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Multimedia And Contiguity Principles Casey Susan


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My Multimedia and Contiguity Principles Presentation.

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Multimedia And Contiguity Principles Casey Susan

  1. 1. BY CASEY SUSAN ED TECH 513 FEBRUARY, 2009 Principles of Multimedia and Contiguity in an E-Learning Environment
  2. 2. Presentation Overview <ul><li>In this presentation you will become familiar with two e-learning principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Both principles emphasize the need to streamline effective use of working memory (without overload) to create deeper learning. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Multimedia Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Contiguity Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additionally, you will participate in an assessment activity at the closure of this presentation. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Instructional Objectives <ul><li>At then end of this presentation you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Correctly identify an example of The Multimedia Principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Observe and discuss in a group an example of The Contiguity Principle. </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate understanding of both principles through a series of questions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. The Multimedia Principle <ul><li>The Multimedia Principle states that e-learning courses should consist of both words and graphics rather than just words. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A multimedia presentation consists of any presentation that simultaneously includes: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>still images/graphics or animated graphics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pictures, charts, graphs, movie files, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>readable or audible text </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written text or spoken audio files </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Graphics for Learning <ul><li>There are six levels of graphics than can enhance a learning event and give more in-depth instruction. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decorative </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transformational </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretive </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is best if learning visuals incorporate the last four levels rather than the first two in order to create opportunities for deeper understanding. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Graphic Types In-Depth <ul><ul><li>Decorative-used just for decorative purposes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Representational-demonstrates characteristics. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relational-demonstrates quantifiable relationships between two or more items. (i.e. Graph) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational-depicts relationships in an organized format. (Diagrams, Matrices, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformational-show changes occurring in a timeframe. (Videos, Still frame time lapse, etc.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpretive- illustrates imperceptible associations such as wind and weather patterns, water currents, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Effective Use of Graphics
  8. 8. The Multimedia Principle in Action <ul><ul><li>Example and Non-Example using readable text and static graphics: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is an example of the Multimedia Principle in Action? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To add using number strings simply find two or more numbers that add up to a landmark number (or as close as possible) and draw a line connecting the two numbers. Write the sum where they connect. Continue this with the remaining numbers until you come up with a total sum for the equation. Write the total sum for the equation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use landmark numbers to show your work using lines. Make sure you keep track of your adding to get the final sum. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Best Use of the Multimedia Principle <ul><li>In order to create a more effective lesson in which a student becomes an active participant in their learning. </li></ul><ul><li>To create deeper mental connections between words and pictures in a lesson activity. </li></ul><ul><li>To offer beginners powerful first experiences in their new material. Novices benefit from multimedia activities. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The contiguity principle <ul><li>The Contiguity Principle states that words should be closely linked to images or graphics in order to facilitate a more learner focused lesson. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There are two sections of the Contiguity Principle: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Printed Words </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spoken Words </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Contiguity Principle Segment 1 <ul><li>The position of printed text needs to be located closely to related graphics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Examples include the following: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In a scrolling window text and subsequent graphic are split. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Feedback from a practice or question is located on a different screen. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphic in one window and related text in another window. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Directions to an exercise are separated from the application which they reference. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Legends located away from graphic elements. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Text always located separately from all graphics in one central location on the screen. (Text always on top/bottom). </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Example of Contiguity Principle 1 Notice the proximity of the directions to the hyperlink. This is an example of one from a series of still graphics designed to assist users in accessing information.
  13. 13. Contiguity Principle Segment 2 <ul><li>Narration and Graphics should be synchronized similarly to printed text and graphics. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-Examples include the following: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Icons that identify graphics and narration separately. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graphics and Narration are presented separately in a presentation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Example of Contiguity Principle 2 <ul><li>Watch this short tutorial and look for synchronized audio and screen visuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Creating a Class in SuccessNet </li></ul><ul><li>In your group discuss the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How well does the narration synchronize with the text and processes? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How would this tutorial be different if the narration was separated from the graphic? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Assessment Questions <ul><li>Which principle identifies the need to use both words and graphics instead of just words alone? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A: Contiguity Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C: Multimedia Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D: Pareto’s Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Answer: C: Multimedia Principle </li></ul>
  16. 16. Assessment Questions <ul><li>Which principle identifies the need to place words and text in close proximity or synchronously? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A: Contiguity Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>B: Generally Accepted Accounting Principles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C: Multimedia Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>D: Pareto’s Principle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Answer: A: Contiguity Principle </li></ul>
  17. 17. Assessment Questions <ul><li>An effective use of graphics in a learning scenario might be to demonstrate the steps in using a mathematical algorithm. True or False? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: True </li></ul>
  18. 18. Assessment Questions <ul><li>It is better to have one separate location for graphics and one for sound in an e-learning scenario? </li></ul><ul><li>Answer: False. It is better to have sound and graphics together working simultaneously. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Reference and More Information <ul><li>Colvin Clark, R., & Mayer, R. (2008). E-Learning and the science of instruction: Proven guidelines for consumersand designers of multimedia learning .San Francisco, CA: Pfeiffer. </li></ul>