which signals the end of the first act, ensures life will never be the same again for the protagonist and raises a dramaticquestion that will be answered in the climax of the film. The second act, also referred to as "rising action" typically depicts the protagonist's attempt to resolve the problem initiated by the first turning point, only to find themselves in ever worsening situations. Part of the reason the protagonist seems unable to resolve their problems is because they do not yet have the skills to deal with the forces of antagonism that confront them. They must not only learn new skills but arrive at a higher sense of awareness of who they are and what they are capable of, in order to deal with their predicament, which in turn changes who they are. This is referred to as character development. This cannotbe achieved alone and they are usually aided by mentors and co-protagonists. The third act features the resolution of the story and its subplots. The climax, also known as the second turning point, is the scene or sequence in which the main tensions of the story are brought to their most intense point and the dramatic question answered. The protagonist can never return to the same life they lived before the confrontation occurred however; they are left with a new found senseof who they really are.
  • 55. Analysis of Trailer 1: I see you It starts off with a long shot of the house with a dark scenery which indicates death and mystery. There is a long shot of the whole house the start to bring and introduce the audience into the setting. Then a match on action is used to follow the man going to another house. The camera stays outside besides the wife. By doing match on action, it makes the audience feel more interacted with the movie which keeps them more involved and interested. It also uses closeups at times of the doll it's to show the freakish smile she has. It shows the doll sitting still and looking straight at the camera several times in the trailer to remind the viewer that the reason all these creepy things keep happening is because of the doll. At the start the editing is made so that the beginning of the film's most important shots are played with black fades, the scene happens in a fast pace a which creates suspense, this is used lot by horror movies so that at the beginning of the trailer the viewer is immediately interested to see what happened so there's more watch the whole of the trailer. All scenes fade out with a black onto each other. It started off scary and dark with invisible cuts in order to catch the viewers' attention to watch the rest of the trailer. There are overlays of people talking and explain what is happening whilst showing the setting and location where they are moving too, then when a scene that something scary happens they leave it to be completely quiet. In the middle of the trailer a score of an old-song begins to play through out some scenes to build suspense for the audience. The contrast between happy music and scary footage creates an uneasy feeling to the viewer because they don’t match which makes the viewer feel more thrills towards the trailer. The music then lowers to a quieter volume to the sound of the sewing machine so that the viewer focuses on that. The music is low but can still be heard in the background now. Then the sewing machine gets louder and so does tinfoil on top of the stove so the music cannot be heard anymore, and the noises of the sewing machine and tinfoil overlap each other repeatedly and gets louder progressively which creates suspense and then suddenly there is creaking noises/effects added once the problem occurs because this makes the problem and situation look and sound more interesting.
  • 56. Analysis of Trailer 1: I see you All the locations are based in late 1900s/1970s . This is because old locations and are usually dark, dark colors connote themes of death and fit perfectly with the horror genre. It also gives off the sense that the situation is dangerous. There is a 'villain' in the movie which goes with propps character types. The villain is the doll. Children toys such as dolls and teddys are used a lot in horror movies because they conflict with the real purpose of them - they expect the doll to stay still or to be played with. Dolls are made for young kids so using a doll makes the victim seem vulnerable. We also control their actions completely. So, for them to get up and run around the house on their own, or try to strangle us, that leaves us powerless and terrified. Its the juxtaposition between a cute doll and the doll wanting to kill the whole family that leads to an underlying feeling of unease. This trailer used the 3 act structure: The wife was pregnant at the start which showed how out of control and vulnerable she was. First part is the establishment, where the characters and introcuced, at the start they both wake up and night and the guy acts like the hero and is shown to be more brave by going to explore what happened, the wife is holding her belly which shows she is pregnant at the very start of the film. After this happens, they explain what happened before and starts to introduce the storyline of them moving to a new house and having a baby, then that’s when the development of a problem starts and that’s that the house is haunted because of the doll and start to experience supernatural occurrences. And then a montage of different scenes showing what could of happen are played which keeps the viewer guessing what's going to happen next and therefor want to watch the whole movie.
  • 57. Analysis of trailer 2: Woman in black From the moment we begin watching, it is evident that the genre of the film is horror because of the conventions that have been used. For example, the narrative of a young child holding supernatural powers is common convention of a horror film narrative, as we are left feeling feared and scared of the young child. The use of eerie/scary non diegetic music also adheres the conventions of the horror genre and fits with the haunted house location that has been used. The trailer starts off with an establishing shot of the surrounding location to give the audience a look into where the action will take place and familiarize the setting to the audience when they come to watch the film in a cinema. Additionally, tracking shots are also used to give the audience an insight of the haunted house that is the main setting of action of the film, which enforces the feeling of anxiety and fright about this house. Throughout the trailer they are cuts between establishing shots and close ups which are important in the genre of horror as the facial expressions of the characters are the central focus in reaction to the setting. By using close ups to show characters’ faces, the fear and distress they feel is emphasized to the audience. Close ups are additionally used to focus on ‘scary’ objects that play a role in the actions and disruption of the film. (Disruption linking into Todorov’s theory of narrative.) Two shots are used in the trailer to display conversations that are had by the characters and are effectively used in this trailer as we tend to hear a conversation that is followed by an insert cut of what they were talking about, in this case the house and who may be in it. A typical convention that has been used in the trailer is the fade outs between each scene to create a tense and spooky atmosphere. The use of the colour black for these fade outs also adheres with the horror genre as it is a typical colour that is commonly used and associated with horror. The face past editing of the shots towards the end of the trailer has been done in order to build on the tension created through the narrative of the ghost of a young woman.
