(Show 1 st bullet) Guidelines are specific requirements or enablers that identify what needs to be done in order to meet a standard – guidelines enable users to meet the standards. The goal is to meet all of the standards in each chapter through the guidelines. [Read remainder of slide]
The Perspective of Technology EducationThe Second International Symposium on Educational Cooperation for Industrial Technology Education Kariya City, Japan
Presenter: William E. Dugger, Jr. Senior FellowInternational Technology Education Association (ITEA) & Emeritus Professor Virginia Tech USA
The Study of Technology Many countries in the world have been and are now implementing the study of technology.
In the United States as well as in other countries, there is confusion about the term “technology.”
In 2001 and 2004, The International TechnologyEducation Association (ITEA) conducted polls which were done by the Gallup Organization on how Americans think about technology.
In both polls, a majority ofAmericans (62% in 2004 and59% in 2001) responded thatscience and technology arebasically one and the same thing.
When asked how importantit is for high school students to understand therelationship between science and technology, 98% of the Americans stated that they thought that this was “very or somewhat important”.
Most Americans (68% in 2004 & 67% in 2001) view technology very narrowly as beingcomputers, electronics, and the internet.
There was near total consensus (98% in 2004 & 97% in 2001) in the publicsampled that schools should include the study oftechnology in the curriculum.
S cience seeks tounderstand the natural world. Nat io na l Sc ie nc e Ed uc at io n St a nd a r d s , Na io a R s a c t n l eer h
What is Technology? It is the innovation, change, or modification of the natural environment in order to satisfy perceived human wants and needs. (Standards for Technological Literacy, ITEA, 2000) The goal of technology is to make modifications in the world to meet human needs. (National Science Education Standards, NRC, 1996)
What is Technology ? (Continued) In the broadest sense, technology extends our abilities to change the world: to cut, shape, or put together materials; to move things from one place to another; to reach farther with our hands, voices, and senses. (Benchmarks for Science Literacy, AAAS, 1993) Technology is the process by which humans modify nature to meet their needs and wants. (Technically Speaking: Why All Americans Need to Know More About Technology, NAE/ NRC, 2002)
Science vs. Technology Deals with the natural Deals with how humans world. modify, change, alter, or control the natural world. Is very concerned with Is very concerned with what what is (exists) in the can or should be designed, natural world. (i.e.: made, or developed from Biology, Chemistry, natural world materials and Physics, Astronomy, substances to satisfy human needs and wants Geology, etc.)
Science vs. Technology (Continued) Is concerned with Is concerned with processes that seek such processes that out the meaning of we use to the natural world by alter/change the “inquiry”, natural world such as “discovering what “Invention”, is”, “exploring”, and Innovation”, using “the Scientific Practical Problem Method”. Solving, and Design.
While technology and sciencehave a common denominatorbeing the natural world, theyare similar yet very different. Technology is not any more “applied science” than science is “applied technology”.
Technological literacy is the ability to use, manage, evaluate, and understand technology. Technology Literacy for All: A Rationale and S tudy for the S tudy of Technology (2006)
Who is a technologically literate person?On t a u d r t n s e h t n e sa d : Wh tt c n l g is a ehoo y Ho t c n l g isc e t d w eh oo y r ae Ho t eu eo t c n l g s a e w h s f e h o o y h ps s c t a dint r , o ie y n un Ho s c t s a e t ed v l p e to w o ie y h p s h e e o m n f tc n l g ehoo y Ap r o w oisc m o t b ew ha d es n h o f r a l it n o j c iv a o t h u eo t c n l g be t e b u t e s f e h o o y – n it e s a e o it o in a u t d e h r c r d f n r ftae w hit it .
Technological literacy involves:Much more than a knowledgeabout computers and digitalelectronics. Gaining a degree of knowledgeabout the nature, behavior, power,and consequences of technologyfrom a real world perspective.
There is a growing movement inthe U. S. to teach the integrativesubjects of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM).
So how do we educate our citizens to be ? technologically literate? ? ? ? ? ? ?
What Content should be taught in the study of technology that will provide technologicalliteracy for all students?
St a nd a r d sf orT e c hno l o g ic al Lit e r a c y( ST L) ( I T EA,2000,2002/ 2007) p e e t rsnst ec n e t o h o tn f rw a eey h t vrsu e t h ud td n s o lk o a db a l n w n e be w w ec n e t w .it a o n c .t d ino d rt o o re o og r
Standards STL Standards are twenty written statements about what is valued that can be used for making a judgment of quality. Standards represent fundamental concepts. The goal is to meet all of the standards in Grades K-12. STL Standards were written around five major organizers or categories.
Nature of Technology Students will develop an understanding of the characteristics and scope of technology. Students will develop an understanding of the core concepts of technology. Students will develop an understanding of the relationships among technologies and the connection between technology and other fields of study.
Technology and Society Students will develop an understanding of the cultural, social, economic, and political effects of technology. Students will develop an understanding of the effects of technology on the environment. Students will develop an understanding of the role of society in the development and use of technology. Students will develop an understanding of the influence of technology on history.
Design Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design. Students will develop an understanding of engineering design. Students will develop an understanding of the role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving.
Abilities for a Technological World Students will develop the abilities to apply the design process. Students will develop the abilities to use and maintain technological products and systems. Students will develop the abilities to assess the impact of products and systems.
The Designed World Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use medical technologies. Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use agricultural and related biotechnologies. Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use energy and power technologies.
The Designed World (Cont.) Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use information and communication technologies. Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use transportation technologies.
The Designed World (Cont.) Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use manufacturing technologies. Students will develop an understanding of and be able to select and use construction technologies.
BenchmarksBenchmarks in STL are specific requirements or enablers for each grade level (K-2, 3-5, 6-8, & 9-12) that identify what needs to be done in order to meet a given standard.
A Sample Standard & Benchmark Standard 11:Students will develop abilities to apply a design process.Grades K-2 Benchmark in Standard 11: Build or construct an object using a design process.
In conclusion… The power and promise of technology can be further enhanced through the study of technology to assure that allpeople are technologically literate in the future.
Thank You! William E. Dugger, Jr. Senior Fellow and Former Director Technology for All Americans ProjectInternational Technology Education Association firstname.lastname@example.org
A copy of this presentation can be downloaded by going to:http://www.iteaconnect.org/Resources/ PressRoom/JapanSymposium08.ppt