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Grammar book WIP


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Grammar book WIP

  1. 1. Grammar BookA Work in ProgressCatalina Vivlamore
  2. 2. Tabla de Contentos1. El Presente 8. El Preterito2. Stem-Changing 9. -Car, -Gar,- Zar Present 10. Verbos de Spock3. Irregular Yo Present 11. Verbos de Cucaracha Tense 12. Snakes y Snakeys4. Irregular Verbs 13. El Imperfecto5. Ser o Estar 14. Palabras de Trigger del6. Uses of Ser y Estar Imperfecto7. Verbos Como Gustar
  3. 3. El Presente• Lo sabes.• Used to express actions or situations that are going on at the present time and to express general truths.• Also used to express habitual actions or actions that will take place in the near future.• Regular –ar, -er, -ir verbos• Ejemplos• Nota: We normally omit subject pronouns.
  4. 4. Stem-Changing Present• E—>ie {ej. pensar)• O ue (ej. Poder)• EI (ej. Pedir)• Uue (ej. Jugar)• Construir, destruir, incluir, influir add a y before the personal endings, except in forms noted below• Change in all forms except nosotros y vosotros.
  5. 5. Irregular Yo Present Tense• Many –er and –ir verbs have irregular yo forms in the present tense.• -cer or –cir -zco• -ger or –gir -jo• Several verbs have irregular –go endings (ej. Caercaigo), and a few have individual irregularities• Others: caber—> quepo; saber se; verveo• Some verbs with irregular yo forms have stem changes as well (ej. Seguirsigo) conseguir, corregir, elegir, torcer• Ejemplos• Verbs with prefixes follow the same patterns (ej. Reconocerreconozco; detenerdetengo)
  6. 6. Verbos Irregulares• Other commonly used verbs in Spanish are irregular in the present tense or combine a stem-change with an irregular yo form or other spelling change.• Dar, decir, estar, ir, oir, ser, tener, venir
  7. 7. Ser o Estar• Ser and estar both mean to be, but they are not interchangeable.• Ser is used to express the idea of permanence, such as inherent or unchanging qualities and characteristics.• Estar is used to express temporality, including qualities or conditions that change with time.• With most descriptive adjectives, either ser or estar can be used, but the meaning of each statement is different.• Some adjectives have two different meanings depending on whether they are used with ser or estar.• Nota: Estar, not ser, is used with muerto/a.
  8. 8. Uses of Ser y Estar• Uses of Ser: • Uses of Estar: – Nationality and origin – Location or spatial – Profession/occupation relationships – Characteristics of – Health people,animals, and – Physical states and things conditions – Generalizations – Emotional states – Possession – Certain weather – Material of composition expressions – Time, date, season – Ongoing actions – Where/when an event (progressive tenses) takes place – Results of actions (past participles)
  9. 9. Verbos Como Gustar• Though gustar is translated as to like in English, its literal meaning is to please.• Gustar is preceded by an indirect object pronoun.• Because the thing or person that pleases is the subject, gustar agrees in person and number with it.• When gustar is followed by one or more verbs in the infinitive, the singular form of gustar is always used.• Gustar is often used in the conditional (me gustaria) to soften a request.• Many verbs follow the same pattern as gustar: – Aburrir, apetecer, caer bien/mal, disgustar, doler, encantar, faltar, fascinar, hacer falta, importar, interesar, molestar, preocupar, quedar, sorprender• The construction a+prepositional pronoun or a+noun can be used to emphasized who is pleased, bothered, etc.• Faltar expresses what someone or something lacks and quedar expresses what someone or something has left. Quedar is also used to talk about how clothing fits or looks on someone.• Ejemplos
  10. 10. El Preterito A definite time in the past with a beginning and/or ending• Regular -ar Verbs: • Regular –er/-ir Verbs -é -amos -í -imos -aste -asteis -iste -isteis -ó -aron -ió -ieron
  11. 11. -Car, -Gar, -Zar• The first group of irregular preterite verbs.• It only changes in the first person tense.• This group pertains to verbs ending in –car, - gar, or –zar. Examples: Infinitive: Conjugation:Verbs ending in -Car • -qué Tocar ToquéVerbs ending in Jugar Jugué –Gar • -guéVerbs ending in Comenzar Comencé –Zar • -cé
  12. 12. Spock Verbs• Ir, ser, dar, ver, y hacer.• Another grouping of irregular preterite verbs. Ir/ser Dar/ver Hacer
  13. 13. Tablas para Verbos de SpockIr/Ser Dar/Ver HacerFui Fuimos (d/v)i (d/v) imos Hice HicimosFuiste Fuisteis (d/v)iste (d/v)isteis Hiciste HicisteisFue Fueron (d/v)io (d/v)ieron Hizo Hicieron
  14. 14. Cucaracha Verbs• A third grouping of irregular preterite verbs.• A way to remember their conjugations is to sing them to the tune of “La Cucaracha.”• For the verbs “conducir,” “producir,” and “traducir,” drop the “i” in –ieron in the third person plural tense.
  15. 15. TablaAndar Anduv- -e -imosEstar Estuv- -iste -isteisPoder Pud-Poner Pus- -o -ieronQuerer Quis-Saber Sup-Tener Tuv-Venir Vin-Conducir Conduj-Producir Produj-Traducir Traduj-Decir Dij-Traer Traj-
  16. 16. Snakes and Snakeys• The last groupings of irregular preterite verbs.• In the “snakes” group, there is a stem change in the third person.• In the “snakeys” group, the “i” changes to a “y” in the third person. These verbs usually have double vowels in infinitive form.
  17. 17. Tablas de Snakes y Snakeys Snakes: Dormir PedirDormí Dormimos Pedí PedimosDormiste Dormisteis Pediste PedisteisDurmió Durmieron Pidió Pidieron Snakeys: Leer Leí Leímos Leíste Leísteis Leyó Leyeron
  18. 18. Imperfect Tense• Used to describe past activities in a different way, it is an IMPERFECTED ACTION in the past. There is no definite beginning or ending.• It is like a movie; preterite tense is like a photo. -AR Verbs -ER/IR Verbs -aba -abamos -ía -íamos -abas -abais -ías -íais -aba -aban -ía -ían
  19. 19. Imperfect Tense Irregulars• There are only 3 irregulars, and never any stem changes Iba Íbamos Era Éramos Ir Ibas Ibais Eras Erais Iba Iban Era Eran Ser Veía Veíamos Ver Veías Veías Veía Veían
  20. 20. Imperfect Trigger Words• Todos los dias • Imperfect tense is used• Mientras for:• Los lunes, martes (etc.) 1. Habitual/repeated• Siempre actions• Muchas veces 2. Events/actions that were in progress• Cada dia/mes/noche/año 3. Physical characteristics 4. Mental/emotional states 5. Time-telling 6. Age