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Staying Safe Online

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Staying Safe Online

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Staying Safe Online

  1. 1. Staying Safe on the Computer and Online
  2. 2. You can also use cotton or foam swabs More on cleaning a computer https://www.computerhope.com/cleaning.htm https://www.gcflearnfree.org/computerbasics/keeping-your-computer-clean/1/
  3. 3. • Record your keyboard strokes (Keylogger) • Steal private information such as passwords, credit card numbers, etc. (Spyware) • Hold your files hostage (Ransomware) • Use your processing power and internet for nefarious purposes (Worm) • Masquerade as a normal program which then installs a virus (Trojan Horse) • Erase your hard drive, cause your computer to malfunction, crash and become non-responsive (Malware) • Help infect other computers or attack the internet (bot or zombie computer)
  4. 4. For windows, use windows update. You can go to http://windows.microsoft.com/en- us/windows/windows-update for more information. Set up for automatic updates. For a Mac, you can access updates through the app store. For more information go to https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT201541 For Android and Apple devices go to Settings then go to About Device - Software Update for Android devices and General – About – Software update for Apple Devices. Avoid using unsupported Operating system (example: Windows XP, Windows Vista, Mac OS X Leopard) Upgrade to the newest operating system available for your device when possible This is also called patching.
  5. 5. https://www.gcflearnfree.org/internetsafety/installing-and-updating-browser-plugins/1/ Make sure you download programs and plug-ins from their websites or use the following services. https://ninite.com/ http://filehippo.com/ Also make sure you update the apps on your device through Google Play Store or Apple’s App Store.
  6. 6. A common trick these days is to hide 3rd party software inside utility programs like Java or within printer programs during the installation process. The best way to keep junk programs out and prevent other unnecessary changes to your computer is by paying close attention to what is happening while you are installing any program. Most companies count on you to not pay attention and rely on users to tap on next, next, I agree. Another trick to sneak junk software into your computer is by convincing you that the "standard installation" is best and of course the recommended one. They may make it sound like you have to be a rocket scientist to go with the "custom installation", but when you do choose it, you’ll see what they are trying to sneak past you. Start making it a point to click the custom or advanced option when installing anything new on your system so you can avoid the junk before it sneaks in. This tip is the key to avoiding attempts by software companies to take over your browser with additional toolbars, switching the default search engine or changing your start page. https://www.datadoctors.com/media/tips/1307
  7. 7. Make sure you keep these up to date as well. https://www.commoncraft.com/video/computer-viruses-and-threats What to do if your computer gets a virus https://www.gcflearnfree.org/internetsafety/what-to-do-if-your-computer-gets-a- virus/1/
  8. 8. Windows 7 Windows 10 1. Go to settings 2. Click on Apps 3. Click on the app You want to uninstall 4. Click on Uninstall
  9. 9. https://www.gcflearnfree.org/basic-computer-skills/uninstalling-software-from-your- mac/1/
  10. 10. https://www.piriform.com/ Or use Windows Disk Cleanup Utility
  11. 11. Before getting rid of your computer /laptop, remove files etc. that you want to keep then wipe or remove the hard drive Before getting rid of your mobile device or gaming console, do a factory reset.
  12. 12. Paper is the best. Password Managers http://www.datadoctors.com/help/kenscolumns/22107-Are-Password-Managers-Safe-to- Use/ Lastpass https://www.lastpass.com/business/home Keepass http://keepass.info/ Roboform http://www.roboform.com/ Dashlane https://www.dashlane.com/ Password Passphrase generators Xkpasswd.net https://xkpasswd.net/s/ Diceware http://world.std.com/~reinhold/diceware.html
  13. 13. Avoid the temptation to use the same user name and password for every account. Whenever possible, change your passwords every six months. Whenever possible, use a “pass-phrase” as your answer to account security questions – such as "Youllneverguessmybrotherinlawsmiddlename"
  14. 14. https://ssd.eff.org/en/module/how-enable-two-factor-authentication Increases your security by texting you a code to access your account Greatly increases security of any account You know if your account was hacked right away AKA Two-Step Verification
  15. 15. 9. Baits: Do not take any free offers lightly. Think twice before responding to unsolicited offers such as free screensavers, free downloads such as pirated software and pornographic images, icons or even virus and spyware protection. Along with the promised goodies, you may also get ―Adware‖ or ―Spyware‖ that monitors your online activities and floods your screen with pop-ups. If someone invites you to share the fortune of a Nigerian prince or redeem winnings from a contest you’ve never entered, don’t do it! Finally, beware of messages urging you to ―update‖ or ―validate‖your account information online. No legitimate company will ever request your account number and password via e-mail. When in doubt, call the company involved on the phone.
