Building a Better Pyramid:
RtI for ELL/LEP/SEL

 Catherine Collier, Ph.D.

 catherine@crosscultured.com
   www.crosscultur...
Who’s it going to be?
Alphabet Soup!
 ESL      SEL
 LEP      EL
 ELL      ID
 CLD      ADD
 CLDE     ADDHD
 LD       ENN
 CD      ...
National HS Completion Rates 2005
80%
 70%
60%
                                                National
 50%              ...
Growth in Native Born LEP
                 First Generation     Second Generation   Third + Generation


                 ...
English Language by Generation
 100
 90
 80
 70
 60
 50                                                       97
         ...
National Disproportionality in Sped 2006
                   30

                   25

                   20

            ...
Policy driving practice…
     •     The evaluation team may not identify a student as disabled if the
           discrepan...
Instructional Intervention
       Model with RTI or RTII

                       100                                   16%...
Identify
                                                  Problem

                                                      ...
How to weigh yourself
PRIISM: Process of
          Resilience, Instruction, Intervention
                Strategies, & Monitoring
              ...
Things Could Be Worse!
INDIVIDUAL
                                                  Unique experiences,                 Ways we are less
        ...
Common Side-Effects Of the
Acculturation Process
      Culture Shock
           Heightened Anxiety
           Confusion in...
The Intensity of Culture
Shock is Cyclical
               Anticipation   Spectator   Increasing      Shock   Adaptation   ...
Estar Nepantla
What is all this?
“RTI is the practice of providing high quality instruction
  matched to students needs and using rate of...
Reminder!
            A CLD/ELL student
             may have learning
                and behavior
              problems...
PRISIM: Building the Foundation of the Pyramid


             Systems & policies promote and sustain:
                •Acc...
PRISIM: Problem Solving & RTI+I at Tier 1



                    Building Literacy
                    foundation
        ...
Look at the Home
Language Survey on
José.
What Bilingual Type is José
at this point in time?

            High L1 Low L1

   High L2 Type 1    Type 3

   Low L2 Typ...
Two questions you should be able to
answer about acculturation at
enrollment

  1.   What is the student’s current
       ...
Look at José’s profile
and his baseline
AQS.
What we recommend for
Tier 1 Step One

At enrollment & within a month in school:
1. Determine the current/baseline level
 ...
In the bottom half of Tier 1 of your blank pyramid write
some instructional services that need to be present for Jose
  to...
Look at the
Resiliency
Checklist on José.
Strategy Fitness!
Look at the1st

Classroom Language
Interaction Checklist
on José.
Strategy Fitness!
What we recommend for
Tier 1 Step Two
By end of 1st month or six weeks in school:
1. Measure the student’s ‘classroom
   l...
In Tier 1 of your blank pyramid write
some instructional services that need to be present for Jose
to succeed based upon h...
PRISIM: Problem Solving & RTI+I at Tier 2




                                          Self monitoring
                  ...
Struggles                 Strategies
   Low motivation
_______________               Self monitoring
                    ...
The purpose of screening for needs- based
             intervention is to:


          Develop a response based
         ...
Two questions you should be able to answer
about acculturation when planning
intervention.
       1.   What is the current...
Look at the
          2nd

AQS on José.
Calculating Rate of Acculturation
                            _______ x _______ = __________
           Years btwn AQS   M...
What Bilingual Type is José
at this point in time?

            High L1 Low L1

   High L2 Type 1    Type 3

   Low L2 Typ...
Four questions you should be able to answer
about instructional needs

    1. What are the student’s instructional
       ...
Look at the 1st

Sociocultural
Checklist on José.
Prioritizing Needs
            Sociocultural      Order of      Intervention      Duration of   Outcomes of
              ...
What we recommend for Tier Two

If student exhibits specific needs for differentiation within the
      general curriculum...
In Tier 2 of your blank pyramid write
some instructional services that need to be present for
 Jose to succeed based upon ...
PRIISM: Problem Solving & RTI+I at Tier 3

                               Manipulating pie charts
                      St...
Another purpose of screening for needs-
          based intervention is to:


           Identify the strategies
        ...
Four questions you should be able
to answer about language
1.   What is the student’s current social
     language profici...
Look at José’s
             2 nd

language proficiency
information.
Look at the 2nd

 Sociocultural
Checklist on José.
Order of      Intervention   Duration of        Outcomes of
                         Concern       Selected       Interven...
English
• Preview, do, review
                Initiate    • Stop if no response after 5 days, review
                strategy


  ...
PROBLEM SOLVING CHART

                  Yes          Does the damn thing          No
                                    ...
What we recommend for
 Tier Three
After the student has been in your school a while and
   when a teacher sees a learning ...
In Tier 3 of your blank pyramid write
 some instructional interventions that need to be implemented
  and monitored based ...
PRISIM: Problem Solving & RTI+I at Tier 4

                       Electronic eye piece
                  Accessibility aid...
Prior to Formal Evaluation
     1.      Screen standardized instruments
             for cultural and linguistic bias.

