• French Antillean colonial society was divided into several levels, according to caste and class.• At the top were the grands blancs, or békés, the white Créoles who had made their fortunes as planters, with their wealth from sugar cane and slavery continuing through generations.
• The largest and most powerless color/caste group on the island has always been the noirs, the black people who performed unskilled or low-skilled labor. After the abolition of slavery, the békés enticed over 25,000 Asians~ mostly from China and India ~ to work as “coolies” on the plantations alongside the “noirs.”
Frantz FanonFrantz Fanon was born in the French colony of Martinique in 1925. After volunteering with the Free French in World War II, he moved to France to study medicine and psychiatry in Lyon. He was an anti-colonial thinker who believed that by speaking a certain language, a person assumes all of the cultural values of that society.
One of Fanons more famous works is Black Skin, White Masks. In this book, he analyzes the effects of racism and colonization on black men. He also examines the colonizer/colonized relationship from a psychological standpoint, and points out that in order for the black man to overcome the association of "black" to "evil", he must put on a white mask.
Post-Colonial ThinkingHow has colonial education, science and technology influenced post-colonial societies?How have these influences helped form the identities of post-colonial societies?How have these influences affected minorities in various countries?
… an individual journey, a common story …• “when I was born, I didn’t know I was Black”• …. I discovered it….• Cashain David 1991
Wood may remain ten years in thewater, but it will never become a crocodile. (Zairian proverb)
Fanon CareSupporting African and Caribbeanpeople with Mental Health needs
Why the need to provide specialist care ?• African-Caribbean people and in particular Black people born in Britain are ten times more likely to be given a diagnosis of schizophrenia.
• African-Caribbeans are more likely to be detained in locked psychiatric wards and most likely to be treated with higher dosages of medication.• Black people are more likely to be treated with drugs and ECT and less likely to receive counselling or psychotherapy.
Fanon Care “culturally sensitive services in a community setting”• Individual, Family, Community• Black on Black• From an African / Caribbean Worldview
Supporting the whole person Social needs Physical needs Emotional needs Spiritual needs Racial Identity
The services providedDay CentreFanon House (20 beds)Women only home (6 beds)Floating support service
• believed mental illness caused by exploitive imperialism• believed Western powers dehumanized non-Western cultures, replaced them entirely• believed dehumanization caused oppression, crisis, psychological problems• the only way to stop dehumanizing process is revolution and for self acceptance.
… emancipate yourselves from mental slavery, none but ourselves can free our minds..
Concept of Liberation Theology• Liberation theology is an attempt for liberating people of the world from poverty and oppression.
Why Liberation Theology?• Religion can not be neutral even if it is secular?! – Religion exists to save people from any deprivation and life disturbance. – Religion has to solve individual as well as social problems – It should by dynamic, otherwise it will die
Black History and church• Thou Shalt Love Thy Neighbor as Thyself:• Loving others is a radical act• Loving yourself is a radical act• Romans 13:8 Owe no man any thing, but to love one another: for he that loveth another hath fulfilled the law.
The Fanon legacy• Connection of oppression to psychological disturbance• Need for active involvement in liberation of self and people• Role model for contribution of a life to these principles