Gadeokdo Report


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Gadeokdo Report

  1. 1. B A 8 8 8 8 8
  2. 2. International Urban Ideas Competition | Dancing Island 3 Contents Act One: The Communion of Two Dancers 5 Dancing Island - The Community of the Seas 7 Act Two: Growing with an Island 9 A Spiritual Connection to the Sea 11 A Deep Respect for Nature 13 Topography Dictates Destiny 15 A Passion for Relationship 17 Act Three: Finding Herself Again 19 Ocean Lifestyle 21 Nature Tourism, Eco-Tourism, and Urban Eco-Tourism 23 Innovation: Food, Energy and Architecture 25 Collaborative Urbanism 27 Architecture 29 Power Energy 30 Resources 31 Area 1: Greater Gadeok Seaweed Centre 32 Area 2: The Reef Residences 33 Area 3: Nulcha Bay Area 34 Area 4: Logistic and Commerce Centre 36 Area 5: New Port and Busan West Convention Centre 36 Area 6: Gadeokdo Marine Theme Park 37 Area 7: Gadeok Cruise Ship Terminal and Entertainment Area 38 Area 8: New Busan International Airport 39 Area 9: Gadeokdo Natural Park 40
  3. 3. 5 Act One: The Communion of Two Dancers The risk is a part of the rhythm. One steps out of and into balance; one keeps on doing it…. Edwin Denby, “Forms in Motion and Thought” (1965) Our proposal is the culmination of all delicate balances that exist in life; the delicate balance of form and function, nature and man, conformity and non-conformity, movement, social interaction, and the rhythm of life. These balances are found in every aspect of life and it is in our proposal that these balances find their equilibrium and harmony. As in dance urban planning is a struggle about leadership and finding common ground. It is also a form of expression and a nonverbal communication. It is a dance between nature and man, daring, provocative and spiritual. On a search for the new, the unexpected, and to celebrate the diversity of expression, developing the art form, its artists and its appreciative audience. The title, The Dancing Island, refers to dancers on a stage, created by our artistic design team, of two young contemporary dancers, all of whom inhabit these writings. Though much, including several oceans, lies between us, this design presentation explores the divergences: between the dancers and their audience, between a futuristic metropolis and an uninhabited forest. In summoning this proposal as a collaborative presence, we accommodate 21st century sensibilities in language and image within a contemporary freedom of form. As in Edwin Denby’s description of the dance step (above), This proposal steps out of, and into emotional and other balances, within both the dancers and the geography and the spaces between them though dance, and the dancer, is always discovered at the centre of their resolve and resolution. A study of two dancers reveals the subtleties of similarity and difference. Although articulated in this contemporary program as an exploration of how an individual defines oneself within a close relationship, it is more an exploration of sharing space; the dancers move organically between roles of soloist, support and equal partner. Individuality does not need to be defined, given the level of understanding and mutual respect. The space to be oneself is granted with sensitivity. The effect is not so much a symbiosis or a blurring of two characters, but an expression of subtle adjustments that if we are lucky, we can find and create a balance in close and long-standing relationships with man and nature.
  4. 4. 6 1. Greater Gadeok Sea Weed Centre 4. Logistic and Commerce Centre - New Port 3. Nulcha 5. Busan West Bay Convention Centre 2. The Reef Residences 10. Sport Leisure and Urban Agriculture 6. Atlantis Marine Theme Park 7. Cruise Ship Terminal 8. New Busan International Airport 9. Gadeok-do Natural Park Overall Design Approach / Protected Natural Areas Development Areas Programming Areas Nature & Eco Tourism Urban Area & Residences Ocean & Resources Tourism & Entertainment / Cruise Ship Terminal & Buffer Zones Marine Theme Park Sea Weed Area & Business & Logistics / Urban Argiculture / New Port Sport & Leisure / Industry Marine Residences Infrastructure
  5. 5. 7 Dancing Island - The Community of the Seas Since the beginning of time, Gadeokdo represents nature. Its people have thrived on the ebb and flow of its bountiful biotic mass in a ritual, synchronized with the rhythms of the waves and seasons. While Busan City, as major natural harbor, stands for business and trade. Today, with this entry, our team sees the two as enchanted dancers interacting, to create the world’s first community of the seas. It consists of maritime research, - trading, - living and - recreational life. At its core we suggest a University of Oceanic Studies serving the North East Asian theatre. A research centre of renown, offering solutions in the world’s search for alternatives in food – energy using the ocean as a resource. Gadeokdo - Programming Elements Natural Living & Public Arts & Infra- Local & Sports & Water- Business Areas Resi- Facilities Culture structure Regional Recrea- front & & Com- dences Tourism tion Sea Shore merce Protected / nature parks / existing vil- / hiking path / land art / local roads / interest spots, / hiking / natural / existing Natural Areas / migratory lage lifestyle / existing hos- / heritage & bicycle bird watching, / diving beaches and sea weed and Ocean bird habitat & / existing pitals, schools areas lanes lighthouse, / biking, etc. rock seashore farming and wildlife cor- fishing and and senior signaling station, agriculture ridors aquaculture facilities etc. / ocean life lifestyle Buffer Zones / recreational / existing / nature Infor- / land art / local roads, / recreational / multi- / natural / convenient parks villages, low mation centre / art & cul- parking lots trails, hiking purpose fields / beaches facilties (daily Transition / agriculture density, single / hiking path ture centre / bicycle / camping ground (football, / small marina needs, local Zones & sea weed family houses / existing hos- / heritage lanes / sea weed centre baseball, etc.), / shore area products, between farms / marine pitals, schools areas / education & / golfing recreation etc.) Nature and / wetlands residences and senior information / diving, hiking / small shops Urban Areas & water facilities centre / sports centre / local farm- reservoirs ers market / wildlife / sea weed habitat & cor- centre ridors Development / neighbour- / intensive / schools, / galleries, / roads, / main tourism / indoor pools, / public / convenience Areas hood parks residential libraries, re- / theaters parking lots centre indoor sports beaches, facilities / urban development search centre, / centre of / public / cruise ship facilities boardwalks, / business Urban agriculture (medium to universities performing transporta- terminal / tennis and waterfront district & Areas with high density), / social welfare, arts tion, light / lodging / hotels basketball / main mar- international sustainable town houses senior housing, rail train / casino courts ina, harbour, exchange & Connection to and apart- hospitals / pedestrian / aquarium, / roller blade ferry docks distribution Nature ments / public squares areas, bi- theme park, and skate - shore area facilities & promenades cycle lanes, museums board parks recreation / shopping / ferries district
