16th IEEE European Test Symposium                                   May 23-27, 2011Wafer-Level RF MEMS DevicesCharacteriza...
Outline RF MEMS Test Challenges System Solution for RF MEMS Measurement Examples Conclusion
RF MEMS Test Challenges   MEMS device: microsystem based planar fabrication technology    combining mechanical and electr...
RF MEMS Test Challenges (cont.) Probing of whole wafer, wafer pieces and dies Maintenance of calibration substrates Con...
Outline RF MEMS Test Challenges System Solution for RF MEMS Measurement Examples Conclusion
Putting a Prober Inside a Vacuum Chamber                    Reserve                                    4x RF Feedthrough  ...
Putting a Prober Inside a Vacuum ChamberEnables:TemperatureVacuumGases composition                          Application...
Cryogenic System for Device Characterization Temperature range: 4K … 675K Up to 8 positioners Low signal IV/CV: <100fA...
Motion Monitoring in Cryogenic Environment Integration with Polytec MSA-500 Micro System  AnalyzerExample of RF MEMS Switch
Features – Wafer, Sample and Die Carriers                                                                    Carrier solut...
Features – Vacuum Positioners Easy and reliable probe landing Short and stiff arms Manipulation from outside by rotary ...
Features – Vacuum Positioners DC probes (triax, coax) AP&T probe for CV RF Probe up to 67GHz Multi IZI Probes Cryogen...
Outline RF MEMS Test Challenges System Solution for RF MEMS Measurement Examples Conclusion
System Features: System Drift, 4 Hours                                         |Sij - Sij|/|Sij| and |Sii - Sii|          ...
Wincal XE – Cal monitoring alarms Wincal can perform a spot measurement and  provide alarm if system has drifted beyond l...
Measurement aid – Wincal XE   Probing at cryogenic temperatures can be challenging and it is helpful    to be able to che...
Wincal XE Advanced reporting Wincal can perform pad parasitic removal de-  embedding and parameter extraction“on the fly”
Temperature Stability of Standards                          Line (Thru)                                                   ...
Cryogenic |Z| Probe Contact Repeatability @ 4K                  First Contact                                             ...
RF MEMS Switch Procedure:   – S parameters measurement before     cycling   – C(V) measurement   – Cycling @ 100 Hz, unip...
CV Curves for Different Testing Conditions                                                                      1 .2      ...
S-Parameters for Different Testing Conditions                                                        B E F O R E C YC L IN...
Outline RF MEMS Test Challenges System Solution for RF MEMS Measurement Examples Conclusion
Conclusion Wafer-level testing of RF MEMS significantly reduces  fabrication cost and time to market Cryogenic Probe Sys...
Acknowledgement   Jason Ruan, Alexandre Rumeau,   Laurent Bary and Fabio Coccettifrom CNRS, LAAS, Toulouse (France)     fo...
Questions?If you have any questions or comments, pleasecontact:Frank-Michael WernerBusiness ManagerVAC / CRYO Systems and ...
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Wafer-Level RF MEMS Devices Characterization in Cryogenic Environment

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In the following presentation, we highlight field-proven, relevant test solutions based on a cryogenic wafer-probe station. Special attention is given to overcoming the calibration standards instability, contact repeatability and reliability issues caused by the extreme environmental conditions. We will present the solution that enabled characterizing of RF MEMS devices at cryogenic condition with the benchmarking level of measurement accuracy and confidence.

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Wafer-Level RF MEMS Devices Characterization in Cryogenic Environment