  16. 16. Frequent random popups. Popular sign that you've been hacked is also one of the more annoying ones. When you're getting random browser pop-ups from websites that don't normally generate them, your system has been compromised.
  17. 17. https://www.consumer.ftc.gov/scam-alerts
  18. 18. Support Scam Alert http://www.datadoctors.com/media/tips/1148
  19. 19. http://www.datadoctors.com/media/tips/1148
  20. 20. http://www.azfamily.com/story/38514042/ftc-says-beware-of-tech-support- calls?autostart=true Tech support calls from someone claiming to be Microsoft or one if it’s representatives.
  21. 21. Fake Antivirus Messages. The fake scan, which always finds tons of "viruses," is a lure to buy scammer product. Clicking on the provided link sends you to a professional-looking website, complete with glowing letters of recommendation. There, they ask you for your credit card number and billing information. Unwanted browser toolbars. Common sign of exploitation: Your browser has multiple new toolbars with names that seem to indicate the toolbar is supposed to help you. Redirected Internet searches. Many hackers make their living by redirecting your browser somewhere other than you want to go. The hacker gets paid by getting your clicks to appear on someone else's website, often those who don't know that the clicks to their site are from malicious redirection
  22. 22. Ransomware (AKA Digital Extortion)
  23. 23. https://www.aarp.org/podcasts/the-perfect-scam/
  24. 24. http://krq.iheart.com/articles/jbs-feed-501625/beware-of-this-text-scam-that- 15786934/?cmp=managed_social
  25. 25. The “Lucky” Phone Call: How fortunate! You’ve won a free gift, an exclusive service, or a great deal on a trip to Las Vegas. Must hurry because this is a “limited time offer” 809 Area Code Scam: Callers lured into placing calls to the 809 area code (Bahama) charged large long-distance fees. If you call from the US, you will apparently be charged $2,425 per-minute Emergency scam: Be cautious if you get a call from a family member or friend claiming to be in an accident, arrested, or hospitalized while traveling in another country. Never send money unless you confirm with another family member that it’s true. https://www.usatoday.com/story/tech/columnist/saltzman/2017/07/03/delete- suspicious-text-messages-on-your-smartphone/439647001/ https://seniorplanet.org/scam-alert-cellphone-identity-theft/ https://seniorplanet.org/scam-alert-can-you-hear-me/ https://seniorplanet.org/scam-alert-watch-out-for-this-phone-call/ https://www.irs.gov/newsroom/taxpayer-guide-to-identity-theft
  26. 26. Hidden URLs: You'll see them everywhere on Twitter, but you never know where you're going to go since the URL ("Uniform Resource Locator," the Web address) hides the full location. Clicking on such a link could direct you to your intended site, or one that installs all sorts of malware on your computer. (Bitly, Goo.gl, Ow.ly, etc.). So always put your cursor over the link and read the address that comes up at the bottom of the browser. You can tell if it is a bad address or not. http://www.datadoctors.com/help/kenscolumns/22156-Beware-of-Typosquatting/ Account Takeover Fraud - Financial identity theft in the form of account takeover fraud generally means using another person's account information (e.g., a credit card number) to obtain products and services using that person's existing accounts. https://www.aarp.org/money/scams-fraud/info-2018/identity-theft-social-security- benefits.html?intcmp=AE-MON-CP-EOA1 https://blog.ssa.gov/category/fraud-2/ https://www.medicare.gov/forms-help-resources/help-fight-medicare-fraud
  27. 27. https://seniorplanet.org/its-irs-tax-scam-season/ https://www.irs.gov/newsroom/irs-wraps-up-dirty-dozen-list-of-tax-scams-for-2018- encourages-taxpayers-to-remain-vigilant IRS will never call or email with problems. Will always mail through USPS.