  • 58. The overlapping of sound at the beginning of the trailer creates tension for the audience as they are anxious to find out what that particular sound is, in this case it is ambient sound of the engine of a train along the tracks, within the field of vision. This technique is a typical convention used in horror film trailers in order to create tension and build fear within the audience watching the trailer. Sound is of huge importance in horror trailers as it is used to draw on the anticipation of something bad about to happen and adds tension to the watching of it. In this trailer, a non diegetic sound of a nursery like song is played in the build up of the disruption, creating a tense atmosphere before the music turns to a more series down beat rhythm that fits with what is going on in the narrative, after the disruption has began, in this case the protagonist has learnt of the spooky events happening. In particular parts of the trailer where the scenes are cut through either an action or motivated cut, the non diegetic sound stops for a few seconds before speeding up again making the audience jump or panic as they watch. The chosen setting of the isolated surroundings and the scary/haunted house are stereotypically associated with horror and scary films. The overall feel of the trailer connotes old age, death and fear which has been effectively portrayed through each elements of mise en scene. Symbols such as the The Cross are typically associated with the genre of horror. The use of dark colours and shadowing of figures and objects creates a tense and spooky atmosphere. In addition, the stormy like weather is also a typical convention of horror films that we see in many films. The use of such elements make the audience feel nervous and frightened as they watch the trailer. Analysis of trailer 2: Woman in black
  • 59. Analysis of Poster: Background is a neuatral blue color rather than pink/red which is what is normally used in rom-coms. This could be because they are supposed to be 'friends' and therefore would not use any colors that would connote love or romance. There is a gradient that gets lighter, they could have done this to draw attention to the actors. Hand signals may reflect on what will happen in the film. It adds a immature comedic aspect, hinting on the tone of the film. Website mentioned in order to help the audience find out more about the film and share it with others. Social media is mentioned to promote the film and get people more involved. Beginning of each word in blue, adds intrest to the title. The neutral color emphasizes they are friends. Make-up highlights her femininity; her eye color is also enhanced to make her seem more attractive. Serif font in capital letters of the main characters, this helps sell the film to the fans of the actors. Names are almost the same size as the title indicating they are famous and important. They are close together implying they have a close relationship. They are dressed in casual clothes, his shirt is untied, and his tie looks scruffy, implying he was undressed giving an indication of the storyline. Image slightly darnkened to allow the text to stand out without being drowned by the image behind.
  • 60. Analysisof Poster: Behind the actors is a desert situated in South Africa. This shows where the movie is set. Both of them don't look like they are around that country, therefore, the audience could infer they are on a vacation, possibly a honeymoon. They are stood close and are facing each other. Which could emphasize that they have a special relationship. Both characters are smiling at each other to show that they have a close bond. The woman's facial expressions are similar to a reaction a person gets when they hear something out of line but funny. from the way he is looking at her, it seems like he does this often. She is also pointing at him, indicating that she has a more serious personality compared to him. The title color matches the south african desert in the background. There is a red border on which the title was written on. The names of the actors are written in red with the South African desert in the background. This makes the both title and name stand out to the The names of both actors are positioned above the title with a slightly smaller font. The name of the guy is under the woman and vice versa. The names are the same size as they are known actors. This would draw more attention to the movie. The names are flipped as it could mean that either the characters have relationship in the movie, or they put Sandler's names first due to him being a bigger celebrity and attracting more viewers. The guy's collar is up, possibly to imply that he isn't a very serious person.
  • 61. Analysis of Social Media Page 1: Verified logo indicates that they are established as well as having 4.5million followers, this shows they are backed well with big companies such as Instagram. This makes them respected and would more likely attract attention for being well-known. Also a good ratio of following-followers makes them seem prestigious. Highlights labelled and profiled in red – the color of Spiderman's suit. Red is also known to attract attention and especially contrasting with the white background it allows it to pop out - titles for highlights are written in all caps to also draw attention and make viewers wantto press on it. Hashtag in bio, if fans were to click on it they would be led through millions of posts about spiderman with that hashtag, this can be viewed as free branding as fans may post with the hashtags in hopes of getting noticed. They put it in the bio to keep trending The yellow ring around the profile picture illuminates the inner content, with the title is colored red and blue which correlates with the theme color of the main character of the film – spiderman. As there have been many spider-man movies, to previous fans of the series, these colors are seen to be familiar which will grab their attention. The website is also linked in the bio to direct fans to buy tickets/learn more about the film such as the release date. Click to add text
  • 62. Analysis of Social Media Page 2: The text states different ways to view the movie which widens the audience's variety. In effort to make this easy on the eye for readers the text is in bright yellow with a black background, this makes the phrase stand out and easy to read. The title is written in a large text, in comparison to the words below and underneath it, indicating it is written to be explicit as the title of the movie. This makes it noticeable to the viewer. To show this, the two words 'THE WOLF' is written in bold which again gives us a direct message and glimpse of what the movie is about. Wolf's can be seen as predatorial creatures which links to the main character who is played by Leonardo Dicaprio as the character is seen to be 'THE WOLF OF WALL STREET' There is a clear button that says 'shop on website' where they redirect the viewers to a website where they can buy the film on iTunes. This makes the film easily accessible to viewers. Click to add text There are subheadings which categorize the information in a compact layout which gives the viewers an idea for whattheyre in for. The background indicates the genre of the film, high key lighting as well as the people smiling and him shouting in a device that would already amplify his voice. These all indicate it could potentially be a comedy.