  6. 6. 9 Act Two: Growing with an Island Air. The key to everything, is air. We breathe the air. We move through the air. We feed off the air. We live in the air. It surrounds us, it follows us, it fights us, it affects us. The air is affecting me now. Lively and shimmering with exhilaration and pride, its energy pulsing through me. My senses are heightened. I am aware of everything. The air is awake. It is a misty morning, and only the air is restless while the earth wakes slowly. Colour vibrates through the mist; greens, purples, grays, reds, pinks. The blue-grey of the water is stationary. These colours reflect lazily across its surface, much like the opening of a butterflies wings. The air is very awake now. It rustles the identical leaves and ripples through the folds in my hanbok like the constant waves. The subtle sounds are shouts of annoyance; the air is impatient for the dance to start, yet I am not. A stationary girl waits by my side. When I give her my eyes, she shows the same impatience as the air. I must smile kindly. It is not time to dance. Air splashes my face, grasping my attention again. This time it brings smells: abundant flowers, the needles of forest cedars, silk on my shoulders. The many pink camellias are the strongest. There is another flavour in the air, as I take in a breath with my lips. This air is cold, this... is pure. Pure excitement, pure pride. That is what I taste in the air. Excitement in the dance. Pride in my country. A crowd has gathered; they are waiting as we are, waiting, waiting... Time has almost come. People are still, but the air roars on. Brushing my fingertips along a tingling current, the girl and I position to start. A glance between us locks our intensity. Now we are ready. The ground rumbles with tradition. Many ancestors before us have danced as we do. They lend us the ability to dance with the same feeling. I see the mist trembling with the air. Tradition and growth, balancing together. The dance has begun.
  7. 7. 10 F F F F F F F West Coast typical rias shore / curved capes and bays / speed of water in bays relatively calm, optimal for marinas and harbours / 1.4m tidal East Coast typical rock shore / F cliffs, caves / speed of water relatively fast / high ocean waves / 1.4m tidal F Ship Wreck Harbor Limit Limit of Shipping Channel Connection to Sea Fishing Villages F Local Fishing Harbour New Port Nulcha Bay - Tideland Fish Haven Mouth of Nakdong River Sea Weed Growing Area land-tied island phenomenon / natural sedimentation rapidly progressing Rock Coastline Breakwater Light House Annual Grey Mullet Festival
  8. 8. 11 A Spiritual Connection to the Sea The narrow walkways outside our local fish and gentle tides lies, the largest port in the festival are where the action is most hectic. country and the fifth largest container port Dried flatfish, moray eels and cuttlefish adorn in the world. It nestles in the Nakdong River al fresco stalls, while tables groan under the Valley, surrounded by the ocean on one side, weight of huge purple octopi, buckets of garish mountains on the other. The new harbor sea squirts and spiny sea urchins, and bowls port construction and the construction of the of assorted crabs, shrimp and shellfish. All Busan-Geoje Bridge are currently the largest this happens while local residents haggle over development projects on Gadeok Island. This wriggling eels and iridescent anchovies. The new construction is affecting the water quality newer, multi-storied buildings, which house the and natural habitats in Nulcha Bay, a bay which live seafood stalls and restaurants, make for serves as a harbour for local villagers and a less frantic yet equally diverting experience. fishermen and is an important migratory bird In overcrowded aquaria fish of all shapes and and wildlife feeding area. colors thrash about. Workers in gaudy yellow aprons mix up thick seafood stews and sauces, Nulcha Bay it is part of the Nakdong River fillet fish with razor sharp blades, and take the Estuary. It has a large area of about 10,000 latest customer orders. hectare. Inter-tidal flats have been well developed around uninhabited sandbars. Surrounded by water, Gadeokdo always has had Comparatively warm winter and cool summer a deep connection to the ocean and marine life. makes it a good habitat for various wildlife. Extensive aquaculture has been practiced in As freshwater is mixed with seawater, a large Korea for several hundred years, but modern area of brackish water zone is formed around intensive culture, including the surrounding it. Geographically, Korean Peninsula and shallow reef waters of Gadeokdo, consists of Nakdong River Estuary bridge the ocean and seaweed and shellfish farming. Aquaculture the continent. Lots of birds come to stay in in the region emerged in the 1960’s, and has this estuary due to the above-mentioned good shown tenfold growth up until this present day. conditions. Once this area was well known as Based on the Korean Land Use Statistics in “one of the most important water bird habitats 2007, Gangseo-Gu’s total fish farms represent in Asia region”. For this reason, the estuary was 42% of Busan’s total fish farms. designated as a Natural Monument in 1966, and is protected by five different laws presently. A stone’s throw from downtown Busan, Gadeokdo is thriving off the demand for Korean The many amazing rock formations of the east seafood. Conventional type gray mullet fishing coast shoreline serve as bird habitat and tourist (Sungeo deuri)’ has been practiced for over destinations for activities such as fishing and 100 years. The small fishing village is running sightseeing. Important fish areas are located on as a “fishing experience” tourism village, and the southeast shore of the island. the village’s annual Gray Mullet Spring Festival attracts numerous locals and tourists. This At first I am listening, walking with rhythm, the event helps promote tourism and the fishery sound of my steps creaking on the shredded culture and marine products of the island. The dock and the ocean crashing beside me. The Gray Mullet Spring Festival is an example that fisherman here operate individually with their resonates the village’s legacy and pride. These own motorboats and nets. You constantly hear days the village has swelled and its well- one fisherman calling to others. There is a protected harbor is home to a diverse flotilla of large crowd surrounding a man with a net. The fishing craft, from bobbing rowboats through to man is using a wooden hammer to separate his sizeable, rust-streaked trawlers. catch from the net. You can also hear the local people, including children, adolescents, and North of Gadeokdo, due to its natural harbor older women who are watching him...