  ...
Evaluation Procedures

        Each public agency must ensure that tests and other
          evaluation materials used to ...
Clarifications from the Discussion
       Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964:
        In order to properly ev...
Clarifications (cont.):
       In some situations, there may be no one on the staff of the
         public agency who is a...
Your evaluation is based on what you do in the
next 30 seconds. Go!




         © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier
         All...
IEP Development
          The steps involved in IEP development for ELL students with
             special needs include t...
Including Diverse Issues on the IEP
        A. Does the student have behavior, which
           impedes his/her learning ...
Integrated Services
                                                                                   Intermediate
      ...
What we recommend for Tier Four
       After a formal referral:
       1.   Crosscultural evaluation based upon the outcom...
In Tier 4 of your blank pyramid write
            one individualized education objective that could be
  implemented and m...
PRIISM: Process of Resilience, Instruction,
    Intervention Strategies, & Monitoring
              Learning created with ...
© 2009 Dr. Catherine Collier
All Rights Reserved
Five Things that Work in
 RTI for ELL
1. Adequate Professional Knowledge
2. Effective Instruction
3. Valid Assessments & I...
Appropriate Actions to Take
 Information gathering      Intensive RTI over only
 Resiliency based              1 6-8 we...
Big shoes
                                  to fill


                               …….and remember…
© 2008 Dr. Catherine...
Les still isn’t one
with his horse.




© 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier
All Rights Reserved
Thank you! Come visit us at
www.crosscultured.com
               Over 40 years experience.
               Research on im...
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Presentation about designing and implementing improved problem solving with progress monitoring of ELL students with learning and behavior problems.

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  • .  In Spanish it means "to be in the middle."  Actually estar is a Spanish word, but Nepantla is a Nahuatal
  • Rtitesol10

