The Author’s Craft in Poetry
POETRY
Unique form of
literature, usually
using lines and
stanzas, made up of
musical and
rhythmical
language
POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY
POET
The poet is the author
of the poem.
SPEAKER
The speaker of the
poem is the “narrator”
of the ...
POETRY FORM
FORM - the
appearance of the
words on the page
LINE - a group of
words together on one
line of the poem
STANZA...
SOUND EFFECTS
RHYME
Words sound alike
because they share the
same ending vowel
and consonant sounds.
(A word always
rhymes with itself.)...
END RHYME
A word at the end of one line rhymes with a
word at the end of another line
Hector the Collector
Collected bits ...
INTERNAL RHYME
A word inside a line rhymes with another
word on the same line.
Once upon a midnight dreary, while I
ponder...
NEAR RHYME
a.k.a imperfect
rhyme, close rhyme
The words share
EITHER the same
vowel or consonant
sound BUT NOT
BOTH
ROSE
L...
RHYME SCHEME
A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually
end rhyme, but not always).
Use the letters of the alphabet to ...
SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME
The Germ by Ogden Nash
A mighty creature is the germ,
Though smaller than the pachyderm.
His customary...
ONOMATOPOEIA
Words that imitate the sound they are
naming
BUZZ
OR sounds that imitate another sound
“The silken, sad, unce...
ALLITERATION
Consonant sounds repeated at the
beginnings of words
If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled
peppers, how man...
REFRAIN
A sound, word,
phrase or line
repeated regularly
in a poem.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF
POETRY
LYRIC
A short poem
Usually written in first person point of view
Expresses an emotion or an idea or
describes a scene
Do n...
NARRATIVE POEMS
A poem that tells a
story.
Generally longer than
the lyric styles of
poetry b/c the poet
needs to establis...
Free Verse
Doesn’t have set
pattern of rhyme or
rhythm
Winter Poem 
by Nikki Giovanni
once a snowflake fell
on my brow and...
FIGURATIVE
LANGUAGE
SIMILE
A comparison of two things using “like, as
than,” or “resembles.”
“She is as beautiful as a sunrise.”
METAPHOR
A direct comparison of two unlike things
“All the world’s a stage, and we are merely
players.”
- William Shakespe...
EXTENDED METAPHOR
A metaphor that
goes several lines or
possible the entire
length of a work.
Ex: “Fog” compares
fog hangi...
Hyperbole
An extreme
exaggeration often
used for emphasis.
Idiom
An expression where the literal meaning of
the words is not the meaning of the
expression. It means something other ...
PERSONIFICATION
An animal
given human-
like qualities
or an object
given life-like
qualities.
from “Ninki”
by Shirley Jack...
Oxymoron
A figure of speech that
places two
contradictory words
together for a special
effect
Examples:
– Jumbo shrimp
– O...
OTHER
POETIC DEVICES
SYMBOLISM
When a person, place,
thing, or event that has
meaning in itself also
represents, or stands
for, something else....
IMAGERY
Language that appeals to the senses.
Most images are visual, but they can also
appeal to the senses of sound, touc...
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The Author's Craft in Poetry

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The Author's Craft in Poetry