  9. 9. 12 Ecological Valuable Area Bird / Animal Feeding and Slope 0% - 10% Drinking Area Slope 40% - 90% Ecological Base Water Reservoirs Ecological Axis & Connection between Yondae Peak and Natural Creeks & Guksu Peak Irrigation Canals Dongback Gunsangji Cultural Property wild camellia colony Protection Region / Seasonal Birds Arriving Place Nulcha Bay - Tideland
  10. 10. 13 A Deep Respect for Nature South Korean culture traditionally has adapted and sightseeing. Running across the four main to, and found meaning in the order of nature. peaks of the island (Guksu, Bongsu,Mae and People taught their children the meaning of Sambak), they together from an ecological axis respect and reverence for nature. They honoured that is vital to plants and provide habitats where these beliefs as law and it brought order into wildlife rest and feed. their daily lives. Respect for nature has long been inscribed into traditional Korean life. Nulcha Bay’s intertidal habitat is especially Centred by the highest peaks of the Yeondae important to migratory birds due to its proximity Mountains, Gadeokdo’s sceneries range from to the Nakdong estuary. Some important bird the white-sand beaches that connect Nulcha species at the Nakdong estuary include the and Dongseon to the northeast coastline, critically endangered Spoon-billed Sandpiper, the open sea, to the broad pebble field of threatened Falcated Duck, and the Saunders’s Daehang Saebaji to the southeast and Yongdu Gull. With all the inherent nature and culture Rock that leads to the camellia forest. Rare assets on the island’s east coast, it is plausible rock formations pepper the cliffs by Gadeok’s to suggest the Gadeokdo Island’s tourism lighthouse. success has a strong correlation to its natural setting and cultural features. As young teenagers we would ride up the steep mountain and down the other side, this set At any time, the paths and roads can end at a the pattern for the entire island, a series of farm house, or a beautiful outcropping of rocks. mountains, coves, and small villages. There are When we would ride to one of these dead ends, no major roads around the island. The roads are we could only turn around and enjoy the view little more than concrete paths, perfect for our on the ride back. Many of the houses on the bikes, but sometimes no more than a narrow island are very old and little more than shacks, walkway between buildings. but they are someone’s home. Life on the small island remains very traditional. Eco-tourism is a vital industry to Gadeokdo. Visitors travel to the island to experience In art, literature, and leisure, Koreans express the island’s natural and cultural features, a deep passion for nature. In construction, the mountain vistas, distinctive rock shores, whether it is a house, a palace or a temple, the beaches, and forests. desire to be in harmony with nature is evident still to this day. Attention to surroundings and Gadeokdo’s east coast area contains abundant to the presence of nature is foremost in the Camellia forest colonies, where some are minds of Koreans when selecting building sites. over 150 years old. Being one of the cultural This desire to work with and represent nature heritages of the island, the camellia colony not spills over into the fine arts and is expressed only enhances the biodiversity of the area, it also in the representations of animals in pottery represents what the locals value. In addition, or splendid landscapes done in watercolours. the east coast shoreline has many distinctive The Korean aesthetic sense is deeply rooted in rock formations that serve as a bird habitat and nature. tourist destinations for activities such as fishing
  11. 11. 14 138m F Gadeokdo Checkhwabi Independence Activist Monument M Winter Wind R M Armed Force 359m Veteran Monument Chunghonbi 23 F Cheonseongjin Fortress 460m Bongsu Peak (459.4m) Signaling Station R 269m Summer Wind Topography Dictates Destiny Looking Outward Looking Inward Light House Buddhist Temple F Fortress Mountain Peaks Looking Backward M Monuments R Relicts
  12. 12. 15 Topography Dictates Destiny Gadeokdo has the extreme fortune of a location Belonging to the primary signaling network, that can combine both marine and inland Dongraejikbong, it played an important role as a transportation systems such as a port, a signaling station, connecting to the Sahwarang railroad and an airport. Due to the advantageous beacon in the west, passing over 200 kilometers location on the Pacific rim it is literally a through Korea to Chungju-si in the north, and gateway to the economic arena in Northeastern connecting to the Seonghwangdang beacon in Asia. In Gadeokdo, the culture of p’ungshu lives, Youngcheon, and in the east, it communicated topography and geography dictates destiny. with the Eungbong beacon of Dadaepo. Everything about the island is always looking out to the rest of the world and the future. For its time, the beacon system was at the cutting edge of communication through the I would sometimes sneak out at night, climb up country and served a highly critical role in the to the beacon footing and spend hours looking society. It is no surprise that Korea is among out over the sea, which seemed to unfurl and the most technologically advanced and linked wrap itself around the globe. I would sometimes societies in the world to date. Innovation is feel like I could reach out and stroke its smooth behind most Korean economic growth. More rind. Gentle waves crest and fall, etching ornate than 30 million people, 64 percent of the South grooves in the beach sand below me. I want to Korea population, use cell phones and also has curl up on this distant shore and lose myself the eighth highest cell phone subscriber base. forever. More than 24 million South Koreans tap into the internet, placing Korea among world’s top five The penchant for looking out and looking internet-linked countries. forward can also be seen in technology and art. Architecturally, early island locals perfected The mission of the lighthouse was to guide me ventilation techniques and solved drainage through all of my perils. Night and day, in any problems as seen in a stone grotto temple kind of weather, its steady light would rotate in constructed on the island. Its design kept the every direction, illuminating the safe harbor to underground structure clean and dry. travelers on sea and land. When fog shrouds its beacon, the lighthouse still shines and adds Since the end of the Korean War, Korean culture a loud horn to make sure all those within its has emphasized the importance of education, range get the message. resulting in a ninety-eight percent literacy rate. Korea is one of the most literate societies in Gangseogu, the Gadeokdo Lighthouse was the world paving the way for Korea’s leadership constructed in December of 1909 during the role in technology. It is through the Korean age of the Korean Empire. It has an overall values of diligence, hard work, and education height of 40.5m and includes a 9.2m tall light that make this success story possible. This story tower. The lighthouse tower was constructed in exemplifies the Korea’s ability to look outward a Gothic style, similar to the lighthouse towers and towards a new and brighter future. found in France. The upper hanging board has engraved on it a pattern of plum flowers, which Bongsudae (a beacon mound) is located on the is the symbol of the Joseon imperial household. Yeondae peak, 459m above sea level and the The Gadeokdo Lighthouse retains its original highest point on Gadeokdo. Though one cannot western style structure. Hence, this as cultural be certain of the year of its installation, it is heritage that shows yet a greater worth as a believed that it was built around the time of King cultural treasure, and is also assigned as one Euijong of Goryo Dynasty. This signaling station of the perpetuation properties by the Ministry of is the closest located to Japan’s Daema Island. Maritime Affairs and Fishers.