    1. 1. Building a Better Pyramid: RtI for ELL/LEP/SEL Catherine Collier, Ph.D. catherine@crosscultured.com www.crosscultured.com
    2. 2. Who’s it going to be?
    3. 3. Alphabet Soup!  ESL  SEL  LEP  EL  ELL  ID  CLD  ADD  CLDE  ADDHD  LD  ENN  CD  ELD  SPLD  AAIALD  LD/CD
    4. 4. National HS Completion Rates 2005 80% 70% 60% National 50% Black 40% Hispanic 30% AmerIndian 20% 10% 0% Completion four years after enrollment
    5. 5. Growth in Native Born LEP First Generation Second Generation Third + Generation 20% 40% 40% © 2009 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    6. 6. English Language by Generation 100 90 80 70 60 50 97 92 40 74 30 20 10 8 0 English Proficiency 1st Generation 2nd Generation 2 2nd Generation 1 3rd Generation
    7. 7. National Disproportionality in Sped 2006 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Hispanic Black Asian/PI America n Indian Total Enrollment 18.51 14.91 4.2 0.97 Emotional Disturbance 15.9 28.79 1.12 1.56 Learning Disability 21.23 20.52 1.7 1.74 Intellectual Disability 16.27 20.6 2.19 1.53
    8. 8. Policy driving practice… • The evaluation team may not identify a student as disabled if the discrepancy is primarily the result of an environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage. • Tests must be selected and administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis; • A child shall not be determined to be a child with a disability if the determinant factor for such determination is-- • lack of scientifically based instruction practices and programs that contain the essential components of reading instruction • lack of scientifically based instruction practices and programs that contain the essential components of instruction in math; or • limited English proficiency. [ 300.532(a)] [ 300.534(b)(1)] © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    9. 9. Instructional Intervention Model with RTI or RTII 100 16% 20% Benchmarked Test General Curriculum Targeted Staffed Interventions 4% 80% Benchmarked Curriculum + Learning Support 4%
    10. 10. Identify Problem Measure Problem Analyze response the Is there a discrepancy patterns problem between current & excepted performance? Solving with Did it work? What do we do next? Why & to what extent is there a problem? Progress Monitor By how much should response to the student grow? Set goals intervention By how much should the student grow? How & when will the Monitoring intervention strategy be implemented? What will be done to resolve the problem? Implement Brainstorm intervention interventions Plan intervention setting
    11. 11. How to weigh yourself
    12. 12. PRIISM: Process of Resilience, Instruction, Intervention Strategies, & Monitoring Learning created with building blocks for success Self monitoring Literacy Readiness Skills Visualization Arithmetic Readiness Skills Analogies Readiness to Learn TPR Bilingual Oral Proficiency L1 © 2009 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    13. 13. Things Could Be Worse!
    14. 14. INDIVIDUAL Unique experiences, Ways we are less insights, personal like other people. reflections. ACCULTURATION Communicative, ADD/ADHD Perceptions, social & behavior patterns, language, etc. learned from interaction with new group(s). Ways we are ENCULTURATION more like other Perceptions, social and behavior patterns, people. Behavioral, linguistic, cognitive language, values, etc. learned from caregivers. THE BASICS OF BEING HUMAN Organic, physical, motor, sensory, neurological Sensory abilities, linguistic wiring, genetic and biologic heritage, innate abilities, etc. © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    15. 15. Common Side-Effects Of the Acculturation Process Culture Shock Heightened Anxiety Confusion in Locus of Control Withdrawal Silence/unresponsiveness Response Fatigue Code-switching Distractibility Resistance to Change Disorientation Stress Related Behaviors
    16. 16. The Intensity of Culture Shock is Cyclical Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Anticipation Spectator Increasing Shock Adaptation Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase Phase Participation Phase Phase Phase Phase Highly Engaged Level Moderately Engaged Level Normal Intensity of Emotions Moderately Depressed Level Greatly Depressed Level
    17. 17. Estar Nepantla
    18. 18. What is all this? “RTI is the practice of providing high quality instruction matched to students needs and using rate of learning over time to make important educational decisions.” National Association of State Directors of Special Education (2005).
    19. 19. Reminder! A CLD/ELL student may have learning and behavior problems due to language and cultural differences and problems due to a possible disability.
    20. 20. PRISIM: Building the Foundation of the Pyramid Systems & policies promote and sustain: •Access to safety, food, clothing, & shelter •Quality preparation of effective education professionals & support staff •Adequacy of school facilities & resources •Consistent use of culturally & linguistically responsive, evidence-based practices •Supportive responsive relationships •Other effective practices & procedures © 2009 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    21. 21. PRISIM: Problem Solving & RTI+I at Tier 1 Building Literacy foundation Facilitating Readiness TPR Skills Facilitating & Sustaining Readiness to Learn Bilingual Sustaining Oral Proficiency L1 © 2009 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    22. 22. Look at the Home Language Survey on José.
    23. 23. What Bilingual Type is José at this point in time? High L1 Low L1 High L2 Type 1 Type 3 Low L2 Type 2 Type 4
    24. 24. Two questions you should be able to answer about acculturation at enrollment 1. What is the student’s current level of acculturation? 2. What is the caregiver’s current level of acculturation?
    25. 25. Look at José’s profile and his baseline AQS.
    26. 26. What we recommend for Tier 1 Step One At enrollment & within a month in school: 1. Determine the current/baseline level of acculturation 2. Find out the Home Language(s) 3. Language Screening
    27. 27. In the bottom half of Tier 1 of your blank pyramid write some instructional services that need to be present for Jose to succeed based upon his home language survey and his level of acculturation