  28. 28. •Social media: Scams on social platforms are also on the rise. Victims do the work of the cybercriminals by sharing videos or stories with their friends that include links to sketchy sites. Spread rapidly because people are more likely to click on something posted by a friend. https://www.datadoctors.com/media/tips/1433 •Your friends receive social media invitations from you that you didn’t send. Either you or your friends receive invitations to “be a friend” when you are already connected friends on that social media site. Your friend may contact you to find out why you are sending out new friend requests. The hacker either controls your social media site, has created a second near-look-alike bogus page, or you or friend has installed a rogue social media application. •Likejacking: Using fake "like" buttons, hackers trick people into clicking on website buttons that install malware and may post updates on a user's news feed, spreading the attack. •Facebook “Like” Farming - Someone will post to Facebook and people will like that post. Then they will like the page it’s on. Then the person changes the page to something like an ad for a bogus business or a too-good-to-be-true product you can buy online. Make your page only so Friends can see what you post. That way people don’t get info about you that they can use against you for id theft. •Social media gift exchange: It sounds like a great deal; buy one gift and get 36 in return. But it’s just a variation on a pyramid scheme and it’s illegal.
  29. 29. SIM Hijacking The popularity of using 2-factor authentication with smartphones has led to various exploits to usurp this extra layer of protection including SIM swapping or SIM hijacking. By taking over control of your phone number, hackers can have the special code sent to a phone that they have in their possession. https://www.datadoctors.com/help/kenscolumns/22225-Preventing-SIM-Hijacking/ Pretexting They’ve also become very good at fooling victims by calling them posing as an organization that claims to have detected a break in that wants to verify that the victim is the actual owner of the account. They’ll tell the victim that they will be getting a special code on their smartphone that they need them to read back to ‘verify’ that they are the authentic owner. Of course, reading back the code allows the remote hacker into the account because they are at the screen that is asking for the code on their computer.
  30. 30. USB Security Keys Since the bad guys have found easy ways to side step the security that smartphone based 2-factor authentication offers, another form of higher level of security has surfaced in the form of the USB key. Instead of using a smartphone as the 2nd form of authentication, you would use a special USB key on your computer, smartphone or tablet that costs $20 to $50. Once you set them up, a USB security key connected to your device is required in order to gain access to the protected accounts. There are backup methods to allow you in, should you lose your USB key, so be sure to set one up if you plan on using them. To get more of an understanding of your options, checkout the various models from YubiKey (https://goo.gl/cGQzPY) or Google’s offering called ‘Titan’ (https://goo.gl/iDc5uj). https://www.datadoctors.com/help/kenscolumns/22227-Should-I-Use-a-USB- Security-Key/
  31. 31. Social Media and Facebook Privacy Basics http://www.gcflearnfree.org/internetsafety/social-media-privacy-basics/1/ https://techboomers.com/t/facebook-privacy http://www.gcflearnfree.org/facebook101/adjusting-your-privacy-settings/1/ What you put in the internet stays there forever! Think before you post.
  32. 32. Wifi Security https://www.gcflearnfree.org/internetsafety/wifi-security/1/ When connecting to wifi in a public place make sure of the name of the business’ wifi. If a connection name looks strange don’t connect to it! Don’t leave your laptop or mobile device unattended. Protect usb drives and external hard drives. Lock your computer before you leave it. Enable automatic screenlock on your devices. Evil Twin Attack: Hacker sets up a Wi-Fi access point with the same name as a legitimate network you have connected to previously and compels your computer or phone to connect to it automatically without your consent. . A mobile hotspot is more secure than public Wi-Fi, and it prevents an Internet service provider from selling your information and online activity to a third party. (In many cases, companies are legally allowed to do this.)