  13. 13. 17 A Passion for Relationship Like most regions in Korea, the island is how in many cases they can be used to advance symbol for a relationship-based society. A more general research, and simply how much relationship is even more clearly established sheer drama and excitement they can hold in when a person compares their status with their pages. another. Knowing whether the other person is superior or inferior is very important. The modern ritual of exchanging business cards As a young girl, I was infinitely stirred by the among new acquaintances stems from Korean’s ceremonies and dances that had been passed wish to determine their comparative status. on by many of my imaginative ancestors. Every In the traditional society, people were born to breath I took on stage had been exhaled by this island and did not move outside the island. them, it was a study on understanding the Each village had to be self-sufficient. To sustain difference between authenticity and ethnicity. village stability, there had to be a way to decide each resident’s status so that they could live in Another dimension of this proclivity is the two harmony. There was the need for a sense of opposing ethical or value systems which affect order, propriety, and appropriate behaviour. ordinary, everyday behaviour. One is formal and explicit; largely lineage-oriented and embodies Korea was one of the earliest of the present- a clearly structured hierarchical system of day nations of the world to emerge and remain rank and authority that is closely linked with clearly on the map of history. By the end of the aristocratic traditions. The contrasting system seventh century it was essentially the same reflects an egalitarian community ethic; it country it is today, in population, underlying is informal and has no set code of moral culture, language, and general geographical principles, although many aspects of it are extent. expressed in proverbs and other folk sayings. Among the important values are mutual At the core of village organization is a assistance and cooperation among neighbors, segmentary, exogamous, patrilineal lineage hospitality, generosity and tolerance in dealing system. Meticulously written lineage with both kin and non-kin. genealogies validate a person’s membership in a lineage. Gadeokdo island chokpo, originated I stepped into the semi-lit room and was from two basic convictions of traditional life: the greeted by more than the family I expected; belief that one’s identity and social status was there was a crowd. Everyone greeted me earned by the virtue and achievements of one’s warmly with “You’re most welcome.” We ancestors, and the need to have accurate decent were a small village of happy people. I grew records in order to maintain the integrity and up in a community that kept its doors open; efficacy of the ancestral rituals. Many people, neighborhood children would claim the road including professional specialists themselves, for games of football and stickball, and adults will see what a wealth of historical detail can spend their evenings perched on rock walls be found in genealogies, how much insight can talking together. I grew up with a space of be gained into both the ancient and recent past, vibrant energy and sincere friendliness. how in many cases they can be used to advance
  14. 14. 19 Act Three: Finding Herself Again The dance has begun. I can feel the growth of tradition in my core. I can feel the excitement and pride of the crowd. I feel... old and new, all at the same time. My mind wanders. Foremost, my focus is on the dance; the movement through my shoulder, elbow, wrist, flowing as if moved by some other force than my thoughts; an instinct to compliment my partner, dancing on the same wave, as we spin and bend, the crowd watches on. A face here, a face there, all melding together, yet made of individuals... There is a man watching off to the side. He is somber, his eyes holding some strange emotion that darkens his brow. He has lived here always, as his father, as his grandfather. He watches the two dancers; one raised in his village, one arrived from across the ocean. Worlds apart, yet connected by a deep root in tradition. He smiles... There is a girl sitting in front of the crowd, her legs folded under her clumsily. She is here on vacation, her mother standing behind. She watches the two dancers; they do not seem different, they are only beautiful, graceful and poised. The girl longs to be a part of the dance. A dancer looks her in the eye. She smiles... I get lost in the faces, but the rhythm pulls me back. This ancient scene is before my eyes, but my past flashes behind them. Material swishes around my legs. Bright pink catches my eye, and I am suddenly in front of the store window on the way between my old apartment and my favourite coffee shop, staring at the beautiful dress I loved to imagine myself in. Wind breezes past my face, and I am suddenly bracing myself against the gale coming with the arrival of the subway train on a Saturday, on my way to meet my mother for lunch. I can smile at my memories, still holding anticipation for new discoveries here. The dance continues. The dance between the two of us. The dance between the music and the audience. The dance between the air and the nature around us. The dance between the past... and the future. Music fades, and we sway to a stop. The dance has ended, but this is just the beginning.
