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  1. 1. Video-Conferencing Technology
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>What is video-conferencing? </li></ul><ul><li>Technical requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Benefits of video-conferencing </li></ul>
  3. 3. Video-Conferencing Technology <ul><li>Allows two or more individuals to talk, see, and view documents in real time from different locations. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides instant feedback for its users. </li></ul><ul><li>Video-conferencing technology has evolved into a practical tool for business, medicine, and classrooms. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Examples of Video-Conferencing <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  5. 5. Video-Conferencing Technology <ul><li>Necessary equipment: </li></ul><ul><li>- computer </li></ul><ul><li>- webcam with microphone </li></ul><ul><li>- internet access </li></ul><ul><li>- bandwidth </li></ul><ul><li>- meter : t/ </li></ul>
  6. 6. Video-Conferencing Technology <ul><li>There are several internet sites that provide video conferencing. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. – iChat, ooVoo, AOL instant messanger </li></ul><ul><li>Many have a monthly paid subscription to use their service. </li></ul><ul><li>One provider of video conferencing is Skype which does not have a monthly service fee. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Skype: Basic Info <ul><li>Skype is a program that uses the internet to make calls and videocalls, to send texts and files. </li></ul><ul><li>It has approximately 521 million registered users in the world. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Skype: Basic Info <ul><li>Calls can be made from a computer to any other Skype user that is connected to the internet. </li></ul><ul><li>Calls without video between computers and video calls with webcams are completely free. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Skype: Basic Info <ul><li>To install Skype download the free software from the Skype website </li></ul><ul><li>- there is no activation fee </li></ul><ul><li>- create a user name </li></ul><ul><li>- make a contact list of other Skype users that you want to call </li></ul>
  10. 10. Applications of Skype <ul><li>There are three useful applications for Skype in the ABA classroom: </li></ul><ul><li>- Consultation </li></ul><ul><li>- Supervision </li></ul><ul><li>- Collaboration </li></ul>
  11. 11. Consultation <ul><li>Consultants can be video conferenced into the classroom to provide feedback on: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student programs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>observation of individual teaching sessions with students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provide instant feedback on observed sessions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>assist with the writing of teaching procedures and behavior intervention plans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>curriculum development </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Consultation <ul><li>Staff training </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individual instructor sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>discrete trial sessions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>group instructor sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>circle time, music group </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>adaptive physical education (APE) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>weekly staff training sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>provide presentations on various behavior analytic principles (e.g.- reinforcement, prompting strategies, stimulus control) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Supervision <ul><li>Consultants can supervise class sessions using Skype. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ensure effectiveness of prior in-class recommendations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>immediate ability to adjust suggestions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>maintain knowledge of student’s progress </li></ul></ul><ul><li>BCBA and BCaBA supervision </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Collaboration <ul><li>Working with other professionals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>professionals from anywhere can be video-conferenced into the classroom and/or home to provide assistance with their specific area of expertise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>time saving tool when important issues arise that require immediate attention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ability to share files instantly without the use of email. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstration of teaching procedures from other educational settings. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Confidentiality <ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Before using any video-conference technology, written consent must be obtained from the individual or parent/guardian. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure while you are viewing the video conference from the computer, you are in a private location where no one can view the screen. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Any information shared via video conference is completely secure through Skype. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Privacy Policy <ul><li>Privacy and security must be considered when choosing a video conferencing provider. </li></ul><ul><li>Visit the website of the provider and review the privacy policy. </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  17. 17. Some Considerations <ul><li>The consultant should be familiar with the student. </li></ul><ul><li>- video-conferencing should be used only as a supplemental tool and not replace </li></ul><ul><li> face-to-face in class observation </li></ul><ul><li> - only verbal instructions can be </li></ul><ul><li> provided </li></ul>
  18. 18. Some Considerations <ul><li>Make sure video-conferencing application is not distracting to classroom environment. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- teacher can wear an earpiece to listen and follow consultant’s directions while working with student </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- monitor can be turned off by teacher to reduce distractions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video-conferencing can be used as a reinforcer. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- student can make a video call to parents, siblings or friends from school </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Time and Cost Benefits <ul><li>Professionals can address specific areas of concern immediately. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a consultant may have only one specific issue to address that would not require an on-site visit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows consultant to be virtually in the classroom at a moment’s notice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Professionals become cost effective. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>better connected professionals can reach a broader number of students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient professionals = saved money </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Accessibility <ul><li>Internet-based </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many people have access to the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mobil Devices </li></ul><ul><li> - ability to text through use of iPhone </li></ul><ul><li> and Blackberry </li></ul><ul><li> - video chat is dependent on your service provider </li></ul>
  21. 21. Research <ul><li>Machalicek et al. (in press) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use of video tele-conferencing (VTC) to provide performance feedback to special education teachers conducting functional analysis procedures with children with autism </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple baseline design with embedded multiple-element design </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VTC used once per week for an average of six weeks until teachers met criterion of implementing functional analysis procedures at 100% accuracy for three consecutive sessions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>VTC was found effective in training teachers to conduct functional analysis conditions </li></ul></ul>
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  24. 24. Demonstration of making a Skype video call
  25. 25. References <ul><li>Israel, M., Knowlton, E., Griswald, D., & Rowland, A., (2009). Applications of video-conferencing in special education teacher preparation. Journal of Special Education Technology, 15-25. </li></ul><ul><li>Machalicek, W., O'Reilly, M.F., Rispoli, M., Davis, T., Lang, R., Hetlinger-Franco, J., & Chan, J. (in press). Training teachers to assess the challenging behaviors of student with autism using video tele-conferencing. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities. </li></ul>