  33. 33. 7. Never plug your devices (mobile phone, tablet and/or laptop) into an electrical outlet in an airport. Doing so will make you more susceptible to being hacked. Instead, travel with an external battery charger to keep your devices charged. War Driving: War driving is a term used to describe the process of a hacker who, armed with a laptop, smartphone or tablet, uses commonly available software to troll neighborhoods via a car, bicycle, or even drone to find open or poorly protected WiFi networks
  34. 34. What is cache and browsing history? https://techboomers.com/t/what-is-cache-browsing-history What are Cookies https://techboomers.com/t/what-are-cookies
  35. 35. IP address: When your computer connects to the Internet, it's given a unique number that distinguishes it from every other computer on the Internet. Websites that you connect to can see this address, and can use parts of it to figure out what country, region, or even city you live in. User-agent strings: These are lines of computer code that identify what program you're using to connect to the Internet or World Wide Web. Using these, trackers can tell what type of browser you're using (e.g. Chrome, Firefox, Internet Explorer, and so on). https://techboomers.com/t/privacy-policies
  36. 36. Data Flow​, the way digital information moves in a given process. http://www.dataprivacyproject.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/Handout-Data- Flows-Handout.pdf
  37. 37. What Is Data Mining? In recent news, you've probably heard something about Big Data and data mining. Data mining means searching for patterns and relationships in large collections of data—often called Big Data. Data has always been analyzed for patterns, but computers have made collecting, storing, and analyzing data far more efficient and commonplace. Through the process of automatic inference, these patterns are used to find trends, draw conclusions, and sometimes even predict future patterns. Your Data Is a Valuable Commodity Data aggregators, also known as data brokers, specialize in learning everything they can about consumers. There are few limits on what data brokers can do with this this information, though they don't generally make it publicly available for free. Data brokers combine information from companies you do business with, online tracking data, and public records from government websites to make a consumer profile with a unique ID, which may in turn be sold to an advertising company. These profiles may or may not be linked with your name—but even an "anonymous" profile compiled by a data broker probably has enough information to uniquely identify you. The more advertisers know about you, the better they can predict your future behavior.
  38. 38. Everyone has an information (digital) footprint—a trail of information you leave behind as you use technology. Limiting Who Sees Your Footprint You can limit who sees your information footprint by talking to your service providers, being selective when you share information online, and adjusting your device and app settings to optimize privacy. Your footprint may still be large, but it will be significantly more private. Lastly, Paige says that even with verified, legitimate nonprofits, it's always important to take a moment and ask yourself, "Do I want to extend my digital footprint to this organization?" Be mindful of which personal information you are sharing. Make decisions with care when signing up for newsletters or giving out information needed for the purposes of a tax write-off. "You might not want to be part of their email database. You need to take control of where your information is being stored," she says. Give only information that is required on websites. Be careful what you post on social media.