  15. 15. 20 M M F M M M M Ship Wreck Harbor Limit Limit of Shipping Channel Ocean Lifestyle Supporting Villages Shore Area Recreation Heritage Fishing Village Marine Tourism M Marina F Fish Market Tideland / Wetland Marine Residences Sea Weed Centre Artificial Reefs Beach Promenade Light House
  16. 16. 21 Ocean Lifestyle The hotel we were staying in was built on the sea conservation, preservation of water the highest part of the narrow tongue of land front space, and settlement at ocean space in between the port and the open sea. The vantage Asia. It will be the leading core city in advanced from my grand bay window was not replicable, ocean tourism by the promotion of cruise tour it was a place where romance is as natural as and construction of a huge oceaneum. the waves caressing the shores of a secret cove at midnight. The ocean seemed like a place The sea mist blew in front of me, slowly and of safety and serenity, where an astonishingly gently settling on my face. I neared the open- surreal beauty and a languid pace of life air plaza, the buzzing atmosphere of the new conspired with an enviable warm ocean breeze Lotus cluster, the main artery for tourist activity to provide a unique backdrop for this tender on Gadeokdo. The light sweater I wore was living experience. just right for the stroll. The branches swayed from the Camellia trees that lined the water In much our architecture, including the newest promenade, while the sun held itself at a oceanfront units, something is missing: the perfect angle casting a warm glow on the fine traditional wall. In its place we feature panels sandy beaches and the luxury hotels, boutique of large, operable glass walls that open shops, restaurants and apartments facing the effortlessly, then offer unobstructed water ocean. Cars sat in traffic along side buses, vistas, more sunlight, natural ventilation and bikes, motorcycles and pedestrians. Blue the ability to make more of indoor/outdoor chairs dotted the walkway, most where empty living and entertaining space. Oceanside living but a few were occupied by men and women represents a homeowner’s desire to partake in huddled together in conversation and a sprinkle the beauty and the restlessness of nature. of locals and tourists basking in the afternoon sun. The city of Busan has the ambition of leading a blue revolution. The key goal of our development The physical part of the multi-modal plan is the creative establishment of Gadeokdo transportation strategy is a mass marine as an integral component of this ocean capital, mobility system with solar and hydrogen integrating industries, capable persons, central powered ferries, fantastic waterside biking services related to the sea. It is to align our trails, small-car boulevards, and an over-water thinking with the critical urban planning that hanging light rail transit system, that will take has led to the direction of the Ocean Capital 21 locals and tourists around the island. Plan, the construction of the first ocean and logistic city in the world. From a transportation perspective, in order to maintain that delicate balance between Our approach is to efficiently equip this natural ocean living and urban infrastructure area of the city with world top-class ocean development, we will also address operational infrastructure, to set the framework for global inefficiencies by reducing business travel logistics facilities for marine products, the through schedule optimization, setting up design of an advanced ocean city with abundant infrastructure for videoconferencing and other ocean qualities, building education at the technology, reducing idling time, locating cornerstone of an information city full of well- facilities in transit rich environments, locating informed persons related to the sea capable facilities where goods, services and community of centrally managing decision-making and amenities are within walking distance and information exchange in this field. supporting telecommuting and alternative work schedules. As well, our masterplan of Gadeokdo supports the first ocean environment city in the field of
  17. 17. 22 138m 359m 460m 269m Eco Tourism Ecological Base Sea Weed Centre Ecological Axis & Connection Hiking Trails between Yondae Peak and Guksu Peak Grey Mullet Festival Dongback Gunsangji Light House wild camellia colony Heritage Fishing Village Wetlands - Bird Watching Areas Mountain Peaks Water Reservoirs
  18. 18. 23 Nature Tourism, Eco-Tourism, and Urban Eco-Tourism Tourism is an important industry to Gadeokdo. ecosystem services such as flood control, air- Visitors travel to the island to experience the flow and quality, soil fertility, biological diversity, island’s natural and cultural features (mountain aesthetics and recreation potential. views, distinctive rock shores, marine products, authentic fishing village life), and therefore Our nature-based tourism encompasses areas these features must be integrated into the new like eco-tourism, agro-tourism, rural and development if this island experience is to be community-based which are again forms of maintained. The practice of nature tourism sustainable tourism. as an agricultural and fishery management strategy will help Gadeokdo maintain its existing Our eco-tourism principles, which reference farming and fishing practice, while at the same the undisturbed or remote destinations of Gad- time promote the island’s tourism. Restricted eokdo, can also be applied to urban context as development zones, especially on the east side well and offer great potential to the tourism in- of the island and in Nulcha Bay, are necessary to dustry. Our urban sustainable tourism strategy preserve the island’s natural assets, such as the covers multiple industries including recreation, wild Camellia colony and migratory bird areas. transportation, and organic food supplies. It in- By doing so, it will help maintain and enhance cludes a concept that promotes environmental the island’s existing tourism reputation for rural responsibility, local economic vitality, cultural and nature experience. diversity and experiential richness. We had wandered away from the hustle of I have been stirred by the substance of the our press conferences and media requests, traditional Busan approach to life, with its per- I snagged a close friend and we hiked up at petual quest for harmony between humankind dusk to the hillside plateau overlooking the and nature, suspended in time between the past magnificent region. The view was exceptional and the future. It seems there is a celebra- as the twinkling lights of Busan City can be tion of life, a symbolic energy that brings and seen far and wide, across the peninsula and the represents the passion of my own approach to harbour port area. Step by step, we felt like we modern dance and what maintains the natural were awakening our senses, we were exploring order of its movement. and learning, treasuring the natures’ beauty at every turn. We found ourselves climbing rocks, Gadeokdo has many great strengths to estab- walking the trails, swimming through meadows lish itself as a jewel in this thriving industry. Its and grasses, often close to the surface that wide expanse of forest areas, wildlife nature some sail. We listened intently with our hearts, and recreational parks: The presence of nature it reminded us of the intuition of the experience areas within and nearest vicinities of Busan City of dance, just knowing when it was the right can provide an ideal and an unmatched atmo- time to act. We heard the wild calling, and for sphere to the residents and eco-tourism en- the first time we did not rush. thusiasts of the city to experience ecology. The development of a marine transit system, with The Gadeokdo experience is the travel through simple connections to the key areas of tourism and enjoyment of the natural world, its seasonal and integrated plans for resource and facilities cycles and events, carried out in a manner that for education, interpretation and awareness, promotes the protection of natural and human museums, interpretation centres, oceaneums communities and consideration for those who and visitor’s centres that provide ample scope will inherit our world. A sustainable nature for learning opportunities and awareness gen- tourism plan industry is directly related to the eration among the visitors about the value of type, amount and quality of natural capital in natural areas, sea life, environment and forests, community. This island has a lot to offer. Natural flora and fauna to human society. capital of any given area provides valuable