  1. 1. 16th IEEE European Test Symposium May 23-27, 2011Wafer-Level RF MEMS DevicesCharacterization in CryogenicEnvironmentGavin Fisher, Andrej Rumiantsev,Frank-Michael Werner, Stojan Kanev
  2. 2. Outline RF MEMS Test Challenges System Solution for RF MEMS Measurement Examples Conclusion
  3. 3. RF MEMS Test Challenges MEMS device: microsystem based planar fabrication technology combining mechanical and electrical functions (multi-physics interaction) Testing and characterization are extremely sensitive to ambient parameters Tests require: – Controlled (closed) environment – RF and microwave interface For RF testing thermal stability of probes and cables is essential to maintain calibration stability – Core solution, Keep probes and cables at DUT temperature – Calibration monitoring to provide accurate feedback of calibration state
  4. 4. RF MEMS Test Challenges (cont.) Probing of whole wafer, wafer pieces and dies Maintenance of calibration substrates Contact reliability Contact repeatability Electrical performance of RF probes Temperature stability of calibration standards Integration with various test instrumentation
  5. 5. Outline RF MEMS Test Challenges System Solution for RF MEMS Measurement Examples Conclusion
  6. 6. Putting a Prober Inside a Vacuum Chamber Reserve 4x RF Feedthrough 67 GHz Reserve for Reserve PH #8 for PH #9 DC Triax Fixed cold shield 4x DC Triax Feedthrough PH #6 PH #3 67GHz DC TriaxPH #5 PH #267GHz 67GHz PH #4 PH #1DC Triax 67GHz Removable cold shield PH #7 Reserve DC Triax for PH #10 Venting Valve Y X Z Chuck Stage Control
  7. 7. Putting a Prober Inside a Vacuum ChamberEnables:TemperatureVacuumGases composition Applications:High pressure RF MEMSLight and sound Emerging MEMSshielding Micro fuel cells MicrobolometersEMC GyroscopesHumidity Accelerometers Pressure sensors
  8. 8. Cryogenic System for Device Characterization Temperature range: 4K … 675K Up to 8 positioners Low signal IV/CV: <100fA High frequency: up to 67GHz Integration kits for Agilent and Keithley EM shielding and light tightness
  9. 9. Motion Monitoring in Cryogenic Environment Integration with Polytec MSA-500 Micro System AnalyzerExample of RF MEMS Switch
  10. 10. Features – Wafer, Sample and Die Carriers Carrier solution for Manual Systems prepared for fixing RF calibration substrates Special carrier solution for Special carrier solution for dicedStandard 200 mm wafer carrier fixing multiple single substrates pieces with various shapes
  11. 11. Features – Vacuum Positioners Easy and reliable probe landing Short and stiff arms Manipulation from outside by rotary feedthroughs Magnetic foot (standard) for highest flexibility in probe configuration 12 mm XYZ movement range Arms: – DC triaxial flex – DC for AP&T – RF for IZI Probe etc. – DC&RF for Multi IZI Probes
  12. 12. Features – Vacuum Positioners DC probes (triax, coax) AP&T probe for CV RF Probe up to 67GHz Multi IZI Probes Cryogenic probe arms with active probe and cable cooling to ensure stable measurements High vacuum feedthroughs Calibration substrates
  13. 13. Outline RF MEMS Test Challenges System Solution for RF MEMS Measurement Examples Conclusion
  14. 14. System Features: System Drift, 4 Hours |Sij - Sij|/|Sij| and |Sii - Sii| 0.15 System Drift, 4K System Drift, RT 0.10 0.05 0 0 10 20 30 40 Frequency (GHz) System drift @ 4K is comparable with the room temperatureH. Geissler, A. Rumiantsev, S. Schott, P. Sakalas, and M. Schroter, "A novel probe station for helium temperature on-wafermeasurements " in ARFTG Microwave Measurements Conference-Fall, 68th, 2006, pp. 67-73.
  15. 15. Wincal XE – Cal monitoring alarms Wincal can perform a spot measurement and provide alarm if system has drifted beyond limits
  16. 16. Measurement aid – Wincal XE Probing at cryogenic temperatures can be challenging and it is helpful to be able to check that good contact is established Wincal XE can do this with a single button press
  17. 17. Wincal XE Advanced reporting Wincal can perform pad parasitic removal de- embedding and parameter extraction“on the fly”
  18. 18. Temperature Stability of Standards Line (Thru) Load Temperature stable wafer-level calibration standards for accurate measurements down to 4KA. Rumiantsev, R. Doerner, and P. Sakalas, "Verification of wafer-level calibration accuracy at cryogenic temperatures " inARFTG Microwave Measurements Conference-Fall, 68th, 2006, pp. 134-140.
  19. 19. Cryogenic |Z| Probe Contact Repeatability @ 4K First Contact Second Contact 0 DB(|S[1,1]|) 0 Thru DB(|S[1,1]|) -10 -10 Thru_2 -20 DB(|S[2,2]|) -20 Thru DB(|S[2,2]|) -30 -30 Thru_2 -40 -40 -50 -50 -60 -60 -70 -70 -80 -80 -90 -90-100 -100 0 10 20 30 40 50 0.04 10.04 20.04 30.04 40.04 50 Frequency (GHz) FREQUENCY (GHz)Excellent contact repeatability guarantees reliable andtrustable results *Measured with thru standard
  20. 20. RF MEMS Switch Procedure: – S parameters measurement before cycling – C(V) measurement – Cycling @ 100 Hz, unipolar, 55V, 50% duty cycle – S-parameters after cycling To do and outcome : – Extraction of ∆V vs. cycles – Pull-in Pull-out parameters dependence on the environment conditions
  21. 21. CV Curves for Different Testing Conditions 1 .2 1 (1 ) 2 1 .0 (2 ) 3 10 (3) 4 (4) 0.8 C (p F ) 0.6∆V (V) 0.4 1 0.2 0.0 10 1 00 1 000 -80 -60 -40 -2 0 0 20 40 60 80 N b o f c yc le s Vo ltag e (V) 1: Room ambient @ ~296°C, 45% RH 2: Vacuum @ 1.4E-5 mbar – 296K 3: N2 @ 1.02 atm – 296K 4: Vacuum @ 2.2E-6 mbar – 223K
  22. 22. S-Parameters for Different Testing Conditions B E F O R E C YC L IN G B E F O R E C YC L IN G 0 0.0Before cycling -0.5 -2 0 -1 .0 S 1 1 (d B ) S 2 1 (d B ) -1 .5 -40 (1 ) (1 ) (2 ) (2 ) -2 .0 (3) (3) -60 (4) (4) -2 .5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 -3.0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 GHz GHz 0.0 0After 1000 cycles -0.5 -2 0 -1 .0 S 2 1 (d B ) S 1 1 (d B ) (1 ) -1 .5 -40 (1 ) (2 ) (2 ) (3) -2 .0 (4) (3) (4) -60 -2 .5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 GHz GHz
  23. 23. Outline RF MEMS Test Challenges System Solution for RF MEMS Measurement Examples Conclusion
  24. 24. Conclusion Wafer-level testing of RF MEMS significantly reduces fabrication cost and time to market Cryogenic Probe Systems covering the whole range of RF MEMS test requirements are available System design and measurement know-how of Cascade Microtech provides you with “environment independent” measurement accuracy, repeatability and confidence in your results
  25. 25. Acknowledgement Jason Ruan, Alexandre Rumeau, Laurent Bary and Fabio Coccettifrom CNRS, LAAS, Toulouse (France) for excellent support with the measurement results of the RF Switches
  26. 26. Questions?If you have any questions or comments, pleasecontact:Frank-Michael WernerBusiness ManagerVAC / CRYO Systems and MEMS TestE-mail: frank-michael.werner@cmicro.comOffice: +49 (35240) 73-330Mobile: +49 151 1210 8668

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