  39. 39. Browser Blocking Tools
  40. 40. https://techboomers.com/t/finding-your-information-online https://www.komando.com/tips/391215/how-to-opt-out-of-the- most-popular-people-search-sites/all These search engines do not… Track your browsing info Save your searches No ad targeting No bias search results
  41. 41. Encryption https://www.leblibrary.com/online-self-defense?qt-online_self_defense=3#qt- online_self_defense https://ssd.eff.org/en/module/what-encryption FULL DISK ENCRYPTION Filevault (OS X): https://support.apple.com/en-us/HT204837 Bitlocker (Windows): http://windows.microsoft.com/en-US/windows-vista/BitLocker- Drive-Encryption-Overview LUKS (GNU/Linux): https://gitlab.com/cryptsetup/cryptsetup/blob/master/README.md Veracrypt: https://veracrypt.codeplex.com/
  42. 42. https://www.cyberghostvpn.com/en_us https://kproxy.com/
  43. 43. Electronic Payment Apps If purchasing items online, consider using a secured payment app, such as those below PayPal Apple Pay Google Wallet Or use gift cards 4. Don’t use a debit card to shop online it can compromise your checking account . Use only one credit card. If you don't feel safe using a credit card, explore alternative payment options. Online Shopping •Purchase gift cards from behind the customer-service desk. •Choose cards with packaging that covers the card number and security code. •Choose a card with loss or theft protection. •Watch for any signs that a card has been tampered with, such as a scratched-off pin number. •Avoid purchasing gift cards from an online auction. •If a card is preloaded, ask for the card to be scanned to verify its value. •Keep the receipt from a gift-card purchase. •Protect your card: Some gift cards can be registered as credit cards on websites listed on the card, which can protect them against theft or loss. Also take photos of the front and back of the card or write down card details as some companies will replace lost or stolen cards if you can provide specifics. Receipts with card information are good to hold on too. •Free gift cards: Pop-up ads or email offering free gift cards are often just a ploy to get your personal information that can later be used for identity theft. Only buy gift cards from brick and mortar stores or directly from their official website. Unusual forms of payment: Be wary of anyone who asks you to pay for holiday purchases using prepaid debit cards, gift cards, wire transfers, third parties, etc. These payments cannot be traced and cannot be undone. 5. Never complete or accept a payment for an item outside of the website that it's listed on.
  44. 44. 2. Read the ratings and reviews on items and sellers. Beware of fake reviews. https://www.scambusters.org/fakereviews.html 3. Before you buy an item, read its returns and refunds policy carefully. Also, read safety tips on websites like ebay and craigslist. 6. Don’t use public wifi to shop unless you use a VPN Fake retail site or look a like sites scam You come across the item you want at a super low price being sold at a website you never heard of. To make your purchase you need to input your credit card information. You could be giving your number to a crook who will in turn use it to make bogus charges or even sell your number.
  45. 45. Avoid getting your packages stolen (aka Porch Pirates) Pick-up your packages promptly Ship to Another Location (Work, Family, Friend, Neighbor, etc. or have them delivered to a pickup location operated by the carrier or vendor Ex Amazon. ) Leave special instructions for delivery (either with a note or while ordering the item) Require a Signature Track your package Shipping confirmation ploy You get an email or phone call from the US Postal service or major carrier. You’re told that you have a package waiting for you or that it was delivered to someone else by mistake. In order to make sure you are the correct recipient, you’re asked to submit personal information including your name, address, date of birth, and social security number. Crooks can use this information to steal your identity and open accounts in your name. Fake shipping notifications: These can have attachments or links to sites that will download malware on your computer to steal your identity and your passwords. Don’t be fooled by a holiday phishing scam. Fake purchase confirmation: If you get an email from a retailer, but didn’t make the purchase it mentions, “don’t click on anything in that email.” Opt out of credit card offers https://www.optoutprescreen.com/?rf=t