  19. 19. 24 Future Technology Food Energy Aquaculture & Tidal Power Turbines Seaweed Farming Tidal Power Waves Terrace Gardens Solar Power Wind Power Water Freshwater Reservoir Public Transportation Rainwater Harvesting & Rapid Transit Greywater Treatment
  20. 20. 25 Innovation: Food, Energy and Architecture For a long-term planning strategy that then back out to global scale. A number of establishes the essential building blocks for a mechanical systems for improving the energy sustainable future in Gadeokdo, it is necessary performance of a building include underfloor to integrate existing agricultural, fishery air systems, chilled beam systems, and other and energy practices with the urbanization mechanical methods. development. Importing food and power from other countries to sustain the urban population We also evaluated our approach to our overall is not a reliable and financially efficient solution, business envelope because quite a bit of energy and with countries such as China and India’s use is related to solar gain and conduction urbanization happening rapidly, the demand through the façade. Also noted, one of the and stress on supplies will become more major energy uses within the buildings is competitive and costly. lighting. One way to reduce this is to use daylight and daylight controls, and to use Our masterplan suggests that existing occupancy sensors and controls. However, day agriculture plots will be preserved, and more lit spaces are often more pleasant to work in efficient agriculture technologies and organic and there’s a body of work that shows that good fertilizers will be introduced to create a more lighting can lead to productivity gains. self-sustaining, cyclical food system. Food production will be geared towards efficiency Once the energy demand has been reduced as and information awareness. Nutritionally low as it can be we can start to look at more there will be a focus on superfoods and high carbon efficient ways of generating electrical impact supplements. Some key components power. An integrated renewable energy system to support Gadeokdo’s food production include is proposed for the reinvented Gadeokdo. A terrace farms, seaweed, and fish farms. Urban combination of solar, wind, bio-reactor, bio- agriculture practices will also be planned in fuels, seaweed and tidal energy will be the the proposal development in order to better main power tools to supply energy across intertwine urban infrastructure with living the new development. Active solar energy systems that generate food. harvesting includes installing solar panels on all south facing rooftops of the proposed The farmer’s markets and roadside stands architectures. Solar water heating systems will are bursting with the mid-summer’s city also be integrated into the building systems. In harvest: onions, beets, tomatoes, peppers... addition, tidal energy systems will be situated Walking up to the stand I realized that what I offshore, on the southeast of Gadeokdo to was buying was a manifestation of a person’s catch the northeast-southwest and northwest- love for working their land, growing food, and southeast ocean currents. If power is generated beautifying their town. close to a heat use then the heat can be used to do useful work. This might include heating With proper support and management to the the building, heating domestic hot water for agriculture and fishery industry, a regional the building or providing cooling using a steam marketing plan with a well-defined brand will driven absorption or turbine driven chiller. promote the island’s agriculture and marine products will also help promote Gadeokdo The best solutions start with shared resources Island’s tourism industry, and in turn help with the adjacent buildings, and then with the generate more job opportunities. rest of the region, and then within the country. The definition of zero energy changes as you move from building scale to urban scale and
  21. 21. 26 Collaborative Urbanism Communication Hub Business & Commerce Hub Tourism Hub Entertainment Hub Transportation Hub Nature Hub Education & Research Hub
  22. 22. 27 Collaborative Urbanism Gadeokdo is a pristine location in Busan Gadeokdo will be transformed into a green untouched by any major development until asset to the Busan City, the region, and recently. It appears that a futuristic, logic-based beyond through the establishment of a large and collaborative approach must be taken into open green parks which will be allocated to account if the island’s natural features, heritage, open space. The site plan also includes a and traditions are to dance in communion with number of neighborhood parks and plazas the rising tide of urbanism. interspersed throughout the residential areas. Each residential neighborhood is designed We have come to develop a sustainable solution, around local neighborhood parks that are which empowers planners, developers, protected from the wind and feature good solar taxpayers, and government city management to orientation. These parks offer an alternative make more informed decisions, but also to take to the vastness of the protected conservation advantage of new streams of revenue potential. areas providing intimate spaces for every This asset includes a complex geo-referenced resident to enjoy. Each park can take on a information management system, developing character of its own with different landscaping real-time applications and live-data monitoring, choices and different levels of activity. These touch screen information panels, web-based parks create a green ribbon, linked by 3D information, geo-targeted advertising pedestrian-oriented lanes that offer residents solutions, augmented reality experiences, pleasant, people-friendly connections between public consultation and feedback interaction, the residential neighborhoods and the retail simulation models, 4D and 5D maintenance area, ferry and transit hub. planning and risk management programs. Our ferry and transit mobility hubs optimize It is obvious to any visitor that Gadeok-Busan transit-oriented development potential and has become a capital of modern ocean identify and implement incentives to promote architecture. The creative director of the dance transit-oriented development, such as festival had suggested we embark one of the streamlined planning and building approvals new eye-catching mixed reality mobile app city and reduced development application fees. tours that had become so fluent with both the They provide a range of amenities for travellers locals and tourists. It was incredible to have so such as retail uses, restrooms, community much access to information running through spaces and tourism information. It will improve our fingertips, to actually see technology being the travelling experience through the use put to work in physical world I was looking at. of public art, landscaping and architectural It was a delightful day of wandering around excellence. interactively with the architecture, learning in depth about the built-environment, Gadeokdo of In this era of a knowledge economy one the past, present and future. can observe the emergence of global cities as new educational hubs. The present This overall framework is related to era is experiencing a new phenomenon of technological innovation that runs like a ribbon international student migrants. Students through all of the development areas. It is laying from developing countries are migrating to the infrastructure foundation for the eventual foreign shores to pursue higher education. The shift from fossil carbon to hydrocarbon based ocean education and research facilities in the power, increasing the capacity and security of Gadeokdo development plan are for students information and communications technology from these areas of the world to come to, we to facilitate higher quality interactions at a take on global cities in this industry like London, distance, the rapid improvement in demand New York, and Sydney. management and pricing technologies to ensure that consumers are receiving the most immediate and accurate information.
  23. 23. Buildings as multi storey, sinuous screens that through their curvature and scale generate energy while they function as hotel and residential space and fish farm. Circular multi- colored Lotus shaped buildings that enchant and celebrate during the evening as they glimmer and reflect on the waters surface.
  24. 24. Architecture The proposed development for the most, is to be in the water within 300 meters from the shore line. The below water level foundations consist of artificial reefs that have several functions. / Primarily robust support for the buildings but more interestingly / The foundation’s configurations are ideal as habitat for marine and algae farming.