    28. 28. Look at the Resiliency Checklist on José.
    29. 29. Strategy Fitness!
    30. 30. Look at the1st Classroom Language Interaction Checklist on José.
    31. 31. Strategy Fitness!
    32. 32. What we recommend for Tier 1 Step Two By end of 1st month or six weeks in school: 1. Measure the student’s ‘classroom language’ in all communication modes 2. Use the Resiliency Checklist & complete a cognitive profile 3. Develop a strength based instruction & language support
    33. 33. In Tier 1 of your blank pyramid write some instructional services that need to be present for Jose to succeed based upon his home language survey, his level of acculturation, his resiliency profile, and his BICS and CALP in the classroom
    34. 34. PRISIM: Problem Solving & RTI+I at Tier 2 Self monitoring Literacy Readiness Skills Visualization Analogies Expanded TPR Oral Proficiency L1 Bilingual Transitional © 2009 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    35. 35. Struggles Strategies Low motivation _______________ Self monitoring  _______________ Rehearsal strategies _______________ Impulsive _______________ _______________ Disorganized thinking  _______________ Sorting strategies _______________ Poor social skills  _______________ Guided practice Low self esteem _______________  _______________ Self concept activities _______________ control  _______________ Confused locus of Active processing _______________ skills Limited language _______________ L1-L2 transfer strategies
    36. 36. The purpose of screening for needs- based intervention is to:  Develop a response based instructional intervention plan.  Focus the documentation of the plan implementation.  Eliminate specific factors. © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    37. 37. Two questions you should be able to answer about acculturation when planning intervention. 1. What is the current level of acculturation? 2. Is the rate of acculturation normal?
    38. 38. Look at the 2nd AQS on José.
    39. 39. Calculating Rate of Acculturation _______ x _______ = __________ Years btwn AQS Minimum Gain Normal Gain Expected Current Score _______ - _______ = __________ Baseline Score Point Gain Achieved Normal is a ratio of 1 < Achieved divided by Expected > 1 = Normal Above 1 Below 1 5 / 8 = .625 10 / 8 = 1.24
    40. 40. What Bilingual Type is José at this point in time? High L1 Low L1 High L2 Type 1 Type 3 Low L2 Type 2 Type 4
    41. 41. Four questions you should be able to answer about instructional needs 1. What are the student’s instructional needs? 2. What interventions are needed? 3. In what order should the interventions be implemented? 4. For how long should the interventions be implemented?
    42. 42. Look at the 1st Sociocultural Checklist on José.
    43. 43. Prioritizing Needs Sociocultural Order of Intervention Duration of Outcomes of Area Concern Selected Intervention Intervention #4 Acculturation Cognitive #2 Coping Learning Rehearsal Culture & #3 Language Experiential #5 Background #1 Context embedding Sociolinguistic Demonstration Development Modeling © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    44. 44. What we recommend for Tier Two If student exhibits specific needs for differentiation within the general curriculum 1. Determine instructional needs 2. Identify effective strategies & services based upon strengths & needs 3. Develop & implement strength based and needs appropriate instructional plan
    45. 45. In Tier 2 of your blank pyramid write some instructional services that need to be present for Jose to succeed based upon his responses at Tier 1, his current level of acculturation, and his needs profile
    46. 46. PRIISM: Problem Solving & RTI+I at Tier 3 Manipulating pie charts Stepped proximics Literacy Readiness Miscue analysis Skills © 2009 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    47. 47. Another purpose of screening for needs- based intervention is to: Identify the strategies to use in the targeted intervention!! © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    48. 48. Four questions you should be able to answer about language 1. What is the student’s current social language proficiency in both languages? 2. What is the student’s current academic language proficiency in both languages? 3. Is the rate of development & acquisition normal? 4. What are the most effective instructional strategies to use?
    49. 49. Look at José’s 2 nd language proficiency information.
    50. 50. Look at the 2nd Sociocultural Checklist on José.
    51. 51. Order of Intervention Duration of Outcomes of Concern Selected Intervention Intervention Academic Area(s) Prioritization of RTI Order of Intervention Duration of Outcomes of Concern Selected Intervention Intervention Sociocultural Area Acculturation Cognitive Learning Culture & Language Experiential Background Sociolinguistic Development
    52. 52. English
    53. 53. • Preview, do, review Initiate • Stop if no response after 5 days, review strategy • Make minor revisions • Preview, do, review Modify strategy • Stop if no response after 3 days, review • Preview, do, review Start new • Stop if no response after 5 days, review. strategy • Measure and analyze Monitor • Identify what worked and what didn’t process • Preview, do, review Initiate • Stop if no response after 5 days, review. strategy © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    54. 54. PROBLEM SOLVING CHART Yes Does the damn thing No work? Yes Did you mess Don’t mess with it! You Idiot! with it? No No Yes Hide it! Does anyone Will you catch else know? hell? Yes No You poor slob! Ignore it Can you blame somebody else? No Yes NO PROBLEM
    55. 55. What we recommend for Tier Three After the student has been in your school a while and when a teacher sees a learning & behavior problem: 1. Measure the rate & level of Acculturation (AQS) for this student so far. 2. Determine if language gains are normal. 3. Use the Sociocultural profile to prioritize RTI interventions. 4. Implement tightly focused needs based intervention.
    56. 56. In Tier 3 of your blank pyramid write some instructional interventions that need to be implemented and monitored based upon Josés responses at Tier 1 and 2, his current level of acculturation, his current needs profile, and his current BICS and CALP in the classroom