  46. 46. Charity Cons: Unless you dialed the call, don't provide a credit card number over the phone. And before donating, verify an organization's legitimacy at Charity Navigator or Give.org, or through your state's agency that regulates charities. Classified ad come-on You find the perfect gift, but it is not being sold in a store. Instead it’s listed in a classified ad on a site such as Craigslist or Backpage. In order to buy it the vendor asks you to make a wire transfer, use an online escrow service, or pay through Venmo. You place the order, but the item never arrives. You send emails to the seller, but they go unanswered. E-cards: Electronic cards can be great fun, but be careful. Two red flags to watch out for are: the sender’s name is not apparent; you are required to share additional information to get the card. Letters from Santa: Several trusted companies offer charming and personalized letters from Santa, but scammers mimic them to get personal information from unsuspecting parents. Check with bbb.org to find out which ones are legitimate. Phony charities: Everyone is in a generous mood at the holidays, so scammers take advantage of that with fake charity solicitations in email, on social media sites, and even by text. Check out charities at give.org before donating. Temporary holiday jobs: Retailers and delivery services need extra help at the holidays, but beware of solicitations that require you to share personal information online or pay for a job lead. Apply in person or go to retailers’ main websites to find out who is hiring. Faux Freebies From iPhones to cruises, the holidays are the time for emails, text messages and social media posts that promise free merchandise. Many of them are a ploy to install malware once you click on a link for details. Others lead to online surveys designed to steal personal information for possible identity theft or to set you up as a future target for scammers. Some bogus offers for freebies require your credit card, saying it is necessary to cover shipping costs or a deposit. That often leads to unnecessary charges on your bill. Before taking the bait, check the manufacturer’s or provider’s website. If the offer isn’t touted there, assume it’s the work of thieves. And think twice before downloading free holiday-themed entertainment, screen savers or mobile apps. Some are specifically designed to hack personal information, passwords and files from your device. Survey Swindles: These unexpected emails, text messages and social media posts promise a generous gift card, coupon or actual products for sharing your opinions about planned purchases or a “recent shopping experience.” But beware: Links that are supposed to lead you to a survey often hide computer malware. And “questions” about personal or financial information — including bank and credit accounts for supposed reward deposits — could be a setup for future identity theft
  47. 47. White Label Ticket Scams - Purchase tickets to shows, sporting events, concerts, from the venue itself or from websites like Ticketmaster. This way you know the tickets will be legitimate and not fake. Home repairs and security checks - Emails, phone calls, or in person. People will tell you they are a contractor or from a security firm. Ignore them. Lotteries and sweepstakes – If you have to send money in to get your winnings from a lottery or sweepstakes, it’s a scam.
  48. 48. Shimmer Scams – The shims contain a microchip that can read and transmit information from your card. Though your chip cannot be cloned in the same way a chip can, bad guys can glean enough information to make purchases using the extracted data.
  49. 49. Don’t post on social media that you are on vacation. Post pictures etc. after you get back.
  50. 50. You don’t have to give out your social security number.
  51. 51. 3 dangers to kids on the internet : strangers, friends, and themselves Talk to your kids about strangers, posting things (info they share can affect kids in future) etc. Tell kids to be careful who they talk to, don’t post personal info. Encourage kids that they can come talk to parents. Dedicated pc for kids in public high traffic area. Set ground rules for using internet, what they can and can’t do online, and post them by the computer.. Use parental controls and filtering. Familiarize yourself with your child’s online activities and maintain a dialogue with them about what applications they are using. Put mobile devices in parent’s room at night (central charging station). Signs a Child Is Being Bullied Look for changes in the child. However, be aware that not all children who are bullied exhibit warning signs. Unexplainable injuries Lost or destroyed clothing, books, electronics, or jewelry Frequent headaches or stomach aches, feeling sick or faking illness Changes in eating habits, like suddenly skipping meals or binge eating. Kids may come home from school hungry because they did not eat lunch. Difficulty sleeping or frequent nightmares Declining grades, loss of interest in schoolwork, or not wanting to go to school Sudden loss of friends or avoidance of social situations Feelings of helplessness or decreased self esteem Self-destructive behaviors such as running away from home, harming themselves, or talking about suicide http://www.datadoctors.com/help/kenscolumns/22129-Apps-for-Managing-a-Childs-Smartphone/