  1. 1. The Author’s Craft in Poetry
  2. 2. POETRY Unique form of literature, usually using lines and stanzas, made up of musical and rhythmical language
  3. 3. POINT OF VIEW IN POETRY POET The poet is the author of the poem. SPEAKER The speaker of the poem is the “narrator” of the poem.
  4. 4. POETRY FORM FORM - the appearance of the words on the page LINE - a group of words together on one line of the poem STANZA - a group of lines arranged together A word is dead When it is said, Some say. I say it just Begins to live That day.
  5. 5. SOUND EFFECTS
  6. 6. RHYME Words sound alike because they share the same ending vowel and consonant sounds. (A word always rhymes with itself.) LAMP STAMP Share the short “a” vowel sound Share the combined “mp” consonant sound
  7. 7. END RHYME A word at the end of one line rhymes with a word at the end of another line Hector the Collector Collected bits of string. Collected dolls with broken heads And rusty bells that would not ring.
  8. 8. INTERNAL RHYME A word inside a line rhymes with another word on the same line. Once upon a midnight dreary, while I pondered weak and weary. From “The Raven” by Edgar Allan Poe
  9. 9. NEAR RHYME a.k.a imperfect rhyme, close rhyme The words share EITHER the same vowel or consonant sound BUT NOT BOTH ROSE LOSE Different vowel sounds (long “o” and “oo” sound) Share the same consonant sound
  10. 10. RHYME SCHEME A rhyme scheme is a pattern of rhyme (usually end rhyme, but not always). Use the letters of the alphabet to represent sounds to be able to visually “see” the pattern. (See next slide for an example.)
  11. 11. SAMPLE RHYME SCHEME The Germ by Ogden Nash A mighty creature is the germ, Though smaller than the pachyderm. His customary dwelling place Is deep within the human race. His childish pride he often pleases By giving people strange diseases. Do you, my poppet, feel infirm? You probably contain a germ. a a b b c c a a
  12. 12. ONOMATOPOEIA Words that imitate the sound they are naming BUZZ OR sounds that imitate another sound “The silken, sad, uncertain, rustling of each purple curtain . . .”
  13. 13. ALLITERATION Consonant sounds repeated at the beginnings of words If Peter Piper picked a peck of pickled peppers, how many pickled peppers did Peter Piper pick?
  14. 14. REFRAIN A sound, word, phrase or line repeated regularly in a poem.
  15. 15. DIFFERENT TYPES OF POETRY
  16. 16. LYRIC A short poem Usually written in first person point of view Expresses an emotion or an idea or describes a scene Do not tell a story and are often musical (Many of the poems we read will be lyrics.)
  17. 17. NARRATIVE POEMS A poem that tells a story. Generally longer than the lyric styles of poetry b/c the poet needs to establish characters and a plot. Examples of Narrative Poems “The Raven” “The Highwayman” “Casey at the Bat” “The Walrus and the Carpenter”
  18. 18. Free Verse Doesn’t have set pattern of rhyme or rhythm Winter Poem  by Nikki Giovanni once a snowflake fell on my brow and i loved it so much and i kissed it and it was happy and called its cousins and brothers and a web of snow engulfed me then i reached to love them all and i squeezed them and they became a spring rain and i stood perfectly still and was a flower
  19. 19. FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE
  20. 20. SIMILE A comparison of two things using “like, as than,” or “resembles.” “She is as beautiful as a sunrise.”
  21. 21. METAPHOR A direct comparison of two unlike things “All the world’s a stage, and we are merely players.” - William Shakespeare
  22. 22. EXTENDED METAPHOR A metaphor that goes several lines or possible the entire length of a work. Ex: “Fog” compares fog hanging over a city to a cat observing a city. “Fog” by Carl Sandburg The fog comes on little cat feet. It sits looking over harbor and city on silent haunches and then moves on.
  23. 23. Hyperbole An extreme exaggeration often used for emphasis.
  24. 24. Idiom An expression where the literal meaning of the words is not the meaning of the expression. It means something other than what it actually says. Ex. “Caught red-handed” = Caught guilty in the act “Let the cat out of the bag” = Make a secret known
  25. 25. PERSONIFICATION An animal given human- like qualities or an object given life-like qualities. from “Ninki” by Shirley Jackson “Ninki was by this time irritated beyond belief by the general air of incompetence exhibited in the kitchen, and she went into the living room and got Shax, who is extraordinarily lazy and never catches his own chipmunks, but who is, at least, a cat, and preferable, Ninki saw clearly, to a man with a gun.
  26. 26. Oxymoron A figure of speech that places two contradictory words together for a special effect Examples: – Jumbo shrimp – Old news
  27. 27. OTHER POETIC DEVICES
  28. 28. SYMBOLISM When a person, place, thing, or event that has meaning in itself also represents, or stands for, something else. = Innocence = America = Peace
  29. 29. IMAGERY Language that appeals to the senses. Most images are visual, but they can also appeal to the senses of sound, touch, taste, or smell. then with cracked hands that ached from labor in the weekday weather . . . from “Those Winter Sundays”

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