    57. 57. PRISIM: Problem Solving & RTI+I at Tier 4 Electronic eye piece Accessibility aids 504 Cochlear implant IEP Kurtzweil reader Literacy Readiness Skills Oral Proficiency L1 © 2009 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    58. 58. Prior to Formal Evaluation 1. Screen standardized instruments for cultural and linguistic bias. 2. Review administration options for accommodation of language and culture issues. 3. Document how you have accounted for linguistic and cultural differences, and in regard to procedures and instrument selection. © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    59. 59. Evaluation Procedures Each public agency must ensure that tests and other evaluation materials used to assess a child under Part B of IDEA:  are selected and administered so as not to be discriminatory on a racial or cultural basis; and  are provided and administered in the child’s native language or other mode of communication, unless it is clearly not feasible to do so. [§300.532(a)] © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    60. 60. Clarifications from the Discussion Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964:  In order to properly evaluate a child who may be limited English proficient, a public agency should assess the child’s proficiency in English as well as in his or her native language to distinguish language proficiency from disability needs; and  An accurate assessment of the child’s language proficiency should include objective assessment of reading, writing, speaking, and understanding. © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    61. 61. Clarifications (cont.): In some situations, there may be no one on the staff of the public agency who is able to administer a test or other evaluation in the child’s native language, but an appropriate individual is available in the surrounding area. In that case, a public agency could identify an individual in the surrounding area who is able to administer a test or other evaluation in the child’s native language, including contacting neighboring school districts, local universities, and professional organizations. © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    62. 62. Your evaluation is based on what you do in the next 30 seconds. Go! © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    63. 63. IEP Development The steps involved in IEP development for ELL students with special needs include the development of objectives related to: (a) native language development and English language acquisition, (b) the facilitation of acculturation, (c) special education, (d) the integration of specific culture/language interventions which address special education needs, (e) identification of service providers responsible for implementing and monitoring the integration of these services, and (f) the time limits and scheduled specific re-evaluation formats, dates, and meetings. © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    64. 64. Including Diverse Issues on the IEP  A. Does the student have behavior, which impedes his/her learning or the learning of others? Yes No  If yes, consider, if appropriate, strategies including positive behavioral interventions, strategies, and supports to address that behavior.  Check here if a behavior management plan is developed and attached.  B. Does the student have limited English proficiency? Yes No  If yes, consider the language needs as related to the IEP and describe below. © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    65. 65. Integrated Services Intermediate PreProduction Early Speech Intermediate Advanced Advanced Production Emergence Fluency Fluency Fluency Needs total assistance Needs a great Pull out for deal of assistance targeted assistance Needs a lot of assistance Pull out/Push in for Has a moderate targeted assistance level of needs Has moderate but specific Total needs Push in for José Has specific need to be targeted assistance Inclusion addressed Needs minimal assistance © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    66. 66. What we recommend for Tier Four After a formal referral: 1. Crosscultural evaluation based upon the outcomes of the instructional intervention 2. Test Evaluation Checklist 3. CrossCultural Administration of Standardized Tests If the student is eligible for SE & ESL services: 1. Integrated plan of services. 2. Cross-cultural IEP. 3. Continued language and acculturation support. If the student is not eligible for SE services: 1. Integrated plan of services within the general education program. 2. Continued language and acculturation support. © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    67. 67. In Tier 4 of your blank pyramid write one individualized education objective that could be implemented and monitored based upon José's current needs profile, and his current English proficiency level. Note how both his language needs and his learning needs will be integrated.
    68. 68. PRIISM: Process of Resilience, Instruction, Intervention Strategies, & Monitoring Learning created with building blocks for success Literacy Readiness Skills Oral Proficiency L1 © 2009 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    69. 69. © 2009 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    70. 70. Five Things that Work in RTI for ELL 1. Adequate Professional Knowledge 2. Effective Instruction 3. Valid Assessments & Interventions 4. Collaboration Between District Departments 5. Clear Policies
    71. 71. Appropriate Actions to Take  Information gathering  Intensive RTI over only  Resiliency based 1 6-8 week cycle instruction  Focused Referral  Differentiated learning  Adapted Evaluation support  Integrated Services IEP  Extensive problem for ELL/SEL solving with progress  Expanded Monitoring monitoring RTI+I  Cross-training
    72. 72. Big shoes to fill …….and remember… © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    73. 73. Les still isn’t one with his horse. © 2008 Dr. Catherine Collier All Rights Reserved
    74. 74. Thank you! Come visit us at www.crosscultured.com  Over 40 years experience.  Research on impact of acculturation on referral & placement of CLD students.  Research on effectiveness of specific cognitive learning strategies for diverse learners.  Classroom teacher, diagnostician, faculty, adm inistrator.  Social justice advocate, author & teacher educator.

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