  52. 52. http://www.datadoctors.com/help/kenscolumns/22135-Are-Smart-Devices-Safe-to-Use/ Change the default username and password that comes with your IOT connected device. https://www.datadoctors.com/help/kenscolumns/22169-What-Exactly-is-the-Deep-Web/ https://wtop.com/consumer-news/2017/11/hackable-holidays-six-steps-to-protect- your-smart-home-from-spies/
  53. 53. http://denverlibrary.org/files/Backing%20Up%20Your%20Data%20handout%205-19- 2014.pdf http://denverlibrary.org/files/Clean%20Up%20and%20Speed%20Up%20your%20Co mputer%20handout%206-30-2014.pdf http://denverlibrary.org/files/Protecting%20Your%20Privacy%20Online%20handout% 202-27-14_0.pdf http://denverlibrary.org/files/StayingSafeOnline_Handout_11-20-13.pdf http://denverlibrary.org/files/Viruses%20and%20Malware%20101%20handout%2012 -26-13.pdf https://sites.google.com/a/nypl.org/techconnect/course- materials/protectingyourprivacysecurity http://www.gcflearnfree.org/onlinesafety/internetsafety http://www.gcflearnfree.org/techsavvy/password-tips http://www.gcflearnfree.org/techsavvy/backing-up-your-files http://www.gcflearnfree.org/techsavvy/browsing-privately http://www.gcflearnfree.org/internet-tips/installing-and-updating-browser-plug-ins http://www.gcflearnfree.org/computerbasics/14/full http://lifehacker.com/the-best-privacy-and-security-focused-web-browsers- 1672758270
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  59. 59. Adware—type of malware that allows popup ads on a computer system, ultimately taking over a user’s Internet browsing. Antivirus program - software that helps detect and destroy viruses Botnet—a network of private computers, each of which is called a “bot,” infected with malicious software (malware) and controlled as a group without the owners' knowledge for nefarious and, often, criminal purposes; computers are typically infected when users open up an infected attachment or visit an infected website. Catfish - Someone who creates a fake online profile to intentionally deceive you. Cyberbullying—bullying that takes place using electronic technology, including the Internet, and related technologies to harm other people, in a deliberate, repeated, and hostile manner; may involve text messages or emails, rumors sent by email or posted on social networking sites, and embarrassing pictures, videos, Web sites, or fake profiles. Cyberstalking—a criminal offense that involves using the Internet or other technology to stalk or harass an individual, a group of individuals, or an organization; it may include false accusations, monitoring, making threats, identity theft, damage to data or equipment, or harassment. Computer virus—a software program that is designed to replicate itself, spread from one computer to another, and interfere with computer operation; a computer virus may corrupt or delete data on a user’s computer, use an email program to spread itself to other computers, or even erase everything on a user’s hard disk. Computer viruses can be spread by attachments in email messages or instant messaging messages; disguised as attachments of images, greeting cards, or audio and video files, and hidden in illicit software or programs that are downloaded to a computer. Cookie—also referred to as an “HTTP cookie,” is a small text file that contains a unique ID tag placed on the user’s computer by a Web site to track pages visited on the site and other information; “tracking cookies” and “third-party tracking cookies” are used to compile long-term records of individuals’ browsing histories. Denial of Service Attack—type of online computer attack designed to deprive user or groups of users normally accessible online services; generally involves effort by hackers to temporarily or indefinitely interrupt or suspend services of a host connected to the Internet. Encryption—the conversion of digital information into a format unreadable to anyone except those possessing a “key” through which the encrypted information is converted back into its original form (decryption), making it readable again. Evil Twin Attack - Hacker sets up a Wi-Fi access point with the same name as a legitimate network you have connected to previously and compels your computer or phone to connect to it automatically without your consent. . .
