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The Research Process
Theory Hypothesis Data Empirical  Generalizations
Theory <ul><li>A logically interrelated set of propositions about empirical reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory shapes resea...
Deterrence Theory <ul><li>Prevalent in Criminological Research </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluates the impact of punishment on cri...
Research Topic/Question <ul><li>Domestic Violence is a prevalent social problem in the Belizean society; it is a problem t...
Hypothesis <ul><li>A tentative statement about empirical reality, involving a relationship between two or more variables. ...
Conceptualization/Operationalization <ul><li>Outline and Define Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate measurement of those ...
Literature Review <ul><li>Find out everything you can about your topic/hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Read and analyze othe...
Methodology <ul><li>Developing the research design. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative, Qualitative or Triangulation </li></ul...
Methodologies <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative <...
Sampling <ul><li>Several types of sampling techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Target population </li></ul><ul><li>Generate samp...
Data  Collection <ul><li>The fun part!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Going out into the field and gathering the data. </li></ul><ul>...
Data Analysis <ul><li>Putting things into perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Turning raw data into information </li></ul><ul><l...
Presenting the Data <ul><li>Written Presentation: </li></ul><ul><li>Charts; Graphs; Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Presenta...
Conclusions <ul><li>Provide a clear synopsis of your findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the research experience </li></...
References <ul><li>Giving credit where it is due. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper citations throughout the research project is im...
Appendix <ul><li>Supplemental Data and Information to enhance your research </li></ul><ul><li>Copy of questionnaire instru...
Publication <ul><li>Scholarly Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Social Science Research Journals:  Criminology ;  Criminology and...
Back to Theory: <ul><li>The research cycle starts again. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing new theory or building upon old theo...
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Research Process

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Research Process

  1. 1. The Research Process
  2. 2. Theory Hypothesis Data Empirical Generalizations
  3. 3. Theory <ul><li>A logically interrelated set of propositions about empirical reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Theory shapes research and research shapes theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Framework/Guide to Research </li></ul>
  4. 4. Deterrence Theory <ul><li>Prevalent in Criminological Research </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluates the impact of punishment on crime. </li></ul><ul><li>Expects punishment to deter crime in two ways: </li></ul><ul><li>Specific vs. General Deterrence </li></ul>
  5. 5. Research Topic/Question <ul><li>Domestic Violence is a prevalent social problem in the Belizean society; it is a problem that has tragically escalated over the years, thus the issue demands much attention and societal redress. </li></ul><ul><li>To what extent does arresting spouse abusers reduces their likelihood of re-offending? </li></ul>
  6. 6. Hypothesis <ul><li>A tentative statement about empirical reality, involving a relationship between two or more variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of an independent variable(s) and dependent variable(s). </li></ul><ul><li>Arresting an abusive spouse after a domestic dispute decreases the likelihood of he/she re-offending. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Conceptualization/Operationalization <ul><li>Outline and Define Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Indicate measurement of those variables. </li></ul><ul><li>Domestic Abuse: Definition </li></ul><ul><li>Operationalize: </li></ul><ul><li>Crime Statistics </li></ul><ul><li>Social Research </li></ul>
  8. 8. Literature Review <ul><li>Find out everything you can about your topic/hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Read and analyze other research projects: library, journals, web documents etc. </li></ul><ul><li>On going process: From beginning to end. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Methodology <ul><li>Developing the research design. </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative, Qualitative or Triangulation </li></ul><ul><li>How am I going to gather data to test my hypothesis? </li></ul><ul><li>What tools/data collection instruments will I use to gather my data? </li></ul>
  10. 10. Methodologies <ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Experiments </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Focus Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Participant Observation </li></ul>
  11. 11. Sampling <ul><li>Several types of sampling techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Target population </li></ul><ul><li>Generate sample or subset </li></ul><ul><li>Generalizability and Sampling go hand in hand. </li></ul><ul><li>Representative sampling </li></ul>
  12. 12. Data Collection <ul><li>The fun part!!! </li></ul><ul><li>Going out into the field and gathering the data. </li></ul><ul><li>Many obstacles and hindrances may come about. </li></ul><ul><li>Strategizing and contingency planning is necessary. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Data Analysis <ul><li>Putting things into perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Turning raw data into information </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Do my data support/dismiss by tentative statement about observable reality (hypothesis)? </li></ul>
  14. 14. Presenting the Data <ul><li>Written Presentation: </li></ul><ul><li>Charts; Graphs; Tables </li></ul><ul><li>Oral Presentation: </li></ul><ul><li>Audio and Visual Aids; Power point etc. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusions <ul><li>Provide a clear synopsis of your findings. </li></ul><ul><li>Summarize the research experience </li></ul><ul><li>Present ideas for future research </li></ul><ul><li>Make formal recommendations based on your findings </li></ul>
  16. 16. References <ul><li>Giving credit where it is due. </li></ul><ul><li>Proper citations throughout the research project is imperative. </li></ul><ul><li>Social Sciences: APA </li></ul>
  17. 17. Appendix <ul><li>Supplemental Data and Information to enhance your research </li></ul><ul><li>Copy of questionnaire instrument </li></ul><ul><li>Local conference reports </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical data </li></ul><ul><li>International or Regional Trends </li></ul>
  18. 18. Publication <ul><li>Scholarly Journals </li></ul><ul><li>Social Science Research Journals: Criminology ; Criminology and Public Policy ; Criminology and Criminal Justice </li></ul><ul><li>Organization of Interests </li></ul><ul><li>School Purposes </li></ul>
  19. 19. Back to Theory: <ul><li>The research cycle starts again. </li></ul><ul><li>Developing new theory or building upon old theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Deterrence Theory: </li></ul><ul><li>Arresting abusive spouse works to deter re-offending only in high status/economic class communities. </li></ul>

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