  25. 25. 30 Foyer Resources The buildings are passively solar heated, evaporatively cooled, and extremely energy efficient. / Solar thermal is used as the primary heating system while Hydro Geothermal heat is used for space heating backup and cooling. / The rain water falling onto its roofs is conducted to fresh water blisters resting in the ocean waters. The land facing façade, away from the open water is a heavily green textured by means of vertical gardens. / The vertical gardens are hydronically fed as these filter sink water for re-use to flush toilets. / Most importantly, all of the buildings biological waste is processed to surface water quality levels, using biofiltration systems, located at the base.
  26. 26. 31 Solar Water Heating SPA Power Energy Except for minimal natural gas back-up system, the buildings are resource- self-sufficient. Numerous strategies are proposed that take their cue from energy systems of large cruise ships such as as tri-gen energy systems using solid waste as source. / The dynamics and the kinetic forces of both the wind and waves is the means to generate tidal and wind power. / Solar cells embedded in the solarium skin and the roof. “Buildings exist in a spousal embrace with its immediate environment, the air, the water, the warmth of the sun.”
  27. 27. Area 1: Greater Gadeok Seaweed Centre The greater Gadeok Aquaculture Centre, located in the heart of a functioning seaweed farm, is designed to be a showcase. It will be a place for the public to learn about the myriad of methods of ocean farming, from seaweed growing and harvesting to fish ranching. It will also be a place to educate the public on new research, such as deriving biofuels from seaweed. The public can come to the museum and children’s centre, to the world class restaurants, hotels and spas. There is also an opportunity for members of the public to grow their own sea garden in the community seaweed farm, where one can experience and nurture firsthand the richness and complexity of sea life. Community and commercial / Seaweed farming, processing, aquaculture / Science center, museum / Spa, hotel, restaurant / Area north of Nulcha Bay – allowing natural succession to take place, natural wetland development, creating a connection to existing swamp protection area at the mouth of Nakdong River, creating a bird sanctuary Area 2: The Reef Residences In Korean culture the Lotus represents birth and creation. Ribbon buildings symbolize expression, social interaction, and communication of the Korean traditional ribbon dance shown through the architecture. Together they feature mixed use residential buildings and form an iconic skyline visible from Busan and yet merges with the natural setting. The architecture not only forms a community based urban space which houses about 20.000 people, it also works as an independent eco system. Multifunctional buildings, housing private and public function, the Lotus building is a round structure with an inner open area with green terraces inside of the structure. It allows sunlight come in from all around and views to ocean and natural settings. Lotus buildings generally focuses on public functions like hotels, spas, restaurant, and recreational uses as well as some residential. On the other side, The 30 floors high ribbon buildings are predominantly residential with some public and commercial functions waving through water. A part of the residential building are designed as luxury apartments with spacious terraces and views of the sea. The ocean’s mood is rich with contrasting dynamics.
  28. 28. 33 “Designing for the constrast between polar opposites such as hot and cold, light- and darkness forms the essence of design with nature.” Cladding / Marine architecture much like a ship needs to be designed to withstand the angry seas while permitting the cooling fresh breezes in the summer. / The façade facing the open water is designed for defence by being smooth, rounded and hydrodynamically designed much like a fish. / Structural silicone cladding seamlessly permits the meeting of the built and natural environment. / The apartments facing the ocean are buffered with solariums, clad with overlapping water shedding glazing with a minimum number of openers. / Contrasting is the land side façade , fined grained vertical gardens bisected with with promenades, walk ways, balconies, provides the residents with semi public outdoor spaces such as shaded gardens and places to lounge. Their front yards provide them with the means to enter their dwelling. / Coloured glass façades and screens to reduce glass collisions for migratory and local birds while allowing views of surrounding environment / The buildings are made of concrete, steel, wood and glass which all comes from within a 500 mile radius. / The whole urban area will be interconnected with a Rapid Transit system and connections to existing roads on the island. / Small marinas will connect to ocean.
  29. 29. 34 Area 3: Nulcha Bay Area Nulcha Bay Wetland and Bird Sanctuary University of Gadeok-do. A major part of the Nulcha Bay will be a combined university and research centre for dedicated wetland and bird sanctuary. The marine ecology and sea weed studies. The Nulcha wetland region is connected to the university will house departments specializing Nakdong River Estuary and eco-belt and is an in new technology, food security, sustainability, important feeding and breeding ground for local and renewable energy, focusing on sea and migratory birds. To preserve the natural weed growing, it’s products and it’s use as value of Nulcha Bay, all development will be alternative energy. Drawing on the strength shifted out of the bay area and replaced by a of its partnerships with the local sea weed combination of a variety of wetland habitats centre and industry the University of Gadeok-do to help sustain the Sanctuary and existing will become a leader in green education and population of migratory birds. Developed as a research. Gadeok-do campus will contain both wetland ecopark, the Nulcha Bay Wetland and small and large buildings, scattered between Bird Sanctuary will serve as an eco-tourism parks, agricultural fields and sports amenities. hub and will feature bird and environmental educational centres, gift shops, study and Nulcha Bay Villas research areas. Bird friendly architecture raises awareness for decreasing bird population. Rows of houses symbolize ribbon which is Placing of blinds and screens in key areas will intertwined with road, like two ribbons during a allow people to watch birds without disturbing dance. The ribbon affect connects the clusters them. of units with each other. The individual clusters of houses form a fan like shape playing on the Villages of Oinul, Hangwol, Jeonggeo and traditional fan dance in Korea. Colourful panels Nulcha-Dong and a roof which appears from a distance floating above the units, forming a bigger The revitalized village offers a diverse overall shape. range of choices to enjoy; stroll along the beach promenade and harbour, shop in the The Nulcha bay villas are an urban centre of marketplace, enjoy the best dining, sailing, luxurious single family houses. Stilted housing surfing, walk through the old village and enjoy within Nulcha bay wetland. Central area is an the unique cultural experience. open public place with surrounding small scale commercial buildings. A central market place Nulcha Bay - Seongbuk – Village with local art stores, cafes and restaurants, a fishing harbor where fisher men come daily The Seongbuk village area is typically an offering the fresh fish, makes the center of the agricultural area. The village will be revitalized Nulcha bay villas to a local tourist destination. and developed as an eco-community model with a strong focus on agriculture while enhancing Urban Area of Seongbuk and Seonchang tourism opportunities to increase the local economy. The area between the two fishing villages will be increased density housing. The buildings will Public spaces will grow to include local stores, differ in height, 8 storey apartment buildings cafés, art studios, small boutique shops, hotels, will act as a screen and help to separate the and bed and breakfasts, which will help to keep busy road from the lower apartment buildings vitality and enthusiasm in the streets.Nestled in of the new urban neighbourhood. the surrounding area of Seongbuk village will be the home of Gadeokdo University. The new urban development takes into