  60. 60. Firewall—software or hardware that, after checking information coming into a computer from the Internet or an external network, either blocks the transmission or allows it to pass through, depending on the pre-set firewall settings, preventing access by hackers and malicious software ; often offered through computer operating systems. Geotagging—the process of adding geographical location, or label, to photographs, videos, website, SMS messages, QR Codes, or RSS feeds; a geotag usually consists of latitude and longitude coordinates, altitude, distance, place names, and other details about the origin of the media being tagged helping users find a variety of online location-specific information. Ghosting - Theft of the identity of a deceased person to fraudulently open credit accounts, obtain loans or get utility or medical services in the person's name. Hacker - highly skilled computer user who gains entry to information on computers not intended for them by “cracking” the programming codes . Hash busters: The random words or sentences contained in spam emails that allow these emails to bypass your spam filters. Keylogger—also called keylogging and keystroke logging, is the action of tracking (or logging) the keys struck on a computer keyboard; usually runs hidden in the background and automatically records all keystrokes so that users are unaware of its presence and that their actions are being monitored Malware—short for malicious software, software that disrupts or damages a computer’s operation, gathers sensitive or private information, or gains access to private computer systems; may include botnets, viruses, worms, Trojans, keyloggers, spyware, adware, and rootkits. Malvertising - Malicious online advertising that contains malware — software intended to damage or disable computers. Man-in-the-middle attack - When a fraudster secretly intercepts and possibly alters messages between two parties who believe they are securely communicating with each other. Patch - computer code created to correct a problem (i.e.,bug) within an existing program Pharming: When hackers use malicious programs to route you to their own websites (often convincing look-alikes of well-known sites), even if you've correctly typed in the address of the site you want to visit. phishing - scam email sent to elicit private information from the recipient to be used for identity theft pirated software - software that has been illegally copied Pop-ups—or pop-up ads, are a form of online advertising on the World Wide Web intended to attract web traffic or capture email addresses; created by advertisers, pop-ups generally appear unexpectedly in a small web browser window when a user is linking to a new Web site.
  61. 61. Pop-up blockers—a web browser feature, software, or application that allows users to limit or block pop-up ads; users may often set the preferred level of blocking, from total blocking to minimal blocking. Scareware/Ransomeware holds your computer for ransom. It’s a relatively new danger. The scareware will sometimes pretend to be a helpful piece of software like an antivirus program and may offer a ‘trial version’ or ‘free scan’. Once it has access to your computer, it will tell you your computer has tons of problems and the only way to fix them is to pay for the full version of the program. Other times it will be more direct and simply demand money in return for not doing something bad to your computer. Rootkit—a type of malware that opens a permanent “back door” into a computer system; once installed, a rootkit will allow more and more viruses to infect a computer as various hackers find the vulnerable computer exposed and attack. Scareware - A program that displays on-screen warnings of nonexistent infections on your computer to trick you into installing malware or buying fake antivirus protection. Skimming - The capture of information from the magnetic stripe on credit and debit cards by "skimmer" devices that are secretly installed on card-reading systems at gas pumps, ATMs and store checkout counters. “SMiShing” is the mobile version of phishing, and occurs when someone sends a SMS/text message asking you to provide personal and/ or financial information by clicking on a link or responding via text or phone number. spam - unsolicited commercial/junk email Spear-phishing: Phishing with personalized email, often appearing to be from someone you know. Spoofing – Email spoofing is when you receive an email message that appears to be from someone other than the actual sender. This method enables the junk e-mailer to hide his or her identity from the recipient. In spoofing, the sender places a false return address on the junk message. When spoofed, the recipient has no idea who sent the message and has no way of responding or stopping the problem. Emails can also contain a spoofed web site address. spyware - software that covertly gathers user information when connected to the Internet without the user’s knowledge SSL (secure sockets layer) - format for transmitting private documents over the Internet. It uses a cryptographic system that involves two keys. surge protector - device that protects the computer from irregular electrical currents
  62. 62. upgrading software - installing a new and improved version of a software program already installed on the computer (trojan) virus - computer problem created by malcontented computer geeks. Viruses are meant to damage computers and are spread by opening email attachments or links or using someone else’s disks. Vishing - Short for "voice phishing," the use of recorded phone messages intended to trick you into revealing sensitive information for identity theft. War Driving - War driving is a term used to describe the process of a hacker who, armed with a laptop, smartphone or tablet, uses commonly available software to troll neighborhoods via a car, bicycle, or even drone to find open or poorly protected WiFi networks Web Cache -, temporary stored web documents such as HTML pages and images. Caching reduces bandwidth use and load time when a web page is visited. Whaling - Phishing attempt on a "big fish" target (typically corporate executives or payroll departments) by a scammer who poses as its CEO, a company attorney or a vendor to get payments or sensitive information. worm - program, not unlike a virus, that replicates itself over a computer network and usually performs malicious actions

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