  30. 30. 35 consideration new approaches to urban There will be activity in the park itself by development; conserving areas of agricultural providing sports zones such as multi–use plots in a patchwork of public parks sports courts, soccer and basketball areas, stretching through the entire fabric of the pedestrian walkways, and bicycles lanes urban community and integrating these in throughout the garden. Specific trees, like an environment which people can inhabit the tree of the ward, the Hackberry tree, will and use. Agricultural plots become the back be planted in different areas of the urban yard. Vegetable gardens, orchards with fruit park, so that the areas become distinctive and baring trees, rice paddies, all used and recognizable for the residents and allowing maintained by the citizens themselves. Water the residences to experience the change of the channels crisscrossing the urban green space, seasons in the urban space. integrated into the design as water features and showcasing the use and importance of water at Located in the wetland,the Nulcha Bay Art the same time. and Performance Centre will be focal feature and urban heart of the community. Dense Within this patchwork of parks and agricultural urban areas with public spaces and facilities, plots a variety of public amenities such as boardwalks, bars, restaurants, and theaters are schools, youth centre, senior and social housing, alongside of Nulcha bay wetland area. health centres and technological centres are scattered, guaranteeing a constant use of the urban park.
  31. 31. 36 Area 4: Logistic and Commerce Centre Area 5: New Port and Busan West Convention Centre Like a ribbon, the convention and commerce Janghang and Yulli become port supporting centres are floating around the island peaking villages with residential areas and arts and in the 70floor Busan West Convention Centre craft studios, small shops and restaurants. tower. Its iconic profile is seen from the main Expanding the urban areas with private villas land, from the mountain peaks of the island and including an exclusive residential community, it will greet and welcome port entering ships. a stunning lagoon and a marina. The villas will The separation of the port from the villages of have view towards the stunning lagoon and will Janghang and Yulli protects the existing shore have beautiful landscaped areas. lines, creating lagoons which are connected to the sea. The protected waters of the lagoons, The rapid transit goes through the building invites people to enjoy the marine leisure, and in the centre, dividing the light industry and marina. logistics in the north from the convention centre in the south. Various stops make the rapid The main building features large open space transit easy accessible and comfortable to use for showrooms and convention facilities. for businesspersons and convention center The north part of the building features light visitors alike. The glass structure will house industry, and port logistics. On the south side of open areas with interior planting. The building the building is the business and international will be self sustaining. Solar cell imbedded exchange complex. The convention centre glass façade and wind turbines produces energy tower houses exhibition spaces, offices, hotels and mitigates the need of archaic resources. and restaurants. Existing fishing villages of
  32. 32. 37 Area 6: Gadeokdo Marine Theme Park Inspired by the location of the site the Gadeokdo The Gadeokdo marine theme park will be a Maritime Theme Park is a combined exhibition new type of marine theme park that supports space and water park. The main building has shore development, area recreation, marine a network of different programs of education based tourism, and entertainment hub, day and recreation. It features two IMAX theatres, a tourism from businesspersons and convention five-star hotel, and a marina. A promenade with center visitors as well as locals and people from restaurants will be connected via bridge. Various Busan. exhibition areas in the building as well in the water showcase water inspired art and oceanic related items.
  33. 33. Area 7: Gadeok Cruise Ship Terminal and Entertainment Area With the area developing into a tourism hub and the need for a cruise ship terminal a location in the bay was chosen. The terminal features a five star hotel, a casino, shops and restaurants. Passengers can take the ferry on land to stay in luxurious resort and hotels located on adjacent land area enjoying public beaches and waterfront areas, promenades and cafés. Shopping district, spas, recreation and other tourist facilities are also available. A connecting terminal to rapid transit and allows for fast travel to conference centre and to Nulcha by area. Close connection to main road connecting to airport allowing convenient travel connection by plane.
  34. 34. Area 8: New Busan international Airport The location of the airport was chosen to minimize impact on environment by concentration construction and encroachment on nature in one area. The airport will be floating structure, anchoring on existing island with road connection to main road.
  35. 35. 40 Area 9: Gadeokdo Natural Park Tourism is a vital industry to Gadeokdo Island. The island’s tourism success has a strong correlation to its natural settings and cultural features including the mountain views, distinctive rock shores, fishing village life and much more, and therefore these features must be integrated into the new development if the island experience is to be maintained. The Gadeok-do Natural Park is dedicated to nature and its protection and with the abundant nature and cultural assets on the east coast. The practice of rural tourism as an agricultural and fishery management strategy will help Gadeokdo Island maintain its existing farming and fishing practice, while at the same time promote the island’s eco-tourism and tourism in general. Restricted development zones, especially on the east coast and in Nulcha Bay, are necessary to preserve the island’s natural assets, such as the wild Camelia colony and migratory bird areas. In doing so, it will help maintain and enhance the existing tourism and eco-tourism reputation. Environmentally low impact recreation and tourism activities are possible for this area and tourism industry can be utilized in a management approach to help preserve the existing natural and cultural assets of the island. Hiking trails will lead through the park connecting the urban areas with the mountain peaks where locals and tourists take in the beautiful vistas. The light house on the southern tip will have restaurant facilities as well as lookout areas. Conclusion Over 75% of the globe’s surface is oceanic. Korea and its archipelago is starving for usable land. Together with the Gadeokdo’s setting and competition brief we decided on the reason to avoid building on land, and to instead build on the continental shelf. Thus we enhance the importance of forests, grasslands and shore line by building in the shallow waters.